Difference between revisions of "Challenger Mk.3"

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{{Specs-Card|code=uk_challenger_mk_3}}
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{{About
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| about = British medium tank '''{{PAGENAME}}'''
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| usage = other uses
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| link = Challenger (Disambiguation)
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}}
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{{Specs-Card
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|code=uk_challenger_mk_3
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|images={{Specs-Card-Image|GarageImage_{{PAGENAME}}.jpg}}
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}}
  
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
''In the description, the first part needs to be about the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the ground vehicle in the game. Insert the screenshot of the vehicle. If the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, they will immediately understand what kind of vehicle it is talking about.''
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<!-- ''In the description, the first part should be about the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the ground vehicle in the game. Insert a screenshot of the vehicle, so that if the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, he will immediately understand what kind of vehicle the article is talking about.'' -->
 +
The '''{{Specs|name}}''' (shortened as '''{{Specs|pseudonym}}''') is a rank {{Specs|rank}} British medium tank {{Battle-rating}}. It was introduced in [[Update 1.85 "Supersonic"]].
 +
 
 +
The Challenger Mk.3 retains most of the characteristics of the [[Challenger Mk.2]]. It has some unique differences; such as: [[Armour#Explosive_reactive_armour_.28ERA.29|"ROMOR-A ERA"]] which covers the lower glacis and sides, along with the addition of the ammunition storage being covered with rolled homogeneous armour. It retains the same engine (1200 hp) as the Mk.2, however with a minor increase in weight it suffers slightly reduced mobility and acceleration. Its iconic, legendary, and pin-point accurate gun stays the same as on the Challenger Mk.2.
  
 
== General info ==
 
== General info ==
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
''Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpfull for survival in combat?''
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{{Specs-Tank-Armour}}
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<!-- ''Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpful for survival in combat? If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.'' -->
 +
The armour protection on the Challenger Mk.3 is excellent in some areas and bad in others. The upper half of the turret cheeks are capable of withstanding almost all kinetic penetrators and will stop most chemical penetrators with less than 800 mm, while the lower half won't protect against most top-rank rounds. Additionally, the breech weak spot is quite small. This means the turret has excellent protection and hulldown play is recommended. The hull composite is only good against lower penetrating APFSDS rounds such as [[T-55AM-1|T-55AM]], and can also withstand some chemical munitions, but it is not advised to rely on this armour. The rest of the tank (turret and hull sides, lower front plate) has decent protection against chemical rounds due to the add on armour, ERA, and thick turret sides.
  
''If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.''
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{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Armour !! Front (Slope angle) !! Sides !! Rear !! Roof
 +
|-
 +
| Hull || 38 mm (79-81°), 50* mm (60°) ''Upper glacis''<br>70 mm (30°) ''Lower glacis''
 +
| 20 mm, 25 mm (74°) ''Top''<br>38 mm (12°) ''Bottom''
 +
| 25 mm (29-30°)
 +
| 20 mm<br>8 mm ''Engine grille''
 +
|-
 +
| Turret || 50* mm (51-54°)<br>60 mm (55-56°), 200 mm ''Gun mantlet''
 +
| 80 mm + 15 mm ''Front right''<br>80 + 25 mm + 4 mm ''Front''<br>45 + 4 mm ''Rear''
 +
| 44 + 4 mm
 +
| 38 mm (82°) ''Front''<br>20 mm (80-90°) ''Rear''
 +
|-
 +
| Cupola || colspan="4" | 60 mm
 +
|-
 +
! Composite armour* !! colspan="2" | Front !! colspan="2" | Sides
 +
|-
 +
| Hull
 +
| colspan="2" | 200 mm NERA + 80 mm RHA + 50 mm RHA ''Upper glacis''
 +
| colspan="2" | 150 mm NERA, 70 mm screens ''Side skirts''
 +
|-
 +
| Turret
 +
| colspan="2" | 300 mm NERA + 50 mm RHA + 110 mm CHA
 +
| colspan="2" | 300 mm NERA + 25 mm RHA + 80 mm RHA
 +
|-
 +
! Reactive Armour !! colspan="2" | Front !! colspan="2" | Sides
 +
|-
 +
| Hull
 +
| colspan="2" | 30 mm ROMOR-A ERA ''Lower glacis''<br>'''Protection against:'''<br>30 mm ''Kinetic''<br>300 mm ''Chemical''
 +
| colspan="2" | 150 mm NERA ''Side skirts''<br>'''Protection against:'''<br>30 mm ''Kinetic''<br>400 mm ''Chemical''
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
'''Notes:'''
 +
* The propellant ammo racks are surrounded by 5 mm RHA
 +
* Side skirts consist of 150 mm NERA composite, 70 mm composite screens, or 19 mm aluminium
 +
* Tracks and wheels are 20 mm thick
  
 
=== Mobility ===
 
=== Mobility ===
''Write about the mobility of the ground vehicle. Estimate the specific power and maneuverability as well as the maximum speed forward and backward.''
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{{Specs-Tank-Mobility}}
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<!-- ''Write about the mobility of the ground vehicle. Estimate the specific power and manoeuvrability, as well as the maximum speed forwards and backwards.'' -->
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 +
{{tankMobility|abMinHp=1,860|rbMinHp=1,061}}
 +
 
