Difference between revisions of "Cromwell I"

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{{Specs-Card|code=uk_a27m_cromwell_1}}
 
{{Specs-Card|code=uk_a27m_cromwell_1}}
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{{About
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|about=medium tank '''{{PAGENAME}}'''
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|usage=other uses
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|link=Cromwell (Family)
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}}
  
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
''In the description, the first part needs to be about the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the ground vehicle in the game. Insert the screenshot of the vehicle. If the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, they will immediately understand what kind of vehicle it is talking about.''
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<!--In the description, the first part should be about the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the ground vehicle in the game. Insert a screenshot of the vehicle, so that if the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, he will immediately understand what kind of vehicle the article is talking about-->
 +
[[File:GarageImage_Cromwell I.jpg|420px|thumb|left]]
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{{break}}
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The '''{{Specs|name}}''' (or just '''{{Specs|pseudonym}}''') is a rank {{Specs|rank}} British medium tank {{Battle-rating}}. It was released along with the initial British tree line in [[Update 1.55 "Royal Armour"]].
 +
 
 +
The Cromwell Mk I uses the 6-pdr, which provides higher penetration than the 75 mm on the [[Cromwell V|Mk V]]. It is also slightly faster and more manoeuvrable, thanks to the addition of an engine governor on the Mk. V that lowered its maximum output. However, these advantages are offset by the higher BR which means the Cromwell will be facing some tanks that are a good match for the Cromwell in terms of speed, like the [[M18 GMC|M18]], and some tanks that are largely invulnerable, like the [[KV-2 (1939)|KV-2]].
 +
 
 +
The Cromwell I is one of the fastest tanks in the game, due to its Meteor engine derived from the famous Rolls-Royce Merlin of Spitfire fame. It can outrun almost every other tank, including most low-rank light tanks like the [[BT-5|BT]] [[BT-7|series]] or [[M3 Stuart|M3]], but has adequate armour for a medium tank and a reasonable gun. Generally speaking, it can easily outfight most tanks that can keep up with it, and outrun anything that is a serious threat. Just don't sit still; anyone can snipe if given the chance, and the Cromwell's armour makes it a one-hit-wonder.
  
 
== General info ==
 
== General info ==
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
''Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpfull for survival in combat?''
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<!--Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpful for survival in combat?
 +
 
 +
If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.-->
 +
'''Armour type:'''
  
''If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.''
+
* Rolled homogeneous armour
 +
* Cast homogeneous armour (Gun mantlet, Driver's port, Side armour, Compartment hull roof)
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Armour !! Front !! Sides !! Rear !! Roof
 +
|-
 +
| Hull || 63.5 mm ''Front plate'' <br> 25.4 mm (74°) ''Front glacis'' <br> 57 mm (13°) ''Joint plate'' <br> 25.4 mm (68°) ''Lower glacis'' ||'''Front compartment:''' <br>44 mm ''Upper side'' <br> 32 + 14 mm ''Lower side''
 +
 
 +
'''Engine compartment:'''<br>
 +
38 (0°) + 32 mm (34°) ''Upper side''<br>25.4 + 14 mm ''Lower side''
 +
| 32 mm (0-7°) ''Top'' <br> 20 mm (47°) ''Bottom'' || 20 mm ''Compartment''<br>14 mm ''Engine''
 +
|-
 +
| Turret || 64 mm ''Turret front'' <br> 63.5 mm ''Gun mantlet'' || 51 mm || 44 mm || 20 mm
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
'''Notes:'''
 +
 
 +
* Suspension wheels and tracks are 20 mm thick.
  
 
=== Mobility ===
 
=== Mobility ===
''Write about the mobility of the ground vehicle. Estimate the specific power and maneuverability as well as the maximum speed forward and backward.''
+
<!--Write about the mobility of the ground vehicle. Estimate the specific power and manoeuvrability, as well as the maximum speed forwards and backwards.-->
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="3" | Mobility characteristic
 +
|-
 +
! Weight (tons)
 +
! colspan="1" | Add-on Armour<br>weight (tons)
 +
! colspan="1" | Max speed (km/h)
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" | 27.0 || colspan="1" rowspan="2" | N/A || colspan="1" | 72 (AB)
 +
|-
 +
|64 (RB/SB)
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="3" | Engine power (horsepower)
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="1" | Mode
 +
!Stock
 +
!Upgraded
 +
|-
 +
|''Arcade''
 +
|930
 +
|1,145
 +
|-
 +
|''Realistic/Simulator''
 +
|531
 +
|600
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="3" | Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="1" | Mode
 +
!Stock
 +
!Upgraded
 +
|-
 +
|''Arcade''
 +
|34.44
 +
|42.41
 +
|-
 +
|''Realistic/Simulator''
 +
|19.67
 +
|22.22
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
 
== Armaments ==
 
== Armaments ==
 
=== Main armament ===
 
=== Main armament ===
''Give the reader information about the characteristics of the main gun. Assess its effectiveness in a battle based on the reloading speed, ballistics and the power of shells. Do not forget about the flexibilty of the fire, that is how quickly the cannon can be aimed at the target, open fire on it and aim at another enemy. Add a link to the main article on the gun: <code><nowiki>{{main|Name of the weapon}}</nowiki></code>. Describe in general terms the ammunition available for the main gun. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage.''
+
<!--Give the reader information about the characteristics of the main gun. Assess its effectiveness in a battle based on the reloading speed, ballistics and the power of shells. Do not forget about the flexibility of the fire, that is how quickly the cannon can be aimed at the target, open fire on it and aim at another enemy. Add a link to the main article on the gun: <code><nowiki>{{main|Name of the weapon}}</nowiki></code>. Describe in general terms the ammunition available for the main gun. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage.-->
 +
{{main|Ordnance QF 6-pounder Mk.III (57 mm)}}
  
