Difference between revisions of "Leopard I"

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(Armaments)
 
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== Description ==
 
== Description ==
<!--''In the description, the first part needs to be about the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the ground vehicle in the game. Insert the screenshot of the vehicle. If the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, they will immediately understand what kind of vehicle it is talking about.''-->
+
<!-- ''In the description, the first part should be about the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the ground vehicle in the game. Insert a screenshot of the vehicle, so that if the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, he will immediately understand what kind of vehicle the article is talking about.'' -->
The '''{{Specs|name}}''' is a Rank {{Specs|rank}} German medium tank {{Battle-rating}}. It was introduced in [[Update 1.51 "Cold Steel"]].
+
The '''{{Specs|name}}''' is a rank {{Specs|rank}} German medium tank {{Battle-rating}}. It was introduced in [[Update 1.51 "Cold Steel"]].
  
 
The main strengths of the Leopard I are its high mobility and the above-average rate of fire of the main cannon. In combination with a good gun depression of -9° (meaning, you can lower the gun quite extensively), an experienced Leopard I driver can exploit uneven terrain to effectively fight his enemies without showing much of his vehicle - or being in the inconvenient situation to leave his cover to return fire.
 
The main strengths of the Leopard I are its high mobility and the above-average rate of fire of the main cannon. In combination with a good gun depression of -9° (meaning, you can lower the gun quite extensively), an experienced Leopard I driver can exploit uneven terrain to effectively fight his enemies without showing much of his vehicle - or being in the inconvenient situation to leave his cover to return fire.
  
The MG3A1 is rapid firing rifle calibre GPMG equipped in a coaxial and pintle mount, but otherwise of little use against armoured vehicles. The occasional open top SPAA can be harassed, although some of the crew won't be accessible without a good angle. Most annoying on the [[ZSU-57-2|ZSU-57]] with its tall crew shielding and more than 13 mm of armour. Therefore just above the machine gun's penetration ability at 10m.
+
The MG3A1 is rapid firing rifle calibre GPMG equipped in a coaxial and pintle mount, but otherwise of little use against armoured vehicles. The occasional open top SPAA can be harassed, although some of the crew won't be accessible without a good angle. Most annoying on the [[ZSU-57-2]] with its tall crew shielding and more than 13 mm of armour. Therefore just above the machine gun's penetration ability at 10 m.
  
 
Considering everything, the Leopard 1 is not a bad vehicle in the right hands - unfortunately, the lack of a stabilizer and extremely sub-par armour will result in many less experienced players struggling to perform well when many of their opponents will have better, often stabilised guns and armour
 
Considering everything, the Leopard 1 is not a bad vehicle in the right hands - unfortunately, the lack of a stabilizer and extremely sub-par armour will result in many less experienced players struggling to perform well when many of their opponents will have better, often stabilised guns and armour
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=== Survivability and armour ===
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
 
{{Specs-Tank-Armour}}
 
{{Specs-Tank-Armour}}
<!--''Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpful for survival in combat?''
+
<!-- ''Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpful for survival in combat? If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.'' -->
  
''If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.''-->
+
The Leopard's armour is not thick enough in the game to defend itself from most incoming fire, as many shell types at its battle rating are able to easily penetrate and destroy the tank. The Leopard 1 was originally built with a "perfect standard tank" idea, similar to the Main Battle Tank concept, as during its development, the armour has been considered an expendable quality and that superior speed and firepower is most important. Therefore the Leopard's armour design was only meant to withstand 20 mm calibres from the front. A big threat is the [[ZSU-57-2]], which gives any Leopard 1 a hard time with its high rate of fire of effective 57 mm AP rounds.
The Leopard's armour is not thick enough in the game to defend itself from most incoming fire, as many shell types at its battle rating are able to easily penetrate and destroy the tank. The Leopard 1 was originally built with a "perfect standard tank" idea, similar to the Main Battle Tank concept, as during its development, the armour has been considered an expendable quality and that superior speed and firepower is most important. Therefore the Leopard's armour design was only meant to withstand 20mm calibers from the front. A big threat is the [[ZSU-57-2|ZSU-57]], which gives any Leopard 1 a hard time with its high rate of fire of effective 57mm AP rounds.
 
  
 
'''Armour type:'''
 
'''Armour type:'''
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<!-- ''Write about the mobility of the ground vehicle. Estimate the specific power and manoeuvrability, as well as the maximum speed forwards and backwards.'' -->
 
<!-- ''Write about the mobility of the ground vehicle. Estimate the specific power and manoeuvrability, as well as the maximum speed forwards and backwards.'' -->
  
{{tankMobility|abMinHp= 1286|rbMinHp= 734}}
+
{{tankMobility|abMinHp=1,286|rbMinHp=734}}
  
 
The {{PAGENAME}} is powered by a MTU MB 838 CaM-500 engine, which produces a total of 830 hp (610 kW) at around 2,200-2,300 RPM.
 
The {{PAGENAME}} is powered by a MTU MB 838 CaM-500 engine, which produces a total of 830 hp (610 kW) at around 2,200-2,300 RPM.
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<!-- ''Give the reader information about the characteristics of the main gun. Assess its effectiveness in a battle based on the reloading speed, ballistics and the power of shells. Do not forget about the flexibility of the fire, that is how quickly the cannon can be aimed at the target, open fire on it and aim at another enemy. Add a link to the main article on the gun: <code><nowiki>{{main|Name of the weapon}}</nowiki></code>. Describe in general terms the ammunition available for the main gun. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage.'' -->
 
<!-- ''Give the reader information about the characteristics of the main gun. Assess its effectiveness in a battle based on the reloading speed, ballistics and the power of shells. Do not forget about the flexibility of the fire, that is how quickly the cannon can be aimed at the target, open fire on it and aim at another enemy. Add a link to the main article on the gun: <code><nowiki>{{main|Name of the weapon}}</nowiki></code>. Describe in general terms the ammunition available for the main gun. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage.'' -->
 
{{main|L7A3 (105 mm)}}
 
{{main|L7A3 (105 mm)}}
 +
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="100%"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="100%"
 
|-
 
|-
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|-
 
|-
 
! ''Arcade''
 