 +
The {{PAGENAME}} has an acceptable top speed, however, acceleration and mobility (primarily due to its weight) are lacklustre compared to other MBTs.
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="60%"
 +
|-
 +
! '''Module rotation speed'''
 +
! 90 Degrees
 +
! 180 Degrees
 +
! 360 Degrees
 +
|-
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| '''Tank Hull'''
 +
| 5 Seconds
 +
| 10 Seconds
 +
| 20 Seconds
 +
|-
 +
| '''Tank Turret'''
 +
| 3 Seconds
 +
| 6 Seconds
 +
| 12 Seconds
 +
|-
 +
| '''Test Conditions'''
 +
| colspan="3" style="text-align:left" |  *Tested with a spaded {{PAGENAME}}, crew at maximum skill, with basic training qualification. Results can vary based on tank research state, crew levels & qualifications.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
=== Modifications and economy ===
 +
{{Specs-Economy}}
  
 
== Armaments ==
 
== Armaments ==
 +
{{Specs-Tank-Armaments}}
 
=== Main armament ===
 
=== Main armament ===
''Give the reader information about the characteristics of the main gun. Assess its effectiveness in a battle based on the reloading speed, ballistics and the power of shells. Do not forget about the flexibilty of the fire, that is how quickly the cannon can be aimed at the target, open fire on it and aim at another enemy. Add a link to the main article on the gun: <code><nowiki>{{main|Name of the weapon}}</nowiki></code>. Describe in general terms the ammunition available for the main gun. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage.''
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{{Specs-Tank-Weapon|1}}
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<!-- ''Give the reader information about the characteristics of the main gun. Assess its effectiveness in a battle based on the reloading speed, ballistics and the power of shells. Do not forget about the flexibility of the fire, that is how quickly the cannon can be aimed at the target, open fire on it and aim at another enemy. Add a link to the main article on the gun: <code><nowiki>{{main|Name of the weapon}}</nowiki></code>. Describe in general terms the ammunition available for the main gun. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage.'' -->
 +
{{main|L11A5 (120 mm)}}
 +
 
 +
The Challenger's main gun, while not the most powerful at its rank, is competitive, and more importantly, accurate. With a little over 400 mm of penetration at maximum, aim for weak spots (particularly when facing higher-ranked vehicles such as the T-80U, Leopard 2A5, etc) and make use of the Challenger's good reload speed.
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="100%"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="5" | [[L11A5 (120 mm)|120 mm L11A5]] || colspan="5" | Turret rotation speed (°/s) || colspan="4" | Reloading rate (seconds)
 +
|-
 +
! Mode !! Capacity !! Vertical !! Horizontal !! Stabilizer
 +
! Stock !! Upgraded !! Full !! Expert !! Aced
 +
! Stock !! Full !! Expert !! Aced
 +
|-
 +
! ''Arcade''
 +
| rowspan="2" | 52 || rowspan="2" | -10°/+20° || rowspan="2" | ±180° || rowspan="2" | Two-plane || __.__ || __.__ || __.__ || __.__ || __.__ || rowspan="2" | _.__ || rowspan="2" | _.__ || rowspan="2" | _.__ || rowspan="2" | _.__
 +
|-
 +
! ''Realistic''
 +
| __.__ || __.__ || __.__ || __.__ || __.__
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==== Ammunition ====
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center" width="100%"
 +
! colspan="8" | Penetration statistics
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="2" data-sort-type="text" | Ammunition
 +
! rowspan="2" | Type of<br>warhead
 +
! colspan="6" | '''Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)'''
 +
|-
 +
! 10 m !! 100 m !! 500 m !! 1,000 m !! 1,500 m !! 2,000 m
 +
|-
 +
| Shot L23 || APFSDS || 410 || 408 || 405 || 400 || 390 || 380
 +
|-
 +
| Shell L31A7 || HESH || 152 || 152 || 152 || 152 || 152 || 152
 +
|-
 +
| Shot L23A1 || APFSDS || 396 || 394 || 387 || 376 || 367 || 357
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center" width="100%"
 +
! colspan="10" | Shell details
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="2" data-sort-type="text" | Ammunition
 +
! rowspan="2" | Type of<br>warhead
 +
! rowspan="2" | Velocity<br>(m/s)
 +
! rowspan="2" | Projectile<br>Mass (kg)
 +
! rowspan="2" | Fuse delay<br>(m)
 +
! rowspan="2" | Fuse sensitivity<br>(mm)
 +
! rowspan="2" | Explosive Mass<br>(TNT equivalent) (g)
 +
! colspan="3" | Ricochet
 +
|-
 +
! 0% !! 50% !! 100%
 +
|-
 +
| Shot L23 || APFSDS || 1,535 || 3.89 || N/A || N/A || N/A || 76° || 77° || 80°
 +
|-
 +
| Shell L31A7 || HESH || 670 || 17.1 || 0.4 || 0.1 || 6,560 || 73° || 77° || 80°
 +
|-
 +
| Shot L23A1 || APFSDS || 1,535 || 3.89 || N/A || N/A || N/A || 78° || 80° || 81°
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
! colspan="7" | Smoke shell characteristics
 +
|-
 +
! Ammunition
 +
! Velocity<br>(m/s)
 +
! Projectile<br>Mass (kg)
 +
! Screen radius<br>(m)
 +
! Screen deploy time<br>(s)
 +
! Screen hold time<br>(s)
 +
! Explosive Mass<br>(TNT equivalent) (g)
 +
|-
 +
| L34 || 670 || 17.1 || 20 || 5 || 25 || 50
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
=== Additional armament ===
+
==== [[Ammo racks]] ====
''Some tanks are armed with several guns in one or more turrets. Evaluate the additional weaponry and give advice on its use. Describe the ammunition available for additional weaponry. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage. If there is no additional weaponry remove this subsection.''
+
<!-- [[File:Ammoracks_{{PAGENAME}}.png|right|thumb|x250px|[[Ammo racks]] of the {{PAGENAME}}]] -->
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! Full<br>ammo
 +
! 1st<br>rack empty
 +
! 2nd<br>rack empty
 +
! 3rd<br>rack empty
 +
! 4th<br>rack empty
 +
! 5th<br>rack empty
 +
! 6th<br>rack empty
 +
! Visual<br>discrepancy
 +
|-
 +
| '''52''' || __&nbsp;''(+__)'' || __&nbsp;''(+__)'' || __&nbsp;''(+__)'' || __&nbsp;''(+__)'' || __&nbsp;''(+__)'' || __&nbsp;''(+__)'' || __
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
 