=== Additional armament ===
+
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
''Some tanks are armed with several guns in one or more turrets. Evaluate the additional weaponry and give advice on its use. Describe the ammunition available for additional weaponry. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage. If there is no additional weaponry remove this subsection.''
+
|-
 +
! colspan="6" | [[Ordnance QF 6-pounder Mk.III (57 mm)|57 mm OQF 6-pounder Mk.III]]
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="3" rowspan="1" style="width:5em" |Capacity
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! rowspan="1" | Vertical <br> guidance
 +
! rowspan="1" | Horizontal <br> guidance
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! rowspan="1" | Stabilizer
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="3" | 75 || -12°/+20° || ±180° || Vertical
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="6" | Turret rotation speed (°/s)
 +
|-
 +
! style="width:4em" |Mode
 +
! style="width:4em" |Stock
 +
! style="width:4em" |Upgraded
 +
! style="width:4em" |Prior + Full crew
 +
! style="width:4em" |Prior + Expert qualif.
 +
! style="width:4em" |Prior + Ace qualif.
 +
|-
 +
| ''Arcade'' || 23.80 || 32.94 || _._ || _._ || 47.06
 +
|-
 +
| ''Realistic'' || 14.88 || 17.50 || _._ || _._ || 25.00
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="4" | Reloading rate (seconds)
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="1" style="width:4em" |Stock
 +
! colspan="1" style="width:4em" |Prior + Full crew
 +
! colspan="1" style="width:4em" |Prior + Expert qualif.
 +
! colspan="1" style="width:4em" |Prior + Ace qualif.
 +
|-
 +
| 5.20 || _._ || _._ || 4.00
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===== Ammunition =====
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center" width="100%"
 +
! colspan="8" | Penetration statistics
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="2" data-sort-type="text" | Ammunition
 +
! rowspan="2" class="unsortable" | Type of <br /> warhead
 +
! colspan="6" | '''Penetration''' '''''in mm''''' '''@ 0° Angle of Attack'''
 +
|-
 +
! 10m
 +
! 100m
 +
! 500m
 +
! 1000m
 +
! 1500m
 +
! 2000m
 +
|-
 +
| Shot Mk.5 || AP || 101 || 97 || 82 || 66 || 53 || 43
 +
|-
 +
| Shot Mk.5 HV || AP || 108 || 104 || 88 || 70 || 57 || 46
 +
|-
 +
| Shot Mk.8 || APC || 110 || 106 || 90 || 72 || 59 || 48
 +
|-
 +
| Shot Mk.9 || APCBC || 122 || 118 || 101 || 84 || 70 || 58
 +
|-
 +
| Shell Mk.10 || HE || 9 || 9 || 9 || 9 || 9 || 9
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center" width="100%"
 +
! colspan="11" | Shell details
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="2" data-sort-type="text" | Ammunition
 +
! rowspan="2" class="unsortable" | Type of <br /> warhead
 +
! rowspan="2" |Velocity <br /> in m/s
 +
! rowspan="2" |Projectile<br />Mass in kg
 +
! rowspan="2" | ''Fuse delay''
 +
''in m:''
 +
! rowspan="2" | ''Fuse sensitivity''
 +
''in mm:''
 +
! rowspan="2" | ''Explosive Mass in g<br /> (TNT equivalent):''
 +
! rowspan="2" | ''Normalization At 30° <br> from horizontal:''
 +
! colspan="3" | ''Ricochet:''
 +
|-
 +
! 0%
 +
! 50%
 +
! 100%
 +
|-
 +
| Shot Mk.5 || AP || 815 || 2.8 || N/A || N/A || N/A || -1° || 47° || 60° || 65°
 +
|-
 +
| Shot Mk.5 HV || AP || 853 || 2.8 || N/A || N/A || N/A || -1° || 47° || 60° || 65°
 +
|-
 +
| Shot Mk.8 || APC || 853 || 2.87 || N/A || N/A || N/A || +4° || 48° || 63° || 71°
 +
|-
 +
| Shot Mk.9 || APCBC || 801 || 3.23 || N/A || N/A || N/A || +4° || 48° || 63° || 71°
 +
|-
 +
| Shell Mk.10 || HE || 655 || 2.72 || 0.1 || 0.1 || 590 || +0° || 79° || 80° || 81°
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===== Ammo racks =====
 +
[[File:Ammoracks_CromwellV.png|right|thumbnail|x250px|[[Ammo racks|Ammo racks]] of the Cromwell V (identical).]]
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |Full<br /> ammo
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |1st<br />  rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |2nd<br />  rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |3rd<br />  rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |4th<br />  rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |5th<br />  rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |6th<br />  rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |7th<br />  rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |8th<br />  rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |Visual<br /> discrepancy
 +
|-
 +
|| '''75''' || 66&nbsp;''(+9)'' || 56&nbsp;''(+19)'' || 46&nbsp;''(+29)'' || 37&nbsp;''(+38)'' || 28&nbsp;''(+47)'' || 19&nbsp;''(+56)'' || 10&nbsp;''(+65)'' || 1&nbsp;''(+74)'' || style="text-align:left" | No
 +
|-
 +
|}
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 +
===== Optics =====
 +
<!--''Explain how the optic's status can affect the tank's gameplay in any unique or meaningful way. A comparison to rival tanks of the rank is welcome.''
 +
 