! ''Arcade''
| rowspan="2" | 60 || rowspan="2" | -9°/+20° || rowspan="2" | ±180° || rowspan="2" | N/A || 22.9 || 31.6 || 38.4 || 42.5 || 45.2 || rowspan="2" | 8.70 || rowspan="2" | 7.70 || rowspan="2" | 7.10 || rowspan="2" | 6.70
+
| rowspan="2" | 60 || rowspan="2" | -9°/+20° || rowspan="2" | ±180° || rowspan="2" | N/A || 22.8 || 31.6 || 38.4 || 42.5 || 45.2 || rowspan="2" | 8.71 || rowspan="2" | 7.70 || rowspan="2" | 7.10 || rowspan="2" | 6.70
 
|-
 
|-
 
! ''Realistic''
 
! ''Realistic''
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! 0% !! 50% !! 100%
 
! 0% !! 50% !! 100%
 
|-
 
|-
| DM13 || APDS || 1478 || 5.8 || N/A || N/A || N/A || 75° || 78° || 80°
+
| DM13 || APDS || 1,478 || 4 || N/A || N/A || N/A || 75° || 78° || 80°
 
|-
 
|-
| DM502 || HESH || 730 || 15 || 0.4 || 0.1 || 4,310 || 75° || 78° || 80°
+
| DM502 || HESH || 732 || 14.85 || 0.05 || 0.1 || 4,310 || 73° || 77° || 80°
 
|-
 
|-
| DM12 || HEATFS || 1173 || 11 || 0.0 || 0.1 || 1,270 || 65° || 72° || 75°
+
| DM12 || HEATFS || 1,173 || 10.5 || 0.05 || 0.1 || 1,270 || 65° || 72° || 77°
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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! Visual<br>discrepancy
 
! Visual<br>discrepancy
 
|-
 
|-
|| '''60''' || 58&nbsp;''(+2)'' || 47&nbsp;''(+13)'' || 43&nbsp;''(+17)'' || 40&nbsp;''(+20)'' || 1&nbsp;''(+59)'' || No
+
| '''60''' || 58&nbsp;''(+2)'' || 47&nbsp;''(+13)'' || 43&nbsp;''(+17)'' || 40&nbsp;''(+20)'' || 1&nbsp;''(+59)'' || No
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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{{Specs-Tank-Weapon|2}}
 
{{Specs-Tank-Weapon|2}}
 
{{Specs-Tank-Weapon|3}}
 
{{Specs-Tank-Weapon|3}}
<!--Offensive and anti-aircraft machine guns not only allow you to fight some aircraft but also are effective against lightly armoured vehicles. Evaluate machine guns and give recommendations on its use.-->
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<!-- ''Offensive and anti-aircraft machine guns not only allow you to fight some aircraft but also are effective against lightly armoured vehicles. Evaluate machine guns and give recommendations on its use.'' -->
{{main|MG 3A1 (7.62 mm)}}The {{PAGENAME}} mounts one coaxial 7.62 machine gun and one pintle-mounted 7.62 machine gun. These both have particularly high rates of fire, and can be used as a deterrent for close air support as well as clearing light obstacles and crew in open-top vehicles.
+
{{main|MG3A1 (7.62 mm)}}
 +
 
 +
The {{PAGENAME}} mounts one coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and one pintle-mounted 7.62 mm machine gun. These both have particularly high rates of fire, and can be used as a deterrent for close air support as well as clearing light obstacles and crew in open-top vehicles.
  
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="50%"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="50%"
 
|-
 
|-
! colspan="5" | [[MG 3A1 (7.62 mm)|7.62 mm MG 3A1]]
+
! colspan="5" | [[MG3A1 (7.62 mm)|7.62 mm MG3A1]]
 
|-
 
|-
! Mount
+
! Mount !! Capacity (Belt) !! Fire rate !! Vertical !! Horizontal
! Capacity (Belt)
 
! Fire rate
 
! Vertical
 
! Horizontal
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Coaxial mount || 4,500 (1,000) || 1,200 || N/A || N/A
+
| Coaxial || 5,500 (1,000) || 1,200 || N/A || N/A
 
|-
 
|-
| Pintle mount || 2,000 (1,000) || 1,200 || -8°/+20° || ±120°
+
| Pintle || 2,000 (1,000) || 1,200 || -8°/+20° || ±120°
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== Usage in battles ==
 
== Usage in battles ==
<!--''Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).''-->
+
<!-- ''Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but instead give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).'' -->
 
Scan and use the terrain to your advantage. Take into consideration the moderate vehicle height, which allows you to go turret down in certain locations, allowing you to safely use your commander's binoculars to locate targets. Then, after you have located the enemy, fire a few rounds in quick succession and relocate when spotted, especially when the enemy shots come dangerously close. The Leopard is quite fast, so taking hits from a distance while on the move is a risk that you may consider worth taking.
 
Scan and use the terrain to your advantage. Take into consideration the moderate vehicle height, which allows you to go turret down in certain locations, allowing you to safely use your commander's binoculars to locate targets. Then, after you have located the enemy, fire a few rounds in quick succession and relocate when spotted, especially when the enemy shots come dangerously close. The Leopard is quite fast, so taking hits from a distance while on the move is a risk that you may consider worth taking.
  