=== Machine guns ===
 
=== Machine guns ===
''Offensive and anti-aircraft machine guns not only allow you to fight some aircraft, but also are effective against lightly armoured vehicles. Evaluate machine guns and give recommendations on its use.''
+
{{Specs-Tank-Weapon|2}}
 +
{{Specs-Tank-Weapon|3}}
 +
<!-- ''Offensive and anti-aircraft machine guns not only allow you to fight some aircraft but also are effective against lightly armoured vehicles. Evaluate machine guns and give recommendations on its use.'' -->
 +
{{main|L37A2 (7.62 mm)|L8A2 (7.62 mm)}}
 +
 
 +
The machine gun's calibre won't present any major advantage in armoured combat other than serving as target spotter to allies, ranging gun and obstacle clearer. But a major important role is against low flying aircrafts and especially, helicopters. As the highly adequate rate of fire is capable to bring down the biggest of the hovering birds, with enough well placed rounds that is.
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="50%"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="5" | [[L37A2 (7.62 mm)|7.62 mm L37A2]]
 +
|-
 +
! Mount !! Capacity (Belt) !! Fire rate !! Vertical !! Horizontal
 +
|-
 +
| Pintle || 3,600 (100) || 650 || -10°/+50° || ±120°
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
{{Notice|Tip: Is possible to switch to the machine-gun as the main weapon and use thermals through the machinegun sight for recce while hulldown.}}
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="50%"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="5" | [[L8A2 (7.62 mm)|7.62 mm L8A2]]
 +
|-
 +
! Mount !! Capacity (Belt) !! Fire rate !! Vertical !! Horizontal
 +
|-
 +
| Coaxial || 2,400 (200) || 600 || N/A || N/A
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== Usage in battles ==
 +
<!-- ''Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but instead give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).'' -->
 +
 
 +
;Urban Environments
 +
 
 +
In urban environments, the Challenger will struggle relative to the [[T-80B]], [[M1 Abrams]] and [[Leopard 2A4]] - it's large, heavy and sluggish which proves costly in close quarters or when engagements occur in open streets. While the Challenger's gun still proves effective, often opposition vehicles will achieve valuable positioning before a Challenger can, forcing the Challenger tanker to play defensively. However, playing carefully and avoiding obvious routes, the Challenger can be comfortably put to use in urban environments.
 +
 
 +
;Rural Environments
  
== Usage in the battles ==
+
The Mk.3 performs very well in rural areas, where defilades and ditches that can be used for cover are far more readily available. The Challenger is still best played in hull-down defensive positions, clearing areas of maps before moving up, but a patient playstyle will be rewarded. Make use of the vehicle's good gun depression and competitive reload, utilising off-angles and hull-down positions. If a situation begins to degrade, make use of the Challenger's reasonably good reverse speed and reposition.
''Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).''
 
  
 
=== Pros and cons ===
 
=== Pros and cons ===
''Summarize and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in a bulleted list. Do not use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - they have a substitution in the form of softer "inadequate", "effective".''
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<!-- ''Summarise and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in a bulleted list. Try not to use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - use substitutions with softer forms such as "inadequate" and "effective".'' -->
  
 
'''Pros:'''
 
'''Pros:'''
*
+
 
 +
* Decent turret armour; efficiency increased even more with proper hull down in slopes
 +
* Reasonably small breech protected by turret cheek's armour
 +
* Good HEAT and ATGM resistance on front/sides thanks to ERA and NERA elements
 +
* Good neutral steering and decent reverse speed provides a great boost from the slower [[Chieftain (Family)|Chieftains]]
 +
* Reasonably good reload, particularly for a 120 mm gun; one of the most remarkable aspects of the latter British MBTs
 +
* Brand-new TOGS system provides easy target acquisition in day or night
  
 
'''Cons:'''
 
'''Cons:'''
*
+
 
 +
* Lacklustre penetration, even worst during high ranked battles facing the omni-presents [[Leopard 2A6]] or [[T-72B (1989)]]; must aim for weak spots
 +
* The lower half of the turret cheeks are vulnerable to some higher-tier FIN rounds
 +
* Slower MBT than most of the vehicles it faces, albeit not by a huge margin
 +
* Hull is large and tall, very vulnerable to kinetic rounds or aerial attacks
 +
* Cannot shoot straight over its engine deck; a notable disadvantage on urban engagements
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the ground vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too big, take it to a separate article, taking a link to an article about the vehicle and adding a block "/historical reference" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/Name-vehicles/historical reference) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to include links to sources at the end of the article.''
+
<!-- ''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too long, take it to a separate article, taking a link to the article about the vehicle and adding a block "/History" (example: <nowiki>https://wiki.warthunder.com/(Vehicle-name)/History</nowiki>) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to reference text and sources by using <code><nowiki><ref></ref></nowiki></code>, as well as adding them at the end of the article with <code><nowiki><references /></nowiki></code>. This section may also include the vehicle's dev blog entry (if applicable) and the in-game encyclopedia description (under <code><nowiki>=== In-game description ===</nowiki></code>, also if applicable).'' -->
 +
Once the Challenger was established as the latest MBT for the British army following the decommissioning of the older Chieftain tank, it entered service with the British Army in 1983.
 +
 