 +
''If you are having problems with it, refer to the [[Optics|optics gallery]] page for examples.''-->
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="50%"
 +
! colspan="3" | {{PAGENAME}} [[Optics]]
 +
|-
 +
! Which ones
 +
! Default magnification
 +
! Maximum magnification
 +
|-
 +
! Main Gun optics
 +
| x1.85 || x3.5 <!--Sometimes the actual value may not be known and here it should be referenced if the optic values are an estimate such as with an "X8.3 (estimated)" notation or something else that way the user will then be able to look to the comparable optics section and see a referenced optic which will have actual in-game data to back up the claim.-->
 +
|-
 +
! Comparable optics
 +
| colspan="2;" style="text-align:center;" | [[M10 GMC]]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
 
=== Machine guns ===
 
=== Machine guns ===
''Offensive and anti-aircraft machine guns not only allow you to fight some aircraft, but also are effective against lightly armoured vehicles. Evaluate machine guns and give recommendations on its use.''
+
<!--Offensive and anti-aircraft machine guns not only allow you to fight some aircraft but also are effective against lightly armoured vehicles. Evaluate machine guns and give recommendations on its use.-->
 +
{{main|BESA (7.92 mm)}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="7" | [[BESA (7.92 mm)|7.92 mm BESA]]
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="7" | ''Coaxial mount''
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="4" rowspan="1" style="width:5em" |Capacity (Belt capacity)
 +
! rowspan="1" | Fire rate <br> (shots/minute)
 +
! rowspan="1" | Vertical <br> guidance
 +
! rowspan="1" | Horizontal <br> guidance
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="4" | 4,950 (225) || 600 || N/A || N/A
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
== Usage in battles ==
 +
<!--Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but instead give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).-->
  
== Usage in the battles ==
+
The Cromwell excels in flanking attacks, especially on larger maps where it has room to manoeuvre. Circling around the enemy will almost always provide some excellent sniping encounters, just be sure to take out the gunners and then immobilize the target so they cannot simply drive to safety. It can also climb like a mountain goat, allowing it to a position in areas where tanks simply won't expect the Cromwell I.
''Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).''
 
  
 
=== Pros and cons ===
 
=== Pros and cons ===
''Summarize and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in a bulleted list. Do not use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - they have a substitution in the form of softer "inadequate", "effective".''
+
<!--Summarise and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in a bulleted list. Try not to use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - use substitutions with softer forms such as "inadequate" and "effective".-->
 +
'''Pros:'''
  
'''Pros:'''
+
* Very fast for a medium tank
*
+
* 57 mm is a good gun in dealing with many vehicles that it may face
 +
* Above 2 combined make it excellent for seizing zones and destroying the lighter tanks from other nations that are usually the first there
 +
* Great gun handling
 +
* With judicious use, the tank can often end up with the most formidable tank in a lower rank game
 +
* Can easily hide behind obstacles and surprise passing enemies with a flanking manoeuver
 +
* If played correctly, it can outflank and destroy even higher ranking tanks
 +
* Has a speed of 64 km/h on flat terrain
  
 
'''Cons:'''
 
'''Cons:'''
*
+
 
 +
* Terrible reverse speed
 +
* Neutral turning does not like any terrain sloping
 +
* Poor at peeking shots
 +
* Not well armoured when up-tiered and the 57 mm gun is marginal
 +
* Sensitive steering in forward travelling gears
 +
* Boxy, vertical armour on hull and turret makes angling critical
 +
* 57 mm struggles to penetrate sloped or angled (or both) armour. T-34s and KV-1s are an issue at this rank as they are very difficult to penetrate at long range
 +
* Gunner is frequently knocked out from frontal shots
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the ground vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too big, take it to a separate article, taking a link to an article about the vehicle and adding a block "/historical reference" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/Name-vehicles/historical reference) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to include links to sources at the end of the article.''
+
<!--Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the ground vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too long, take it to a separate article, taking a link to the article about the vehicle and adding a block "/ History" (example: <nowiki>https://wiki.warthunder.com/(Vehicle-name)/History</nowiki>) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to reference text and sources by using <code><nowiki><ref></nowiki></code>, as well as adding them at the end of the article. This section may also include the vehicle's dev blog entry (if applicable) and the in-game encyclopedia description (under <code><nowiki>=== In-game description ===</nowiki></code>, also if applicable).-->
 +
===Development===
 +
Development for the tank started back in 1940, just around the time the [[Crusader Mk II|Crusader cruiser tank]] was being put into service in the British Army. The development of a stronger cruiser tank was initiated due to the belief that that the Crusader would become obsolete in the face of more advanced German tanks as the time pass. The initial plans was for the tank to mount the OQF 6-pounder gun and was to be completed in 1942. The project was taken up by three companies who submitted their designs. Vauxhall developed the ''A23'', a scaled down [[Churchill Mk III|Churchill tank]] with 75 mm of armour and a 12-cylinder Bedford engine. Nuffield developed the ''A24'' based off the Crusader that was powered by the Liberty engine and had an advantage of being put into production quickly. Leyland and Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon developed a design that was similar to Nuffield's, but with different suspension and track designs. All these designs were examined in January 1941 and it was decided that Nuffield's A24 would become the vehicle of choice for the project. Six prototypes of the vehicle, now called ''Cromwell I'' were ordered for delivery in the Spring of 1942, but arrived four months late, with current events making the tank designs outdated. Despite that, the tank was put into production and experienced an unsatisfactory performance history as being an under-powered tank. The lack of available tanks led to the demands for more 6-pounders on the battlefield, which were used to be mounted on the older tank designs.
 +
 