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=== Pros and cons ===
 
=== Pros and cons ===
<!--''Summarize and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in a bulleted list. Do not use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - they have a substitution in the form of softer "inadequate", "effective".''-->
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<!-- ''Summarise and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in a bulleted list. Try not to use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - use substitutions with softer forms such as "inadequate" and "effective".'' -->
 +
 
 
'''Pros:'''
 
'''Pros:'''
  
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'''Cons:'''
 
'''Cons:'''
  
* Essentially non-existent armour that can't stop any more than 20mm rounds reliably
+
* Essentially non-existent armour that can't stop any more than 20 mm rounds reliably
 
* No main gun stabiliser
 
* No main gun stabiliser
 
* Tankers unaccustomed to APDS may struggle with the stock vehicle
 
* Tankers unaccustomed to APDS may struggle with the stock vehicle
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== History ==
 
== History ==
<!--''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the ground vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too big, take it to a separate article, taking a link to an article about the vehicle and adding a block "/historical reference" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/Name-vehicles/historical reference) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to include links to sources at the end of the article.''-->
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<!-- ''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too long, take it to a separate article, taking a link to the article about the vehicle and adding a block "/History" (example: <nowiki>https://wiki.warthunder.com/(Vehicle-name)/History</nowiki>) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to reference text and sources by using <code><nowiki><ref></ref></nowiki></code>, as well as adding them at the end of the article with <code><nowiki><references /></nowiki></code>. This section may also include the vehicle's dev blog entry (if applicable) and the in-game encyclopedia description (under <code><nowiki>=== In-game description ===</nowiki></code>, also if applicable).'' -->
 
===Development===
 
===Development===
 
The project for the Leopard started as far back as 1956 as an attempt to replace the American [[M41 (90 mm)|M47]] and [[M48A1|M48 Patton]] tanks in service at the time as they were becoming outdated to newer anti-tank technology. Specifications for the new tank came in July 1957 asking for a design weighing no more than 30 tons, with a power-to-weight ratio of 30 horsepower per ton and could withstand 20 mm gunfire alongside protection against chemical weapons and radiation fallout, which was becoming extremely common protection system for the modern tank designs. The design stressed mobility as the main focus, while firepower comes next and armour was relegated to minimum priority. The lack of focus on the armour was because of the belief that no matter how much armour a tank can have, it will eventually fall obsolete to the advent of newer anti-tank weapons such as the HEAT rounds, which was becoming stronger and stronger by the years.
 
The project for the Leopard started as far back as 1956 as an attempt to replace the American [[M41 (90 mm)|M47]] and [[M48A1|M48 Patton]] tanks in service at the time as they were becoming outdated to newer anti-tank technology. Specifications for the new tank came in July 1957 asking for a design weighing no more than 30 tons, with a power-to-weight ratio of 30 horsepower per ton and could withstand 20 mm gunfire alongside protection against chemical weapons and radiation fallout, which was becoming extremely common protection system for the modern tank designs. The design stressed mobility as the main focus, while firepower comes next and armour was relegated to minimum priority. The lack of focus on the armour was because of the belief that no matter how much armour a tank can have, it will eventually fall obsolete to the advent of newer anti-tank weapons such as the HEAT rounds, which was becoming stronger and stronger by the years.
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===Usage===
 
===Usage===
After the first delivery, many upgrades were made on the tank throughout its production and service life. The first few Leopards were designated ''Leopard 1A1'' and continued all the way to ''Leopard 1A6'' as it incorporates new technology such as sights, gun, radios, armor, or even small upgrades or redesigns on some parts. Some of these Leopards are even upgraded further in each variant form, for example, the ''[[Leopard A1A1|Leopard 1A1A1]]'' which had it fitted with new turret armor and night sights. Other than the different variants, the Leopard 1 was also extensively modified or made into derivatives in roles such as anti-aircraft guns, armor recovery vehicles, bridge layers, and such.
+
After the first delivery, many upgrades were made on the tank throughout its production and service life. The first few Leopards were designated ''Leopard 1A1'' and continued all the way to ''Leopard 1A6'' as it incorporates new technology such as sights, gun, radios, armour, or even small upgrades or redesigns on some parts. Some of these Leopards are even upgraded further in each variant form, for example, the ''[[Leopard A1A1|Leopard 1A1A1]]'' which had it fitted with new turret armour and night sights. Other than the different variants, the Leopard 1 was also extensively modified or made into derivatives in roles such as anti-aircraft guns, armour recovery vehicles, bridge layers, and such.
  
 
The versatility of the Leopard 1 design and its rather cheap cost in comparison to other tanks at the time made it a useful tank and it was sought out by many different countries in and out of the NATO force group. These countries put them into service in the conflict, such as Denmark, which is believed to be the first country to use the Leopard 1 in hostile engagement, when going against Bosnian Serb forces. Canada also used the Leopard 1C2 in the War in Afghanistan from 2006-2011. Greece also had Leopard 1s and is the largest user of it, with over 500 units of ''Leopard 1A5s'' still in service.
 
The versatility of the Leopard 1 design and its rather cheap cost in comparison to other tanks at the time made it a useful tank and it was sought out by many different countries in and out of the NATO force group. These countries put them into service in the conflict, such as Denmark, which is believed to be the first country to use the Leopard 1 in hostile engagement, when going against Bosnian Serb forces. Canada also used the Leopard 1C2 in the War in Afghanistan from 2006-2011. Greece also had Leopard 1s and is the largest user of it, with over 500 units of ''Leopard 1A5s'' still in service.
  
The Leopard 1 versatility and widespread use compared to other tanks in the NATO service made it a very useful weapon system for armies that couldn't afford the new American Pattons or Abrams tanks or the British Challengers and [[Chieftain Mk 3|Chieftains]]. The Leopard 1 in German service was eventually replaced by the Leopard 2 design, which entered into service in 1979 as the main battle tank with better armor and better gun compared to the Leopard 1, fully replacing it in 2003. Other countries followed suit by upgrading their tanks to either the Leopard 2, the American M1 Abrams, or their own domestic tank designs. The vehicle in its various modernized forms is still operated by third parties such as , Brazil, Turkey, and Greece. Some are kept in reserve in Chile and Ecuador due to their light frames and ease of use in soft soils like in the jungles in their countries.
+
The Leopard 1 versatility and widespread use compared to other tanks in the NATO service made it a very useful weapon system for armies that couldn't afford the new American Pattons or Abrams tanks or the British Challengers and [[Chieftain Mk 3|Chieftains]]. The Leopard 1 in German service was eventually replaced by the Leopard 2 design, which entered into service in 1979 as the main battle tank with better armour and better gun compared to the Leopard 1, fully replacing it in 2003. Other countries followed suit by upgrading their tanks to either the Leopard 2, the American M1 Abrams, or their own domestic tank designs. The vehicle in its various modernized forms is still operated by third parties such as , Brazil, Turkey, and Greece. Some are kept in reserve in Chile and Ecuador due to their light frames and ease of use in soft soils like in the jungles in their countries.
  