 +
The British Army chose to test this newly designated tank in the Canadian Army Trophy (CAT) competition in West Germany, 1986. Once in the competition and despite having adequate scores, the Challengers were amongst the last in the score tables versus the equally powerful Abrams and Leopards. This proved to be discouraging results, as it was hoped the all-around better Challengers would provide excellent results this time unlike the older Chieftain - distinctly on the mobility and off-road abilities as the new Rolls-Royce CV12 provided almost twice the horsepower of the Chieftain's Leyland L60 Powerpack.
 +
 
 +
The apparent complete failure on the CAT went further to the British Army withdrawing from the competition in 1987, leaving statements like the following:
 +
 
 +
''"I do not believe that the performance of tanks in the artificial circumstances of a competition, such as the recent Canadian Army Trophy, is a proper indication of their capability in war. Challenger's gun gives the best penetrative performance against the tanks of a potential enemy. The tank itself is arguably the best protected in the world and has excellent mobility. It carries an advanced thermal imaging system which is much admired by our allies and ensures that Challenger can fight effectively by night and by day. Participation in international tank gunnery competitions is one useful option in the complete spectrum of training opportunities available in preparing our tank crews for war, but it is not on its own a basis for judgment of overall capability."'' - '''Ian Stewart, former Minister for the Armed Forces''' when asked if he is satisfied with the standard of British tank international gunnery demonstrated in recent competitions; and if he will make a statement.
 +
 
 +
'''Mk.3 Upgrade'''
 +
 
 +
Before the Gulf War, the Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME) updated the Challenger 1 Mk.2 into the Mk.3 with even more armour protection, increased operational range, desert filters amongst other internal refits. This was the first mass-production use of the Royal Ordinance made ROMOR-A, of over 250 armour sets were going to be used in the imminent Desert storm - These packages were also included in the Centurion AVRE deploying along with the Challengers 1.
 +
 
 +
Numerous Challengers were up-armoured by to Mk.3 desert modification with packages of explosive reactive armour (ERA) ROMOR-A in the lower frontal plate and non-energetic reactive armour (NERA) in the sides - this NERA proved to be safer from accidental detonations for any possible friendly units adjacent to the tank. It was estimated the upgrades would increase the protection in these reinforced areas up to 95% against the performance of shaped charges or ATGMs of approximately 127 mm.
 +
 
 +
The armour requirements were exponentially increasing because new lethal weaponry as the infamously portable Soviet RPG-7 became the most widely used anti-tank weapon in the world. The revolutionary and yet classified to this day Chobham armour proved extremely reliable against most possible frontal engagements. However, areas like the side armour or the lower frontal plate remained a weak spot against the powerful anti-tank armaments been constantly developed.
 +
 
 +
'''Trial of fire'''
 +
 
 +
3 days after of the US-designated Desert storm operation started, the vast miles of desert defended by Iraqi forces were damaged by French and American aerial and ground attacks but fiercely resisting. It was then the only UK armoured division, the 1st Armoured Division headed to combat under the British code name of Operation Grandby. They were equipped with Warriors acting as the mechanized infantry and Challengers leading the spearhead of the assault.
 +
 
 +
Charging along with the US' 1st Calvary division, the Challengers Mk.2 and Mk.3 advanced with low visibility conditions and sand storm, during day and night. This advantage is granted to the technologically superior Thermal Observation Gunnery Sight (TOGS) system, that enabled the tank commanders to designate targets in complete darkness. The developing GPS technology also proved vital to increase the mobility of the tanks squadrons in the desert.
 +
 
 +
On February 27, 1991, Battle of Norfolk part of the Battle of 73 Easting. One of the major battles for the Challenger 1 MBT took part. It allowed the British tanks to achieved over 200 Iraqi tank kills and other various vehicles kill with no losses. This ardent engagements at long and very close distances versus the sand-dug Iraqi T-55s and T-62s allowed the Challenger to prove its true combat capabilities.
 +
 
 +
{{Notice|A Challenger 1 got the longest tank kill of all time, at a range of over 4.6 km, when it knocked out an Iraqi tank with an APFSDS round!}}
 +
 
 +
Lt Col Tim Purbrick, Queen's Royal Irish Hussars Battlegroup for the Liberation of Kuwait recollects
 +
 
 +
''"First, Gus's 4,700 m first round FIN kill. It was a supreme technical achievement for man and machine. 4,700m, a shade under 3 miles, is more than three times the 1,200 m battle range of the Challenger. The shot is written up in books, sometimes incorrectly, with one book saying it was a Depleted Uranium (DU) round, it wasn't, it was a normal service FIN round while another book said it was at longer range, it wasn't, it was 4,700 m. I believe that it is the longest range direct fire kinetic round kill ever achieved by a tank on the battlefield."''
 +
 
 +
The Challenger regiments were given several of the specially conceived depleted Uranium APFSDS L26A1 rounds also known as "Jericho". In case of facing the ultimate adversary, the Iraqi Republican's guard T-72M; these engagements never occurred but the round was applied years later in the intended user, the Challenger 2.
 +
 
 +
Despite the early perceived poor fidelity of the tank, the Challenger 1 fought till the end of the war without major losses but minor external damages. They travelled approximately 350 km in the desert till the final Gulf war objective; the Basra Highway north of Multa Ridge on February 27, 1991.
 +
 
 +
''"Challenger is a tank built for war and not for competitions."'' - Patrick Cordingley, Commander of 7th Armoured Brigade
 +
 
 +
'''Fate'''
 +
 
 +
The Challengers 1 continued their British service until the 99's as part of the KFOR, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force in Kosovo.
 +
 
 +
Eventually with most of the 400 tanks being sold or gifted in the 2000s to Jordan, in which the King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau innovated with newer technologies, a rebirth tank, known locally as Al-Hussein. The Jordanians developed an upgrade package prototype unveiled in 2003, adding a crew-less turret fitted with a powerful Swiss RUAG Defense Systems 120 mm/L50 smoothbore with auto-loader, hunter-killer system, laser warning system, thermal imaging and Soft-Kill Active Protection; this variant is known as the '''Falcon turret'''.
 +
 
 +
The Challenger 1 Mk.2 and Mk.3 were replaced by the Challenger 2 in the UK service but is still in service until this day in Jordan where the large fleet is being gradually replaced by the more modern French MBT, the Leclerc.
  