 +
When Britain entered the war, Rolls-Royce stopped producing cars and set up a team to find ways to use their production lines. The team was made under Roy Robotham at Clan Foundry near the city of Belper. Meeting with Henry Spurrier of Leyland, they talked tank designs and a project began of fitting a Rolls-Royce Merlin engine onto a tank. A Leyland-built Crusader was used for the test, removing the supercharger from the engine before installing it in the tank. The result was an absurdly fast tank, able to reach a speed of 80 km/h, estimated since timing the speed runs was difficult. The impressive performance had Leyland organize a production for 1,000 units of the engine, renamed as the ''Meteor''. This plan was changed after concerns of the engine's cooling was raised, Leyland decides to produce their own version of Meteor which was weaker (350 hp) compared to the Rolls design (500 hp). Thus, the Tank Board decided to just order the engine straight from Rolls-Royce for the Meteor engine. The A24 tank design with the Meteor engine was redesignated as the A27. During the development, Leyland suggested that the tank should be made to fit both the Meteor and the American-designed Liberty engine, thus the designation expanded to A27M (Meteor) and the A27L (Liberty) and were called ''Cromwell III'' and ''Cromwell II'' respectively. Leyland's attempt at building their own engine was abandoned. The A27M tank was made into a prototype and delivered on January 1942, it proved extremely mobile with its 600 hp engine and orders were placed for both engine versions. This proved difficult due to production difficulties with the Meteor and soon Leyland took over production of both versions. Production lines for the Meteor engine continued to be strained until late 1942, where Ernest Hives of Rolls met with Spencer Wilks of the company Rover made a deal in January 1943 to exchange factories, with Rolls establishing a Meteor engine factory at Barnoldswick, Lancashire.
 +
 
 +
Production of the tank began in November 1942 with new names given out the tanks. The original A24 Cromwell I from Nuffield was renamed the ''Cavalier'', the Liberty powered Cromwell II became the ''Centaur'', and the Meteor powered Cromwell III retained the name as the '''Cromwell'''. The actual Cromwell tank production was delayed until January 1943 due to low supply of Meteor engines until the Rover factory began producing it. With more Meteor engines being produced, the Centaur tanks were often converted to use the Meteor engine, turning them into Cromwells. Field tests with the tanks took place in August to September in 1943 alongside the [[M4A2|M4A2]] and M4A4 Shermans. The tests proved the Shermans to be more reliable than the Cromwell and Centaurs, needing only about 0.03 hours of mechanical attention every mile compared to the Cromwell's 0.07 hours per mile and the Centaur's 0.08 hours per mile. The two tanks were thus given time to iron out these deficiencies, the Cromwell suffered from oil leaks along with brake and clutch failures. While the tank suffered from these defects, the crews expressed their satisfaction with the designs for their speed and handling, but the Centaur was not given the same attention as the Cromwell. The second test in November had the Cromwell perform with improved results while the Centaur was still experiencing the same problems. The production model was finalized on February 2, 1944, after a specifications for a "Battle Cromwell" came in from Leyland, which included some design changes, an increase of 6 mm on the bottom of the tank, seam welding the joints, and the standard usage of the Meteor engine and the Merritt Brown transmission. The Centaur was relegated to training roles or modified for specialist roles such as anti-aircraft guns or engineering vehicles. Total production for the A27 tank series is 4,016 tanks, of which 950 are Centaurs and 3,066 are Cromwells.
 +
 
 +
===Design===
 +
The Cromwell's frame used a riveted construction in its initial production models, but this later changed to welding. The frame was strengthened with bolted armour plates. Companies involved in the A27 production were LMS Railway, Morris Motors, Metro-Cammell, Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Company, and English Electric. Some of these models were not consistent in construction, such as some variants built with 360 mm wide tracks and some with 393 mm tracks. The suspension was a Christie suspension derived from the earlier cruiser tank designs. Four of the tanks' road wheels have shock absorbers, and no return rollers are available, the tracks are supported on the top of the large road wheels. The gearbox has five forward and one reverse gear, with the first forward gear made for confined areas and sharp turns. While the Meteor engine is capable of going faster, it is restricted to 540 hp output with a governor to avoid straining the engine and suspension. The Cromwell's armaments changed over a few times, it's initial model mounted the 6-pounder gun, but the later models [[Cromwell V|mounted the 75 mm gun]]. The adaption was easy due to the 75 mm gun being a 6-pounder bored for the larger calibre. A 7.92 mm BESA machine gun was available for coaxial firing on the turret. The armour on the Cromwell started as a 76 mm plate, which increased gradually to 83 mm and 100 mm overtime for additional protection.
 +
 