 
In 1974, the Australian government purchased 101 Leopard 1 tanks (90 MBTs, 5 bridge-laying variants, and 6 recovery vehicles). the first leopard 1s arrived in Australia in 1976 and served with the 1st Armoured Regiment. The Leopard 1 was retired from service in July 2007.
 
In 1974, the Australian government purchased 101 Leopard 1 tanks (90 MBTs, 5 bridge-laying variants, and 6 recovery vehicles). the first leopard 1s arrived in Australia in 1976 and served with the 1st Armoured Regiment. The Leopard 1 was retired from service in July 2007.
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Canada received 127 Leopard 1 C1 tanks in 1978-1979 to replace the Centurion tank. starting in 2000, the Canadian government upgraded the Leopard 1 C1 to Leopard 1 C2. the Leopard C2 is now obsolete and the Canadian government has opted to use the Leopard 2.
 
Canada received 127 Leopard 1 C1 tanks in 1978-1979 to replace the Centurion tank. starting in 2000, the Canadian government upgraded the Leopard 1 C1 to Leopard 1 C2. the Leopard C2 is now obsolete and the Canadian government has opted to use the Leopard 2.
  
In 1976, Denmark acquired 120 Leopard 1A3 tanks. Denmark acquired another 110 Leopard 1A3 tanks in 1992, and upgraded all for a total of 230 Leopard 1A5-DKs tanks. Denmark no longer uses Leopard 1 tanks as an MBT (replaced by leopard 2), but still uses an armored recovery vehicle variant.
+
In 1976, Denmark acquired 120 Leopard 1A3 tanks. Denmark acquired another 110 Leopard 1A3 tanks in 1992, and upgraded all for a total of 230 Leopard 1A5-DKs tanks. Denmark no longer uses Leopard 1 tanks as an MBT (replaced by leopard 2), but still uses an armoured recovery vehicle variant.
  
 
Germany used a total of 2,437 Leopard 1 tanks, of various variants. The remaining Leopard 1s are in storage, replaced by the Leopard 2.
 
Germany used a total of 2,437 Leopard 1 tanks, of various variants. The remaining Leopard 1s are in storage, replaced by the Leopard 2.
  
From 1971-1985, Italy obtained (Purchased from other countries or Built under license) 920 Leopard 1 tanks and 250 Special Variants. Italian Leopard 1 MBTs were retired from service by 2008, and are replaced with the native Italian C1-Ariele tank. Armored recovery vehicles and bridge-laying variants remain in service.
+
From 1971-1985, Italy obtained (Purchased from other countries or Built under license) 920 Leopard 1 tanks and 250 Special Variants. Italian Leopard 1 MBTs were retired from service by 2008, and are replaced with the native Italian C1-Ariele tank. Armoured recovery vehicles and bridge-laying variants remain in service.
  
The Netherlands operated 468 Leopard 1 tanks, and are replaced with Leopard 2 tanks. Armored recovery vehicles and bridge-laying variants remain in service.
+
The Netherlands operated 468 Leopard 1 tanks, and are replaced with Leopard 2 tanks. Armoured recovery vehicles and bridge-laying variants remain in service.
  
Norway operated 172 Leopard 1 tanks, the last Leopard 1 decommissioned in 2011, and are replaced with Leopard 2 tanks. Armored recovery vehicles and bridge-laying variants remain in service.
+
Norway operated 172 Leopard 1 tanks, the last Leopard 1 decommissioned in 2011, and are replaced with Leopard 2 tanks. Armoured recovery vehicles and bridge-laying variants remain in service.
  
 
Brazil currently operates 128 Leopard 1BE and 250 Leopard 1A5.
 
Brazil currently operates 128 Leopard 1BE and 250 Leopard 1A5.
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Chile used to operate 202 Leopard 1V, but sold some and currently have 120 in service.
 
Chile used to operate 202 Leopard 1V, but sold some and currently have 120 in service.
  
Equador purchased all 60 of their Leopard tanks from Chile.
+
Ecuador purchased all 60 of their Leopard tanks from Chile.
  
 
Greece bought 104 Leopard 1A3s in 1983. during 1992, Greece received a further 75 Leopard 1A5. Greece purchased another 192 used Leopard 1A5s. Greece is now the current operator of the most Leopard 1 tank.
 
Greece bought 104 Leopard 1A3s in 1983. during 1992, Greece received a further 75 Leopard 1A5. Greece purchased another 192 used Leopard 1A5s. Greece is now the current operator of the most Leopard 1 tank.
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=== In-game description ===
 
=== In-game description ===
"Development of the tank began in 1957 in cooperation with France. However, this attempt to create a unified European tank was unsuccessful. The projects in both countries were conducted virtually in parallel, but in 1963, before the end of comparative testing of the French and German tanks, Germany declined to cooperate further with France. Each country began to build its own national tank — the Leopard in Germany, the AMX-30 in France.
+
Development of the tank began in 1957 in cooperation with France. However, this attempt to create a unified European tank was unsuccessful. The projects in both countries were conducted virtually in parallel, but in 1963, before the end of comparative testing of the French and German tanks, Germany declined to cooperate further with France. Each country began to build its own national tank — the Leopard in Germany, the AMX-30 in France.
  
 
During the development of the Leopard 1 among all combat characteristics preference was given to firepower and mobility. Later, due to the German engineers' changing perspective on the significance of tank defenses in modern combat, a number of steps were taken to increase it.
 
During the development of the Leopard 1 among all combat characteristics preference was given to firepower and mobility. Later, due to the German engineers' changing perspective on the significance of tank defenses in modern combat, a number of steps were taken to increase it.
The first production order of 1,500 tanks was placed in 1963, and in September, 1965 the first serial Leopard 1 was delivered to the Bundeswehr."
+
 
 +
The first production order of 1,500 tanks was placed in 1963, and in September, 1965 the first serial Leopard 1 was delivered to the Bundeswehr.
  