 
== Media ==
 
== Media ==
''An excellent addition to the article will be video guides, as well as screenshots from the game and photos.''
+
<!-- Excellent additions to the article would be video guides, screenshots from the game, and photos. -->
 +
{{Youtube-gallery|OI328RITINo|Video about the Operation Granby|Lwcx7vVieUQ|Bovington's chat about the Challenger 1|TCpSxqaqo-s|Crew operations inside the Challenger }}
 +
 
 +
== See also ==
 +
'''Preceded by'''
 +
 
 +
* [[Chieftain Mk 10]]
 +
* [[Chieftain Mk 5]]
  
== Read also ==
+
'''Succeeded by'''
''Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example,''
 
* ''reference to the series of the vehicles;''
 
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''ETC.''
 
  
== Sources ==
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* [[Challenger 2]]
''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
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'''Shared operational History - Gulf War'''
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* [[M1 Abrams]]
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* [[Warrior]]
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* [[Challenger Mk.2|Challenger Mk. 2]]
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* [[M3 Bradley]]
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* [[T-55A|T-55]]
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* [[T-62]]
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'''Analogues on other nations'''
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* [[Leopard 2K]]
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* [[Leopard 1A5 (Italy)|Leopard 1A5]]
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* [[AMX-30B2 BRENUS]]
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* [[T-72B]]
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* [[T-72B (1989)]]
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== External links ==
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<!-- ''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
 
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* ''other literature.'' -->
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* [[wt:en/news/5918-development-challenger-mk-3-a-royal-upgrade-en|[Devblog] Challenger Mk 3 - A Royal Upgrade]]
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* [https://britisharmyblog.wordpress.com/2016/03/11/desert-storm-part-24-back-to-germany/ Lt Col Tim Purbrick's UK Army blogs - Desert Storm Experience]
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* [https://www.militaryfactory.com/armor/detail.asp?armor_id=54 Military Factory.com - Challenger 1 MBT]
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* Dunstan, Simon (1998). ''Challenger Main Battle Tank 1982-97''. Osprey Publishing, p. 18. ISBN <bdi>1-85532-485-7</bdi>.
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* Challenger 2 Owners' Tank Manual, Haynes Manuals, 1998 to Present - ''An Insight Into the Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of the British Army's Main Battle Tank of the 21st Century'', 2018
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{{Britain medium tanks}}

Revision as of 23:12, 13 January 2021

RANK VI USSR
T-72AV (TURMS-T) PACK
This page is about the British medium tank Challenger Mk.3. For other uses, see Challenger (Disambiguation).
Challenger Mk.3
uk_challenger_mk_3.png
GarageImage Challenger Mk.3.jpg
Challenger Mk.3
AB RB SB
9.7 9.7 9.7
Class:
Research:250 000 Specs-Card-Exp.png
Purchase:690 000 Specs-Card-Lion.png
Show in game

Description

The Tank, Combat, 120-mm Gun, Challenger Mk.3 (shortened as Challenger Mk.3) is a rank VI British medium tank with a battle rating of 9.7 (AB/RB/SB). It was introduced in Update 1.85 "Supersonic".

The Challenger Mk.3 retains most of the characteristics of the Challenger Mk.2. It has some unique differences; such as: "ROMOR-A ERA" which covers the lower glacis and sides, along with the addition of the ammunition storage being covered with rolled homogeneous armour. It retains the same engine (1200 hp) as the Mk.2, however with a minor increase in weight it suffers slightly reduced mobility and acceleration. Its iconic, legendary, and pin-point accurate gun stays the same as on the Challenger Mk.2.

General info

Survivability and armour

ERA
Effective action against the cumulative ammunition
Composite armour
Balanced protection against all types of ammunition
Smoke grenades
Creation of a smoke screen in front of the vehicle
ESS
Creation of a smoke screen in the direction of movement of the vehicle
Armourfront / side / back
Hull130 / 45 / 25
Turret160 / 105 / 44
Crew4 people
Visibility88 %

The armour protection on the Challenger Mk.3 is excellent in some areas and bad in others. The upper half of the turret cheeks are capable of withstanding almost all kinetic penetrators and will stop most chemical penetrators with less than 800 mm, while the lower half won't protect against most top-rank rounds. Additionally, the breech weak spot is quite small. This means the turret has excellent protection and hulldown play is recommended. The hull composite is only good against lower penetrating APFSDS rounds such as T-55AM, and can also withstand some chemical munitions, but it is not advised to rely on this armour. The rest of the tank (turret and hull sides, lower front plate) has decent protection against chemical rounds due to the add on armour, ERA, and thick turret sides.