 +
The '''A27M Cromwell I''' was exactly the same as Centaur I, with the biggest difference being that it was powered with a Meteor engine. It featured a 6-pounder as its main armament, but only a few were produced before the Cromwell changed armament to the [[Ordnance QF Mk.V (75 mm)|75 mm gun]]
 +
 
 +
===Combat usage===
 +
The British, at the time of Operation Overlord, primarily service the [[M4|M4 Sherman]] as the main tank of their armoured units, only the armoured brigades of the 7th Armoured Division were equipped with the Cromwell tanks. Although the Cromwell also saw use as armoured reconnaissance regiments in other British divisions such as the Guards Armoured Division and the 11th Armoured Division. Compared to the Sherman, the Cromwell was much faster, so fast that it earned the title as the fastest British tank in World War II. The Cromwell also presented a smaller profile, making it a lower target, and has a thicker frontal armour plate. However, the Cromwell's armour was not sloping, was not as reliable in comparison to the Sherman, and a slightly smaller crew space inside the tank. Nevertheless, the Cromwell proved very mobile and effective on the battlefield alongside the Sherman, often outflanking German armour with their superior speed to hit the tanks on their sides or rear. Since the Cromwells are not able to mount the larger and more powerful 17-pounder and a derivative, the [[Challenger|A30 Challenger]], met with production issues, Cromwell units were equipped with [[Sherman Firefly|Sherman Fireflies]] in order to supplement the firepower of the 17-pounder. Later in the war, these units began to be succeeded by the [[Comet I|Comet tank]] which had more armour and a more powerful 77 mm gun derived from the 17-pounder.
 +
 
 +
During the war, the Cromwell chassis was used in various specialized roles on the battlefield. The ''A30 Challenger'' is a tank design that attempted to mount the 17-pounder on a lengthened Cromwell chassis, the ''[[Avenger|A30 SP Avenger]]'' was another attempt to equip the 17-pounder, but used a lighter turret instead. Some were made into observation posts or command tanks. The Centaur saw a wider conversion with some becoming engineering vehicles, armoured recovery vehicles, and armoured personnel carriers. After the war, the British attempted to up-gun the Cromwell into the ''[[Charioteer Mk VII|Charioteer]]'', which was designed in the 1950s to supplement tank units before the [[Centurion Mk 3|Centurion]] was mass-issued.
 +
 
 +
The Cromwells were also given out to Allied units such as the 1st Polish Armoured Division and the 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade. These units served in Northern Europe with the Allies as they breakthrough deeper into Europe. After World War II, some Cromwell stayed in service and saw service in the Korean War with the 7th Royal Tank Regiment and the 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars. The Cromwells also were given to Greece, where it had the distinction of being the first tank put into service by the Greek Army. 52 Centaurs were given to Greece in 1946 to fight in the Greek Civil War, but these were stored due to lack of crews with adequate training. Formal training began in Greece began in 1947 with the return of trained officers from Britain. The Centaur saw limited service in the Greek Armoured Corps, fighting in the Greek mountains. These units kept the Centaurs up until 1963 where it was replaced by the American [[M47|M47 Pattons]].
  
 
== Media ==
 
== Media ==
''An excellent addition to the article will be video guides, as well as screenshots from the game and photos.''
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<!--''Excellent additions to the article would be video guides, screenshots from the game, and photos.''-->
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<div><ul>
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<li style="display: inline-block;"> [[File:Cromwell I desert charge.jpg|thumb|none|350px|Cromwell I in the desert.]] </li><!--
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<li style="display: inline-block;"> [[File:X.jpg|thumb|none|250px|"Image Description"]] </li>
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<li style="display: inline-block;"> [[File:X.jpg|thumb|none|250px|"Image Description"]] </li>
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<li style="display: inline-block;"> [[File:X.jpg|thumb|none|250px|"Image Description"]] </li>-->
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</ul></div>
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== See also ==
 +
''Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example:''
  
== Read also ==
 
''Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example,''
 
 
* ''reference to the series of the vehicles;''
 
* ''reference to the series of the vehicles;''
 
* ''links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.''
 
* ''links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.''
''ETC.''
 
  
== Sources ==
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== External links ==
''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
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<!--Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:
 
* ''topic on the official game forum;''
 
* ''topic on the official game forum;''
* ''other literature.''
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* ''encyclopedia page on the tank;''
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* ''other literature.''-->
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* [[wt:en/devblog/current/846/|[Devblog<nowiki>]</nowiki> Cromwell I]]
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* [[wt:en/news/3549-profile-cromwell-mk-i-en|[Vehicle Profile<nowiki>]</nowiki> Cromwell Mk I]]
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{{Britain medium tanks}}

Latest revision as of 18:30, 2 January 2020

Mark VIII A27M Cromwell I
uk_a27m_cromwell_1.png
AB
RB
SB
General characteristics
Brief
Detailed
3.7/3.7/3.7BR
5 peopleCrew
85 %Visibility
front / side / backArmour
64 / 46 / 32Hull
64 / 51 / 44Turret
Mobility
27.0 tWeight
1 145 hp600 hpEngine power
42 hp/t22 hp/tSurface density
71 km/h forward
4 km/h back
64 km/h forward
3 km/h back
Speed
Armament
57 mm 6pdr OQF Mk.III cannonMain weapon
75 roundsAmmunition
4.0 / 5.2 sReload
-12° / 20°Vertical guidance
shoulderStabilizer
7.92 mm BESA machine gunCoaxial weapon
4 950 roundsAmmunition
8.0 / 10.4 sReload
225 roundsBelt capacity
600 shots/minFire rate
Economy
14 000 Rp icon.pngResearch
55 000 Sl icon.pngPurchase
Sl icon.png1 910 / 2 607/1 500 / 2 047/940 / 1 283Repair
16 000 Sl icon.pngCrew training
55 000 Sl icon.pngExperts
270 Ge icon.pngAces
130 % Rp icon.pngReward for battle
90 % Sl icon.png110 % Sl icon.png90 % Sl icon.png
This page is about the medium tank Cromwell I. For other uses, see Cromwell (Family).