 
== Media ==
 
== Media ==

Latest revision as of 11:22, 23 February 2021

RANK 4 FRANCE
Somua SM PACK
This page is about the German medium tank Leopard I. For other uses, see Leopard (Family).
germ_leopard_i.png
GarageImage Leopard I.jpg
Leopard I
AB RB SB
7.3 7.3 7.3
Class:
Research:160 000 Specs-Card-Exp.png
Purchase:390 000 Specs-Card-Lion.png
Show in game

Description

The Leopard I is a rank V German medium tank with a battle rating of 7.3 (AB/RB/SB). It was introduced in Update 1.51 "Cold Steel".

The main strengths of the Leopard I are its high mobility and the above-average rate of fire of the main cannon. In combination with a good gun depression of -9° (meaning, you can lower the gun quite extensively), an experienced Leopard I driver can exploit uneven terrain to effectively fight his enemies without showing much of his vehicle - or being in the inconvenient situation to leave his cover to return fire.

The MG3A1 is rapid firing rifle calibre GPMG equipped in a coaxial and pintle mount, but otherwise of little use against armoured vehicles. The occasional open top SPAA can be harassed, although some of the crew won't be accessible without a good angle. Most annoying on the ZSU-57-2 with its tall crew shielding and more than 13 mm of armour. Therefore just above the machine gun's penetration ability at 10 m.

Considering everything, the Leopard 1 is not a bad vehicle in the right hands - unfortunately, the lack of a stabilizer and extremely sub-par armour will result in many less experienced players struggling to perform well when many of their opponents will have better, often stabilised guns and armour

General info

Survivability and armour

Smoke grenades
Creation of a smoke screen in front of the vehicle
Armourfront / side / back
Hull70 / 35 / 25
Turret65 / 45 / 52
Crew4 people
Visibility96 %

The Leopard's armour is not thick enough in the game to defend itself from most incoming fire, as many shell types at its battle rating are able to easily penetrate and destroy the tank. The Leopard 1 was originally built with a "perfect standard tank" idea, similar to the Main Battle Tank concept, as during its development, the armour has been considered an expendable quality and that superior speed and firepower is most important. Therefore the Leopard's armour design was only meant to withstand 20 mm calibres from the front. A big threat is the ZSU-57-2, which gives any Leopard 1 a hard time with its high rate of fire of effective 57 mm AP rounds.

Armour type:

  • Rolled homogeneous armour (Hull, Turret roof)
  • Cast homogeneous armour (Turret)
Armour Front (Slope angle) Sides (Slope angle) Rear Roof
Hull 70 mm (60°) Front glacis
50 mm (51°) Bottom glacis
35 (40-42°) mm Top hull side
30 mm Bottom hull side
25 mm (12-47°) 30 mm Front area
15 mm Rear area
Turret 65 mm Turret front
45 - 200 mm Gun mantlet
37-45 mm (28-31°) 25-52 mm (26-72°) 25-35 mm Turret roof
20 mm Cupola area

Notes:

  • Suspension wheels and tracks are 20 mm thick.
  • The turret mantlet has varying thicknesses ranging from 45 - 200 mm. It is thickest near the centre in contrast to the borders where it is the thinnest.

Mobility

Speedforward / back
AB73 / 29 km/h
RB and SB66 / 26 km/h
Number of gears7 forward
2 back
Weight40.0 t
Engine power
AB1 584 hp
RB and SB830 hp
Power-to-weight ratio
AB39.6 hp/t
RB and SB20.8 hp/t
Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Forward Reverse Stock Upgraded Stock Upgraded
Arcade 73 29 40 1,286 1584 32.15 39.6
Realistic 66 26 734 830 18.35 20.75

The Leopard I is powered by a MTU MB 838 CaM-500 engine, which produces a total of 830 hp (610 kW) at around 2,200-2,300 RPM. The mobility is between the XM-1 (GM) and the T-55AM-1. Expect a speed of 40-50 km/h off-road. The reverse is about -15 km/h off-road. The neutral steering is amazing, you are able to swivel your tank easily. The suspensions are also great, very soft with great dampening effects, and give the tank a smooth drive. Overall, mobility is excellent and should be used to your advantage since the tank has limited armour.

Modifications and economy

Repair costBasic → Reference
AB4 200 → 6 249 Sl icon.png
RB3 400 → 5 059 Sl icon.png
SB4 300 → 6 398 Sl icon.png
Total cost of modifications124 400 Rp icon.png
189 000 Sl icon.png
Talisman cost2 200 Ge icon.png
Crew training110 000 Sl icon.png
Experts390 000 Sl icon.png
Aces1 300 Ge icon.png
Research Aces780 000 Rp icon.png
Reward for battleAB / RB / SB
120 / 150 / 180 % Sl icon.png
202 / 202 / 202 % Rp icon.png
Modifications
Mobility Protection Firepower
Mods new tank traks.png
Tracks
Research:
6 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 500 Sl icon.png
220 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank suspension.png
Suspension
Research:
5 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
8 600 Sl icon.png
200 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank break.png
Brake System
Research:
5 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
8 600 Sl icon.png
200 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank filter.png
Filters
Research:
8 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
12 000 Sl icon.png
270 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank transmission.png
Transmission
Research:
8 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
12 000 Sl icon.png
280 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank engine.png
Engine
Research:
8 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
12 000 Sl icon.png
280 Ge icon.png
Mods tank tool kit.png
Parts
Research:
4 200 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 500 Sl icon.png
220 Ge icon.png
Mods extinguisher.png
FPE
Research:
3 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
8 600 Sl icon.png
200 Ge icon.png
Mods tank reinforcement ger.png
Crew Replenishment
Research:
8 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
12 000 Sl icon.png
270 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank horizontal aiming.png
Horizontal Drive
Research:
6 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 500 Sl icon.png
220 Ge icon.png
Mods smoke screen.png
Smoke grenade
Research:
6 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 500 Sl icon.png
220 Ge icon.png
Mods tank cannon.png
Adjustment of Fire
Research:
5 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
8 600 Sl icon.png
200 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
105mm_usa_HESH_ammo_pack
Research:
5 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
8 600 Sl icon.png
200 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank vertical aiming.png
Elevation Mechanism
Research:
8 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
12 000 Sl icon.png
270 Ge icon.png
Mods night vision device.png
NVD
Research:
8 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
12 000 Sl icon.png
270 Ge icon.png
Mods art support.png
Artillery Support
Research:
8 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
12 000 Sl icon.png
280 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
105mm_usa_HEAT_FS_ammo_pack
Research:
8 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
12 000 Sl icon.png
280 Ge icon.png
Mods tank rangefinder.png
Rangefinder
Research:
8 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
12 000 Sl icon.png
280 Ge icon.png

Armaments

Rangefinder
Reduces the error and increases the maximum measurable distance of the rangefinder
Night vision device
Improves visibility by enhancing natural light or active illumination.