Armour Front (Slope angle) Sides Rear Roof
Hull 38 mm (79-81°), 50* mm (60°) Upper glacis
70 mm (30°) Lower glacis
20 mm, 25 mm (74°) Top
38 mm (12°) Bottom
25 mm (29-30°) 20 mm
8 mm Engine grille
Turret 50* mm (51-54°)
60 mm (55-56°), 200 mm Gun mantlet
80 mm + 15 mm Front right
80 + 25 mm + 4 mm Front
45 + 4 mm Rear
44 + 4 mm 38 mm (82°) Front
20 mm (80-90°) Rear
Cupola 60 mm
Composite armour* Front Sides
Hull 200 mm NERA + 80 mm RHA + 50 mm RHA Upper glacis 150 mm NERA, 70 mm screens Side skirts
Turret 300 mm NERA + 50 mm RHA + 110 mm CHA 300 mm NERA + 25 mm RHA + 80 mm RHA
Reactive Armour Front Sides
Hull 30 mm ROMOR-A ERA Lower glacis
Protection against:
30 mm Kinetic
300 mm Chemical
150 mm NERA Side skirts
Protection against:
30 mm Kinetic
400 mm Chemical

Notes:

  • The propellant ammo racks are surrounded by 5 mm RHA
  • Side skirts consist of 150 mm NERA composite, 70 mm composite screens, or 19 mm aluminium
  • Tracks and wheels are 20 mm thick

Mobility

Speedforward / back
AB62 / 41 km/h
RB and SB56 / 37 km/h
Number of gears8 forward
6 back
Weight65.0 t
Engine power
AB2 290 hp
RB and SB1 200 hp
Power-to-weight ratio
AB35.2 hp/t
RB and SB18.5 hp/t
Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Forward Reverse Stock Upgraded Stock Upgraded
Arcade 62 41 65 1,860 2290 28.62 35.23
Realistic 56 37 1,061 1200 16.32 18.46

The Challenger Mk.3 has an acceptable top speed, however, acceleration and mobility (primarily due to its weight) are lacklustre compared to other MBTs.

Module rotation speed 90 Degrees 180 Degrees 360 Degrees
Tank Hull 5 Seconds 10 Seconds 20 Seconds
Tank Turret 3 Seconds 6 Seconds 12 Seconds
Test Conditions *Tested with a spaded Challenger Mk.3, crew at maximum skill, with basic training qualification. Results can vary based on tank research state, crew levels & qualifications.

Modifications and economy

Repair costBasic → Reference
AB5 670 → 8 952 Sl icon.png
RB4 640 → 7 326 Sl icon.png
SB3 290 → 5 194 Sl icon.png
Total cost of modifications272 900 Rp icon.png
439 000 Sl icon.png
Talisman cost2 700 Ge icon.png
Crew training200 000 Sl icon.png
Experts690 000 Sl icon.png
Aces2 100 Ge icon.png
Research Aces1 010 000 Rp icon.png
Reward for battleAB / RB / SB
130 / 150 / 150 % Sl icon.png
226 / 226 / 226 % Rp icon.png
Modifications
Mobility Protection Firepower
Mods new tank traks.png
Tracks
Research:
20 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
30 000 Sl icon.png
480 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank suspension.png
Suspension
Research:
13 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
19 000 Sl icon.png
310 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank break.png
Brake System
Research:
13 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
19 000 Sl icon.png
310 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank filter.png
Filters
Research:
15 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
22 000 Sl icon.png
360 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank transmission.png
Transmission
Research:
16 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
24 000 Sl icon.png
380 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank engine.png
Engine
Research:
16 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
24 000 Sl icon.png
380 Ge icon.png
Mods tank tool kit.png
Parts
Research:
6 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
30 000 Sl icon.png
480 Ge icon.png
Mods extinguisher.png
FPE
Research:
3 900 Rp icon.png
Cost:
19 000 Sl icon.png
310 Ge icon.png
Mods tank reinforcement uk.png
Crew Replenishment
Research:
15 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
22 000 Sl icon.png
360 Ge icon.png
Mods engine smoke screen system.png
ESS
Research:
16 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
24 000 Sl icon.png
380 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank horizontal aiming.png
Horizontal Drive
Research:
20 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
30 000 Sl icon.png
480 Ge icon.png
Mods tank cannon.png
Adjustment of Fire
Research:
13 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
19 000 Sl icon.png
310 Ge icon.png
Mods thermal sight.png
NVD
Research:
13 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
19 000 Sl icon.png
310 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank vertical aiming.png
Elevation Mechanism
Research:
15 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
22 000 Sl icon.png
360 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
120mm_britain_Smoke_ammo_pack
Research:
15 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
22 000 Sl icon.png
360 Ge icon.png
Mods smoke screen.png
Smoke grenade
Research:
15 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
22 000 Sl icon.png
360 Ge icon.png
Mods tank laser rangefinder.png
Laser rangefinder
Research:
16 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
24 000 Sl icon.png
380 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
120mm_britain_L23A1_APDSFS_ammo_pack
Research:
16 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
24 000 Sl icon.png
380 Ge icon.png
Mods art support.png
Artillery Support
Research:
16 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
24 000 Sl icon.png
380 Ge icon.png

Armaments

Laser rangefinder
Reduces the error and increases the maximum measurable distance of the rangefinder
Night vision device
Improves visibility by enhancing natural light or active illumination.
Thermal imager
Allows to see thermal radiation in the infrared range day and night

Main armament

Two-plane stabilizer
Reduces the swing of the gun in two planes while moving
Ammunition52 rounds
First-order4 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
6.5 → 5.0 s
Vertical guidance-10° / 20°
Main article: L11A5 (120 mm)

The Challenger's main gun, while not the most powerful at its rank, is competitive, and more importantly, accurate. With a little over 400 mm of penetration at maximum, aim for weak spots (particularly when facing higher-ranked vehicles such as the T-80U, Leopard 2A5, etc) and make use of the Challenger's good reload speed.