Description

GarageImage Cromwell I.jpg


The Mark VIII A27M Cromwell I (or just Cromwell I) is a rank II British medium tank with a battle rating of 3.7 (AB/RB/SB). It was released along with the initial British tree line in Update 1.55 "Royal Armour".

The Cromwell Mk I uses the 6-pdr, which provides higher penetration than the 75 mm on the Mk V. It is also slightly faster and more manoeuvrable, thanks to the addition of an engine governor on the Mk. V that lowered its maximum output. However, these advantages are offset by the higher BR which means the Cromwell will be facing some tanks that are a good match for the Cromwell in terms of speed, like the M18, and some tanks that are largely invulnerable, like the KV-2.

The Cromwell I is one of the fastest tanks in the game, due to its Meteor engine derived from the famous Rolls-Royce Merlin of Spitfire fame. It can outrun almost every other tank, including most low-rank light tanks like the BT series or M3, but has adequate armour for a medium tank and a reasonable gun. Generally speaking, it can easily outfight most tanks that can keep up with it, and outrun anything that is a serious threat. Just don't sit still; anyone can snipe if given the chance, and the Cromwell's armour makes it a one-hit-wonder.

General info

Survivability and armour

Armour type:

  • Rolled homogeneous armour
  • Cast homogeneous armour (Gun mantlet, Driver's port, Side armour, Compartment hull roof)
Armour Front Sides Rear Roof
Hull 63.5 mm Front plate
25.4 mm (74°) Front glacis
57 mm (13°) Joint plate
25.4 mm (68°) Lower glacis
Front compartment:
44 mm Upper side
32 + 14 mm Lower side

Engine compartment:
38 (0°) + 32 mm (34°) Upper side
25.4 + 14 mm Lower side

32 mm (0-7°) Top
20 mm (47°) Bottom
20 mm Compartment
14 mm Engine
Turret 64 mm Turret front
63.5 mm Gun mantlet
51 mm 44 mm 20 mm

Notes:

  • Suspension wheels and tracks are 20 mm thick.

Mobility

Mobility characteristic
Weight (tons) Add-on Armour
weight (tons)
Max speed (km/h)
27.0 N/A 72 (AB)
64 (RB/SB)
Engine power (horsepower)
Mode Stock Upgraded
Arcade 930 1,145
Realistic/Simulator 531 600
Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Mode Stock Upgraded
Arcade 34.44 42.41
Realistic/Simulator 19.67 22.22

Armaments

Main armament

57 mm OQF 6-pounder Mk.III
Capacity Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
Stabilizer
75 -12°/+20° ±180° Vertical
Turret rotation speed (°/s)
Mode Stock Upgraded Prior + Full crew Prior + Expert qualif. Prior + Ace qualif.
Arcade 23.80 32.94 _._ _._ 47.06
Realistic 14.88 17.50 _._ _._ 25.00
Reloading rate (seconds)
Stock Prior + Full crew Prior + Expert qualif. Prior + Ace qualif.
5.20 _._ _._ 4.00
Ammunition
Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration in mm @ 0° Angle of Attack
10m 100m 500m 1000m 1500m 2000m
Shot Mk.5 AP 101 97 82 66 53 43
Shot Mk.5 HV AP 108 104 88 70 57 46
Shot Mk.8 APC 110 106 90 72 59 48
Shot Mk.9 APCBC 122 118 101 84 70 58
Shell Mk.10 HE 9 9 9 9 9 9
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
in m/s
Projectile
Mass in kg
Fuse delay

in m:

Fuse sensitivity

in mm:

Explosive Mass in g
(TNT equivalent):
Normalization At 30°
from horizontal:
Ricochet:
0% 50% 100%
Shot Mk.5 AP 815 2.8 N/A N/A N/A -1° 47° 60° 65°
Shot Mk.5 HV AP 853 2.8 N/A N/A N/A -1° 47° 60° 65°
Shot Mk.8 APC 853 2.87 N/A N/A N/A +4° 48° 63° 71°
Shot Mk.9 APCBC 801 3.23 N/A N/A N/A +4° 48° 63° 71°
Shell Mk.10 HE 655 2.72 0.1 0.1 590 +0° 79° 80° 81°
Ammo racks
Ammo racks of the Cromwell V (identical).
Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
4th
rack empty
5th
rack empty
6th
rack empty
7th
rack empty
8th
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
75 66 (+9) 56 (+19) 46 (+29) 37 (+38) 28 (+47) 19 (+56) 10 (+65) (+74) No
Optics
Cromwell I Optics
Which ones Default magnification Maximum magnification
Main Gun optics x1.85 x3.5
Comparable optics M10 GMC