Main armament

Ammunition60 rounds
First-order14 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
8.7 → 6.7 s
Vertical guidance-9° / 20°
Main article: L7A3 (105 mm)
105 mm L7A3 Turret rotation speed (°/s) Reloading rate (seconds)
Mode Capacity Vertical Horizontal Stabilizer Stock Upgraded Full Expert Aced Stock Full Expert Aced
Arcade 60 -9°/+20° ±180° N/A 22.8 31.6 38.4 42.5 45.2 8.71 7.70 7.10 6.70
Realistic 14.3 16.8 20.4 22.6 24.0

Ammunition

DM13 APDS (Armour-Piercing Discarding Sabot) will comfortably penetrate the armour of most foes; be aware however that some vehicles such as the IS-4 or M103 are only vulnerable in specific weak spots. APDS rounds do require some finesse with their placement, and because of the lack of explosive filler, unless you're confident you can destroy the enemy before they can respond, you should attempt to disable their weaponry first to ensure your own safety. Against targets with known ammunition storage, it's possible to try to detonate it with a well-placed shot; keep in mind, however, that ammo detonations always occur with a random chance, taking out crew members is more reliable to destroy your enemies. This, of course, requires knowledge about the vehicles you may face - so be sure to use the game's X-Ray view in the hangar and analyse your potential foes for their weak spots! Also, keep in mind that with increased armour thickness the amount of shrapnels shrinks.

DM502 HESH (High-Explosive Squash-Head) works very differently than other shell types. It ignores any angle, except for ricochet and deals damage by metal-flakes which are blown off inside the armour by the exterior explosion. To create this deadly shrapnel inside the tank, make sure to only hit armour plates which are directly adjacent to the interior crew compartment of the tank. Hitting exterior parts of a tank like spaced armour, the suspension, tracks etc. will not harm crew members/modules at all. Unfortunately, HESH is particularly ineffective against particularly high true armour values (as opposed to high 'effective' armour values sourced from highly angled but thin armour - HESH loves angles!). Like all high-explosive shells, the fuse is very sensitive and can be set-off by most objects e.g. fences, trees, shrubbery. The low muzzle velocity of this shell can make it quite hard to hit targets at larger distances, although an experienced tanker may be able to use this to their advantage by lobbing a round over a small defilade or hill. It's also worth noting that HESH can be rather unreliable at times; it's best used as a fall-back ammo, or saved for particularly lightly armoured targets.

DM12 HEAT-FS (High-Explosive Anti Tank Fin Stabilised): Knowledge of potential opponents vehicle layouts can be very handy - as you now have a round at your disposal that can penetrate essentially any vehicle's armour frontally. Like the APDS shot, increased armour thickness results in a reduced amount of shrapnel after penetration. You are able to take out enemies on any distance since the HEAT round does not lose penetration effectiveness with distance - very handy on big scaled maps like Kursk. There is, however, a significant downside to HEATFS: Given that it is a chemical energy round, its fuse is highly sensitive in regards to its practical application in battle. As a result, virtually anything, such as trees or even a fence, will set it off prematurely, so you cannot fire through obstructions with this kind of round. It's often a good idea to clear bushes and fences with your machine guns quickly before taking a shot. Finally, the HEATFS round is relatively expensive in terms of SL, so keep that in mind when loading up.

Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)
10 m 100 m 500 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m
DM13 APDS 303 302 296 277 257 252
DM502 HESH 127 127 127 127 127 127
DM12 HEATFS 400 400 400 400 400 400
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Fuse delay
(m)
Fuse sensitivity
(mm)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
Ricochet
0% 50% 100%
DM13 APDS 1,478 4 N/A N/A N/A 75° 78° 80°
DM502 HESH 732 14.85 0.05 0.1 4,310 73° 77° 80°
DM12 HEATFS 1,173 10.5 0.05 0.1 1,270 65° 72° 77°

Ammo racks

Ammo racks of the Leopard I
Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
4th
rack empty
5th
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
60 58 (+2) 47 (+13) 43 (+17) 40 (+20) (+59) No

Note:

  • Turret empty: 47 (+13)

Machine guns

Ammunition5 500 rounds
Belt capacity1 000 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
10.4 → 8.0 s
Fire rate1 200 shots/min
Ammunition2 000 rounds
Belt capacity1 000 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
10.4 → 8.0 s
Fire rate1 200 shots/min
Main article: MG3A1 (7.62 mm)

The Leopard I mounts one coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and one pintle-mounted 7.62 mm machine gun. These both have particularly high rates of fire, and can be used as a deterrent for close air support as well as clearing light obstacles and crew in open-top vehicles.

7.62 mm MG3A1
Mount Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal
Coaxial 5,500 (1,000) 1,200 N/A N/A
Pintle 2,000 (1,000) 1,200 -8°/+20° ±120°

Usage in battles

Scan and use the terrain to your advantage. Take into consideration the moderate vehicle height, which allows you to go turret down in certain locations, allowing you to safely use your commander's binoculars to locate targets. Then, after you have located the enemy, fire a few rounds in quick succession and relocate when spotted, especially when the enemy shots come dangerously close. The Leopard is quite fast, so taking hits from a distance while on the move is a risk that you may consider worth taking.