120 mm L11A5 Turret rotation speed (°/s) Reloading rate (seconds)
Mode Capacity Vertical Horizontal Stabilizer Stock Upgraded Full Expert Aced Stock Full Expert Aced
Arcade 52 -10°/+20° ±180° Two-plane __.__ __.__ __.__ __.__ __.__ _.__ _.__ _.__ _.__
Realistic __.__ __.__ __.__ __.__ __.__

Ammunition

Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)
10 m 100 m 500 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m
Shot L23 APFSDS 410 408 405 400 390 380
Shell L31A7 HESH 152 152 152 152 152 152
Shot L23A1 APFSDS 396 394 387 376 367 357
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Fuse delay
(m)
Fuse sensitivity
(mm)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
Ricochet
0% 50% 100%
Shot L23 APFSDS 1,535 3.89 N/A N/A N/A 76° 77° 80°
Shell L31A7 HESH 670 17.1 0.4 0.1 6,560 73° 77° 80°
Shot L23A1 APFSDS 1,535 3.89 N/A N/A N/A 78° 80° 81°
Smoke shell characteristics
Ammunition Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Screen radius
(m)
Screen deploy time
(s)
Screen hold time
(s)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
L34 670 17.1 20 5 25 50

Ammo racks

Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
4th
rack empty
5th
rack empty
6th
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
52 __ (+__) __ (+__) __ (+__) __ (+__) __ (+__) __ (+__) __

Machine guns

Ammunition2 400 rounds
Belt capacity200 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
10.4 → 8.0 s
Fire rate600 shots/min
Ammunition3 600 rounds
Belt capacity100 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
10.4 → 8.0 s
Fire rate650 shots/min

The machine gun's calibre won't present any major advantage in armoured combat other than serving as target spotter to allies, ranging gun and obstacle clearer. But a major important role is against low flying aircrafts and especially, helicopters. As the highly adequate rate of fire is capable to bring down the biggest of the hovering birds, with enough well placed rounds that is.

7.62 mm L37A2
Mount Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal
Pintle 3,600 (100) 650 -10°/+50° ±120°
Msg-info.png Tip: Is possible to switch to the machine-gun as the main weapon and use thermals through the machinegun sight for recce while hulldown.
7.62 mm L8A2
Mount Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal
Coaxial 2,400 (200) 600 N/A N/A

Usage in battles

Urban Environments

In urban environments, the Challenger will struggle relative to the T-80B, M1 Abrams and Leopard 2A4 - it's large, heavy and sluggish which proves costly in close quarters or when engagements occur in open streets. While the Challenger's gun still proves effective, often opposition vehicles will achieve valuable positioning before a Challenger can, forcing the Challenger tanker to play defensively. However, playing carefully and avoiding obvious routes, the Challenger can be comfortably put to use in urban environments.

Rural Environments

The Mk.3 performs very well in rural areas, where defilades and ditches that can be used for cover are far more readily available. The Challenger is still best played in hull-down defensive positions, clearing areas of maps before moving up, but a patient playstyle will be rewarded. Make use of the vehicle's good gun depression and competitive reload, utilising off-angles and hull-down positions. If a situation begins to degrade, make use of the Challenger's reasonably good reverse speed and reposition.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Decent turret armour; efficiency increased even more with proper hull down in slopes
  • Reasonably small breech protected by turret cheek's armour
  • Good HEAT and ATGM resistance on front/sides thanks to ERA and NERA elements
  • Good neutral steering and decent reverse speed provides a great boost from the slower Chieftains
  • Reasonably good reload, particularly for a 120 mm gun; one of the most remarkable aspects of the latter British MBTs
  • Brand-new TOGS system provides easy target acquisition in day or night

Cons:

  • Lacklustre penetration, even worst during high ranked battles facing the omni-presents Leopard 2A6 or T-72B (1989); must aim for weak spots
  • The lower half of the turret cheeks are vulnerable to some higher-tier FIN rounds
  • Slower MBT than most of the vehicles it faces, albeit not by a huge margin
  • Hull is large and tall, very vulnerable to kinetic rounds or aerial attacks
  • Cannot shoot straight over its engine deck; a notable disadvantage on urban engagements

History

Once the Challenger was established as the latest MBT for the British army following the decommissioning of the older Chieftain tank, it entered service with the British Army in 1983.

The British Army chose to test this newly designated tank in the Canadian Army Trophy (CAT) competition in West Germany, 1986. Once in the competition and despite having adequate scores, the Challengers were amongst the last in the score tables versus the equally powerful Abrams and Leopards. This proved to be discouraging results, as it was hoped the all-around better Challengers would provide excellent results this time unlike the older Chieftain - distinctly on the mobility and off-road abilities as the new Rolls-Royce CV12 provided almost twice the horsepower of the Chieftain's Leyland L60 Powerpack.

The apparent complete failure on the CAT went further to the British Army withdrawing from the competition in 1987, leaving statements like the following:

"I do not believe that the performance of tanks in the artificial circumstances of a competition, such as the recent Canadian Army Trophy, is a proper indication of their capability in war. Challenger's gun gives the best penetrative performance against the tanks of a potential enemy. The tank itself is arguably the best protected in the world and has excellent mobility. It carries an advanced thermal imaging system which is much admired by our allies and ensures that Challenger can fight effectively by night and by day. Participation in international tank gunnery competitions is one useful option in the complete spectrum of training opportunities available in preparing our tank crews for war, but it is not on its own a basis for judgment of overall capability." - Ian Stewart, former Minister for the Armed Forces when asked if he is satisfied with the standard of British tank international gunnery demonstrated in recent competitions; and if he will make a statement.