Machine guns

Main article: BESA (7.92 mm)
7.92 mm BESA
Coaxial mount
Capacity (Belt capacity) Fire rate
(shots/minute)
Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
4,950 (225) 600 N/A N/A

Usage in battles

The Cromwell excels in flanking attacks, especially on larger maps where it has room to manoeuvre. Circling around the enemy will almost always provide some excellent sniping encounters, just be sure to take out the gunners and then immobilize the target so they cannot simply drive to safety. It can also climb like a mountain goat, allowing it to a position in areas where tanks simply won't expect the Cromwell I.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Very fast for a medium tank
  • 57 mm is a good gun in dealing with many vehicles that it may face
  • Above 2 combined make it excellent for seizing zones and destroying the lighter tanks from other nations that are usually the first there
  • Great gun handling
  • With judicious use, the tank can often end up with the most formidable tank in a lower rank game
  • Can easily hide behind obstacles and surprise passing enemies with a flanking manoeuver
  • If played correctly, it can outflank and destroy even higher ranking tanks
  • Has a speed of 64 km/h on flat terrain

Cons:

  • Terrible reverse speed
  • Neutral turning does not like any terrain sloping
  • Poor at peeking shots
  • Not well armoured when up-tiered and the 57 mm gun is marginal
  • Sensitive steering in forward travelling gears
  • Boxy, vertical armour on hull and turret makes angling critical
  • 57 mm struggles to penetrate sloped or angled (or both) armour. T-34s and KV-1s are an issue at this rank as they are very difficult to penetrate at long range
  • Gunner is frequently knocked out from frontal shots

History

Development

Development for the tank started back in 1940, just around the time the Crusader cruiser tank was being put into service in the British Army. The development of a stronger cruiser tank was initiated due to the belief that that the Crusader would become obsolete in the face of more advanced German tanks as the time pass. The initial plans was for the tank to mount the OQF 6-pounder gun and was to be completed in 1942. The project was taken up by three companies who submitted their designs. Vauxhall developed the A23, a scaled down Churchill tank with 75 mm of armour and a 12-cylinder Bedford engine. Nuffield developed the A24 based off the Crusader that was powered by the Liberty engine and had an advantage of being put into production quickly. Leyland and Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon developed a design that was similar to Nuffield's, but with different suspension and track designs. All these designs were examined in January 1941 and it was decided that Nuffield's A24 would become the vehicle of choice for the project. Six prototypes of the vehicle, now called Cromwell I were ordered for delivery in the Spring of 1942, but arrived four months late, with current events making the tank designs outdated. Despite that, the tank was put into production and experienced an unsatisfactory performance history as being an under-powered tank. The lack of available tanks led to the demands for more 6-pounders on the battlefield, which were used to be mounted on the older tank designs.

When Britain entered the war, Rolls-Royce stopped producing cars and set up a team to find ways to use their production lines. The team was made under Roy Robotham at Clan Foundry near the city of Belper. Meeting with Henry Spurrier of Leyland, they talked tank designs and a project began of fitting a Rolls-Royce Merlin engine onto a tank. A Leyland-built Crusader was used for the test, removing the supercharger from the engine before installing it in the tank. The result was an absurdly fast tank, able to reach a speed of 80 km/h, estimated since timing the speed runs was difficult. The impressive performance had Leyland organize a production for 1,000 units of the engine, renamed as the Meteor. This plan was changed after concerns of the engine's cooling was raised, Leyland decides to produce their own version of Meteor which was weaker (350 hp) compared to the Rolls design (500 hp). Thus, the Tank Board decided to just order the engine straight from Rolls-Royce for the Meteor engine. The A24 tank design with the Meteor engine was redesignated as the A27. During the development, Leyland suggested that the tank should be made to fit both the Meteor and the American-designed Liberty engine, thus the designation expanded to A27M (Meteor) and the A27L (Liberty) and were called Cromwell III and Cromwell II respectively. Leyland's attempt at building their own engine was abandoned. The A27M tank was made into a prototype and delivered on January 1942, it proved extremely mobile with its 600 hp engine and orders were placed for both engine versions. This proved difficult due to production difficulties with the Meteor and soon Leyland took over production of both versions. Production lines for the Meteor engine continued to be strained until late 1942, where Ernest Hives of Rolls met with Spencer Wilks of the company Rover made a deal in January 1943 to exchange factories, with Rolls establishing a Meteor engine factory at Barnoldswick, Lancashire.

Production of the tank began in November 1942 with new names given out the tanks. The original A24 Cromwell I from Nuffield was renamed the Cavalier, the Liberty powered Cromwell II became the Centaur, and the Meteor powered Cromwell III retained the name as the Cromwell. The actual Cromwell tank production was delayed until January 1943 due to low supply of Meteor engines until the Rover factory began producing it. With more Meteor engines being produced, the Centaur tanks were often converted to use the Meteor engine, turning them into Cromwells. Field tests with the tanks took place in August to September in 1943 alongside the M4A2 and M4A4 Shermans. The tests proved the Shermans to be more reliable than the Cromwell and Centaurs, needing only about 0.03 hours of mechanical attention every mile compared to the Cromwell's 0.07 hours per mile and the Centaur's 0.08 hours per mile. The two tanks were thus given time to iron out these deficiencies, the Cromwell suffered from oil leaks along with brake and clutch failures. While the tank suffered from these defects, the crews expressed their satisfaction with the designs for their speed and handling, but the Centaur was not given the same attention as the Cromwell. The second test in November had the Cromwell perform with improved results while the Centaur was still experiencing the same problems. The production model was finalized on February 2, 1944, after a specifications for a "Battle Cromwell" came in from Leyland, which included some design changes, an increase of 6 mm on the bottom of the tank, seam welding the joints, and the standard usage of the Meteor engine and the Merritt Brown transmission. The Centaur was relegated to training roles or modified for specialist roles such as anti-aircraft guns or engineering vehicles. Total production for the A27 tank series is 4,016 tanks, of which 950 are Centaurs and 3,066 are Cromwells.