Always remember: The Leopard is not designed to take hits from any guns, nor fight in stand-off situations against heavier enemy vehicles. Frontally, the angle of the hull can bounce shots once in a while, but you're better off not to rely on this. The turret front is also the same, it's best to attempt to only fire when you can avoid receiving a shot or relocating to a position if possible. The main goal is to make the opponent incapable of returning fire. The majority of Russian rank V tanks (IS-3, IS-4M, T-10M, T-54s, SU-122-54, T-62 or ZSU-57-2) gunners are disabled by penetrating the right side of the turret or hull, if they are faced towards you. If you have the possibility to hit a Russian tank's hull, which is again faced towards you, prioritize it, because it is likely to take it out with one shot to the right side of the hull (3 out of 4 crew member are sitting in a row), this does not work with the stock APDS round due to the poor damage output. American top rank tanks like the M103, M47 or M60 are harder to take out. It is advised to take out the gunner first, which is located in the left side of the turret and then take out the rest of the remaining crew members. Hitting the ammo rack of your opponent is often the fastest way to take out an enemy vehicle, keep in mind though there is a small chance the ammo will not blow up (Best ammo types to ammo rack: HEAT-FS > HESH > APDS).

Leopard I engaging a T-55AM on Cargo Port

Sometimes moving is not an option, but remember, directly behind your hull front sits a large portion of your ammunition, at least if you're fully loaded. Always have that in mind when positioning yourself against the enemy - and don't forget that you don't have to stack all of your ammunition racks to their maximum capacity! Sometimes it can be wise to take less ammunition with you, as it will increase your survivability when taking hits - especially with the Leopard. The Leopards worst nemesis is the ZSU-57-2 and the IT-1. The ZSU-57-2 can be easily destroyed by hitting one of the many ammo racks in the big turret, which often leads to an explosion of the whole tank. The IT-1 on the other hand can be quite hard to deal with, since they are able to operate perfectly hull down only exposing the roof mounted ATGM. Destroying (only black damage status counts, red damage does not prevent from firing ATGM) the rocket mount/cannon barrel forces the IT-1 to repair for a whole 27 seconds (maxed out + expert crew).

The Leopard 1 holds a distinct advantage over almost every other tank it will face - it's almost always faster. While in a direct shoot-out, most other vehicles can take out the Leopard, using the mobility advantage of the Leopard will allow a good tanker to get into an advantageous position and take out targets before they get the opportunity to respond. However, ensure you are aware of your surroundings and have a fall-back option: getting caught off guard on the back of a hill with nowhere to back off to and with no real support is a death sentence.

Depending on the map and opponents, ammunition choices may vary however usually it's ideal to have HEATFS as primary ammunition (reasonably easy to use at range, reliable penetration values), APDS as a backup (extremely easy to use at range, particularly with the Leo's excellent optics) and a couple of HESH rounds to deal with any light targets you might encounter. Try to keep round storage to a minimum but keep in mind that with these ammunition choices often it will take a number of rounds to guarantee a destroyed target.

In a nutshell: Use the superb mobility with the cannon's perfection to flank and spank enemies, wait and hunt for the perfect positions and pick off the enemy tanks one by one, while always maintaining a good situational awareness. Patience is the key to success.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Fast and very agile when fully upgraded
  • High-penetration APDS and HEAT rounds
  • HESH rounds extremely effective against light targets
  • Reasonably fast reload time, can be reduced to 6.7 seconds
  • Good gun elevation and depression
  • Reasonably good turret traverse rate
  • Access to smoke grenades
  • Relatively small, moderately low profile
  • Excellent reverse speed
  • A well coordinated squad of Leopards can effectively take over a match
  • Potential to be an extremely efficient vehicle in the right hands
  • Some parts of the turret (mainly the mantlet) can bounce rounds from the right angles
  • Reasonably low repair cost

Cons:

  • Essentially non-existent armour that can't stop any more than 20 mm rounds reliably
  • No main gun stabiliser
  • Tankers unaccustomed to APDS may struggle with the stock vehicle
  • Stock accuracy is sub-par
  • HEATFS shells are expensive at 920 SL
  • Does not have the HESH round when stock
  • Like all MBTs, there is ammunition stored adjacent to the driver
  • 4-man crew complement, reasonably close-packed
  • Easy prey for high-calibre autocannons such as those found on the ZSU-57-2
  • HEATFS and APDS rounds have sub-par post-penetration effectiveness, often taking multiple rounds to destroy vehicles

History

Development

The project for the Leopard started as far back as 1956 as an attempt to replace the American M47 and M48 Patton tanks in service at the time as they were becoming outdated to newer anti-tank technology. Specifications for the new tank came in July 1957 asking for a design weighing no more than 30 tons, with a power-to-weight ratio of 30 horsepower per ton and could withstand 20 mm gunfire alongside protection against chemical weapons and radiation fallout, which was becoming extremely common protection system for the modern tank designs. The design stressed mobility as the main focus, while firepower comes next and armour was relegated to minimum priority. The lack of focus on the armour was because of the belief that no matter how much armour a tank can have, it will eventually fall obsolete to the advent of newer anti-tank weapons such as the HEAT rounds, which was becoming stronger and stronger by the years.

In the initial stages of development, France and West Germany, interested in this tank design, worked on it from 1957 to build a common tank and the project was designated the Europa-Panzer. France had AMX, SLD Lorraine, and SOMUA with FCM Renault working on the project, while Germany had Porsche, Rheinmetall with Henschel, and Borgward working on the project. In 1958, Italy entered into the development as well, though it's not sure if they provided much to the program. By 1960, Porsche and Rheinmetall had prototypes submitted, as well as AMX from France, all the others failed to provide a prototype in time. In 1963, the Porsche prototype was selected as the winner in 1963, though even before this decision the vehicle already has priority in being built in greater number than the others. Though a tank is set, France and Germany split in the joint tank project in 1963 after France opted out of standardization with the NATO forces. This left Germany alone with their Leopard tank development, which they continued.

The Porsche Prototype II was well received, though changes were made to the design such as a new cast turret, hull design change, and relocating the radiators. The tank now mounted the 105mm L7 gun over the Rheinmetall design, as well as adding an optical range-finding system for increased gunnery. The design finished trials by the end of 1963 and production started in Munich in February of 1964. The first batches began arriving at the Bundeswehr (German Army) in September of 1965 and were put into units by November of that same year. The tank was finally designated the Leopard 1, with the prototype stage labelled as the Leopard 1A0.