Mk.3 Upgrade

Before the Gulf War, the Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME) updated the Challenger 1 Mk.2 into the Mk.3 with even more armour protection, increased operational range, desert filters amongst other internal refits. This was the first mass-production use of the Royal Ordinance made ROMOR-A, of over 250 armour sets were going to be used in the imminent Desert storm - These packages were also included in the Centurion AVRE deploying along with the Challengers 1.

Numerous Challengers were up-armoured by to Mk.3 desert modification with packages of explosive reactive armour (ERA) ROMOR-A in the lower frontal plate and non-energetic reactive armour (NERA) in the sides - this NERA proved to be safer from accidental detonations for any possible friendly units adjacent to the tank. It was estimated the upgrades would increase the protection in these reinforced areas up to 95% against the performance of shaped charges or ATGMs of approximately 127 mm.

The armour requirements were exponentially increasing because new lethal weaponry as the infamously portable Soviet RPG-7 became the most widely used anti-tank weapon in the world. The revolutionary and yet classified to this day Chobham armour proved extremely reliable against most possible frontal engagements. However, areas like the side armour or the lower frontal plate remained a weak spot against the powerful anti-tank armaments been constantly developed.

Trial of fire

3 days after of the US-designated Desert storm operation started, the vast miles of desert defended by Iraqi forces were damaged by French and American aerial and ground attacks but fiercely resisting. It was then the only UK armoured division, the 1st Armoured Division headed to combat under the British code name of Operation Grandby. They were equipped with Warriors acting as the mechanized infantry and Challengers leading the spearhead of the assault.

Charging along with the US' 1st Calvary division, the Challengers Mk.2 and Mk.3 advanced with low visibility conditions and sand storm, during day and night. This advantage is granted to the technologically superior Thermal Observation Gunnery Sight (TOGS) system, that enabled the tank commanders to designate targets in complete darkness. The developing GPS technology also proved vital to increase the mobility of the tanks squadrons in the desert.

On February 27, 1991, Battle of Norfolk part of the Battle of 73 Easting. One of the major battles for the Challenger 1 MBT took part. It allowed the British tanks to achieved over 200 Iraqi tank kills and other various vehicles kill with no losses. This ardent engagements at long and very close distances versus the sand-dug Iraqi T-55s and T-62s allowed the Challenger to prove its true combat capabilities.

Msg-info.png A Challenger 1 got the longest tank kill of all time, at a range of over 4.6 km, when it knocked out an Iraqi tank with an APFSDS round!

Lt Col Tim Purbrick, Queen's Royal Irish Hussars Battlegroup for the Liberation of Kuwait recollects

"First, Gus's 4,700 m first round FIN kill. It was a supreme technical achievement for man and machine. 4,700m, a shade under 3 miles, is more than three times the 1,200 m battle range of the Challenger. The shot is written up in books, sometimes incorrectly, with one book saying it was a Depleted Uranium (DU) round, it wasn't, it was a normal service FIN round while another book said it was at longer range, it wasn't, it was 4,700 m. I believe that it is the longest range direct fire kinetic round kill ever achieved by a tank on the battlefield."

The Challenger regiments were given several of the specially conceived depleted Uranium APFSDS L26A1 rounds also known as "Jericho". In case of facing the ultimate adversary, the Iraqi Republican's guard T-72M; these engagements never occurred but the round was applied years later in the intended user, the Challenger 2.

Despite the early perceived poor fidelity of the tank, the Challenger 1 fought till the end of the war without major losses but minor external damages. They travelled approximately 350 km in the desert till the final Gulf war objective; the Basra Highway north of Multa Ridge on February 27, 1991.

"Challenger is a tank built for war and not for competitions." - Patrick Cordingley, Commander of 7th Armoured Brigade

Fate

The Challengers 1 continued their British service until the 99's as part of the KFOR, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force in Kosovo.

Eventually with most of the 400 tanks being sold or gifted in the 2000s to Jordan, in which the King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau innovated with newer technologies, a rebirth tank, known locally as Al-Hussein. The Jordanians developed an upgrade package prototype unveiled in 2003, adding a crew-less turret fitted with a powerful Swiss RUAG Defense Systems 120 mm/L50 smoothbore with auto-loader, hunter-killer system, laser warning system, thermal imaging and Soft-Kill Active Protection; this variant is known as the Falcon turret.

The Challenger 1 Mk.2 and Mk.3 were replaced by the Challenger 2 in the UK service but is still in service until this day in Jordan where the large fleet is being gradually replaced by the more modern French MBT, the Leclerc.

Media

See also

Preceded by

Succeeded by

Shared operational History - Gulf War

Analogues on other nations

External links


Britain medium tanks
Cromwell  Cromwell I · Cromwell V · Cromwell V (RP-3)
Based on Cromwell  Challenger · Comet I · Comet I "Iron Duke IV"
Centurion  Centurion Mk 1 · Centurion Mk 3 · Centurion Mk.5 AVRE · Centurion Mk 10 · Centurion Action X · FV4202
Chieftain  Chieftain Mk 3 · Chieftain Mk 5 · Chieftain Mk 10
Challenger  Challenger Mk.2 · Challenger Mk.3 · Challenger 2 · Challenger 2 (2F)
Valentine  Valentine I · Valentine IX · Valentine XI
Vickers  Vickers MBT · Vickers Mk.7
Foreign  Grant I (USA) · Sherman IC "Trzyniec" (USA) · Sherman Firefly (USA) · Sherman II (USA)
  A.C.IV (Australia) · ▄Strv 81 (RB 52) (Sweden) · Centurion Mk.5/1 (Australia) · Sho't Kal Dalet (Israel)
  Olifant Mk.1A (South Africa) · Olifant Mk.2 (South Africa) · TTD (South Africa)