Usage

After the first delivery, many upgrades were made on the tank throughout its production and service life. The first few Leopards were designated Leopard 1A1 and continued all the way to Leopard 1A6 as it incorporates new technology such as sights, gun, radios, armour, or even small upgrades or redesigns on some parts. Some of these Leopards are even upgraded further in each variant form, for example, the Leopard 1A1A1 which had it fitted with new turret armour and night sights. Other than the different variants, the Leopard 1 was also extensively modified or made into derivatives in roles such as anti-aircraft guns, armour recovery vehicles, bridge layers, and such.

The versatility of the Leopard 1 design and its rather cheap cost in comparison to other tanks at the time made it a useful tank and it was sought out by many different countries in and out of the NATO force group. These countries put them into service in the conflict, such as Denmark, which is believed to be the first country to use the Leopard 1 in hostile engagement, when going against Bosnian Serb forces. Canada also used the Leopard 1C2 in the War in Afghanistan from 2006-2011. Greece also had Leopard 1s and is the largest user of it, with over 500 units of Leopard 1A5s still in service.

The Leopard 1 versatility and widespread use compared to other tanks in the NATO service made it a very useful weapon system for armies that couldn't afford the new American Pattons or Abrams tanks or the British Challengers and Chieftains. The Leopard 1 in German service was eventually replaced by the Leopard 2 design, which entered into service in 1979 as the main battle tank with better armour and better gun compared to the Leopard 1, fully replacing it in 2003. Other countries followed suit by upgrading their tanks to either the Leopard 2, the American M1 Abrams, or their own domestic tank designs. The vehicle in its various modernized forms is still operated by third parties such as , Brazil, Turkey, and Greece. Some are kept in reserve in Chile and Ecuador due to their light frames and ease of use in soft soils like in the jungles in their countries.

In 1974, the Australian government purchased 101 Leopard 1 tanks (90 MBTs, 5 bridge-laying variants, and 6 recovery vehicles). the first leopard 1s arrived in Australia in 1976 and served with the 1st Armoured Regiment. The Leopard 1 was retired from service in July 2007.

The Belgian army received 334 Leopard 1s, equipping 8 tank regiments with 40 Leopard 1s each. The Belgian Leopards were retired from service in 2014.

Canada received 127 Leopard 1 C1 tanks in 1978-1979 to replace the Centurion tank. starting in 2000, the Canadian government upgraded the Leopard 1 C1 to Leopard 1 C2. the Leopard C2 is now obsolete and the Canadian government has opted to use the Leopard 2.

In 1976, Denmark acquired 120 Leopard 1A3 tanks. Denmark acquired another 110 Leopard 1A3 tanks in 1992, and upgraded all for a total of 230 Leopard 1A5-DKs tanks. Denmark no longer uses Leopard 1 tanks as an MBT (replaced by leopard 2), but still uses an armoured recovery vehicle variant.

Germany used a total of 2,437 Leopard 1 tanks, of various variants. The remaining Leopard 1s are in storage, replaced by the Leopard 2.

From 1971-1985, Italy obtained (Purchased from other countries or Built under license) 920 Leopard 1 tanks and 250 Special Variants. Italian Leopard 1 MBTs were retired from service by 2008, and are replaced with the native Italian C1-Ariele tank. Armoured recovery vehicles and bridge-laying variants remain in service.

The Netherlands operated 468 Leopard 1 tanks, and are replaced with Leopard 2 tanks. Armoured recovery vehicles and bridge-laying variants remain in service.

Norway operated 172 Leopard 1 tanks, the last Leopard 1 decommissioned in 2011, and are replaced with Leopard 2 tanks. Armoured recovery vehicles and bridge-laying variants remain in service.

Brazil currently operates 128 Leopard 1BE and 250 Leopard 1A5.

Chile used to operate 202 Leopard 1V, but sold some and currently have 120 in service.

Ecuador purchased all 60 of their Leopard tanks from Chile.

Greece bought 104 Leopard 1A3s in 1983. during 1992, Greece received a further 75 Leopard 1A5. Greece purchased another 192 used Leopard 1A5s. Greece is now the current operator of the most Leopard 1 tank.

Lebanon purchased 43 Belgian Leopard 1A5.

Turkey bought and upgraded 170 Leopard 1A1 tanks and upgraded all to Leopard 1T 'Volkan'. Turkey also purchased 227 A3 variants.

In-game description

Development of the tank began in 1957 in cooperation with France. However, this attempt to create a unified European tank was unsuccessful. The projects in both countries were conducted virtually in parallel, but in 1963, before the end of comparative testing of the French and German tanks, Germany declined to cooperate further with France. Each country began to build its own national tank — the Leopard in Germany, the AMX-30 in France.

During the development of the Leopard 1 among all combat characteristics preference was given to firepower and mobility. Later, due to the German engineers' changing perspective on the significance of tank defenses in modern combat, a number of steps were taken to increase it.

The first production order of 1,500 tanks was placed in 1963, and in September, 1965 the first serial Leopard 1 was delivered to the Bundeswehr.

Media

Skins
Videos

See also

Vehicles equipped with the same chassis
Vehicles equipped with the same gun
Other vehicles of similar configuration and role

External links


Germany medium tanks
  Nb.Fz.
Pz.III  Pz.III B · Pz.III E · Pz.III F · Pz.III J · Pz.III J1 · Pz.III J1 TD · Pz.III L · Pz.III M · Pz.III N
Pz.IV  Pz.IV C · Pz.IV E · Pz.IV F1 · Pz.IV F2 · Pz.IV G · Pz.IV H · Pz.IV J · Pz.Bef.Wg.IV J
Pz.V  Panther A · Panther D · Panther F · Panther G · Ersatz M10 · Panther II
Trophies  ▀M4 748 (a) · ▀T 34 747 (r)
Post-war  KPz-70 · mKPz M47 G · M48A2 C · M48A2 G A2 · M48 Super
Leopard 1  Leopard I · Leopard A1A1 · Leopard A1A1 (L/44) · Leopard 1A5 · C2A1
Leopard 2  Leopard 2K · Leopard 2A4 · Leopard 2 PL · Leopard 2A5 · Leopard 2A6