Design

The Cromwell's frame used a riveted construction in its initial production models, but this later changed to welding. The frame was strengthened with bolted armour plates. Companies involved in the A27 production were LMS Railway, Morris Motors, Metro-Cammell, Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Company, and English Electric. Some of these models were not consistent in construction, such as some variants built with 360 mm wide tracks and some with 393 mm tracks. The suspension was a Christie suspension derived from the earlier cruiser tank designs. Four of the tanks' road wheels have shock absorbers, and no return rollers are available, the tracks are supported on the top of the large road wheels. The gearbox has five forward and one reverse gear, with the first forward gear made for confined areas and sharp turns. While the Meteor engine is capable of going faster, it is restricted to 540 hp output with a governor to avoid straining the engine and suspension. The Cromwell's armaments changed over a few times, it's initial model mounted the 6-pounder gun, but the later models mounted the 75 mm gun. The adaption was easy due to the 75 mm gun being a 6-pounder bored for the larger calibre. A 7.92 mm BESA machine gun was available for coaxial firing on the turret. The armour on the Cromwell started as a 76 mm plate, which increased gradually to 83 mm and 100 mm overtime for additional protection.

The A27M Cromwell I was exactly the same as Centaur I, with the biggest difference being that it was powered with a Meteor engine. It featured a 6-pounder as its main armament, but only a few were produced before the Cromwell changed armament to the 75 mm gun

Combat usage

The British, at the time of Operation Overlord, primarily service the M4 Sherman as the main tank of their armoured units, only the armoured brigades of the 7th Armoured Division were equipped with the Cromwell tanks. Although the Cromwell also saw use as armoured reconnaissance regiments in other British divisions such as the Guards Armoured Division and the 11th Armoured Division. Compared to the Sherman, the Cromwell was much faster, so fast that it earned the title as the fastest British tank in World War II. The Cromwell also presented a smaller profile, making it a lower target, and has a thicker frontal armour plate. However, the Cromwell's armour was not sloping, was not as reliable in comparison to the Sherman, and a slightly smaller crew space inside the tank. Nevertheless, the Cromwell proved very mobile and effective on the battlefield alongside the Sherman, often outflanking German armour with their superior speed to hit the tanks on their sides or rear. Since the Cromwells are not able to mount the larger and more powerful 17-pounder and a derivative, the A30 Challenger, met with production issues, Cromwell units were equipped with Sherman Fireflies in order to supplement the firepower of the 17-pounder. Later in the war, these units began to be succeeded by the Comet tank which had more armour and a more powerful 77 mm gun derived from the 17-pounder.

During the war, the Cromwell chassis was used in various specialized roles on the battlefield. The A30 Challenger is a tank design that attempted to mount the 17-pounder on a lengthened Cromwell chassis, the A30 SP Avenger was another attempt to equip the 17-pounder, but used a lighter turret instead. Some were made into observation posts or command tanks. The Centaur saw a wider conversion with some becoming engineering vehicles, armoured recovery vehicles, and armoured personnel carriers. After the war, the British attempted to up-gun the Cromwell into the Charioteer, which was designed in the 1950s to supplement tank units before the Centurion was mass-issued.

The Cromwells were also given out to Allied units such as the 1st Polish Armoured Division and the 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade. These units served in Northern Europe with the Allies as they breakthrough deeper into Europe. After World War II, some Cromwell stayed in service and saw service in the Korean War with the 7th Royal Tank Regiment and the 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars. The Cromwells also were given to Greece, where it had the distinction of being the first tank put into service by the Greek Army. 52 Centaurs were given to Greece in 1946 to fight in the Greek Civil War, but these were stored due to lack of crews with adequate training. Formal training began in Greece began in 1947 with the return of trained officers from Britain. The Centaur saw limited service in the Greek Armoured Corps, fighting in the Greek mountains. These units kept the Centaurs up until 1963 where it was replaced by the American M47 Pattons.

Media

  • Cromwell I in the desert.

See also

Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example:

  • reference to the series of the vehicles;
  • links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.

External links


Britain medium tanks
Valentine  Valentine Mk I · Valentine Mk IX · Valentine Mk XI
Cromwell  Cromwell I · Cromwell V · Cromwell Mk.V (RP-3)
Based on Cromwell  Challenger · Comet I · Iron Duke IV
Foreign  Grant I · Sherman II · A.C.IV · Strv 81 (RB 52)
Firefly (M4)  Sherman IC "Trzyniec" · Sherman Firefly
Centurion  Centurion Mk 1 · Centurion Mk 3 · Centurion Mk.5 AVRE · Centurion Mk 10 · FV4202
Chieftain  Chieftain Mk 3 · Chieftain Mk 5 · Chieftain Mk 10 · Vickers MBT
Challenger  Challenger Mk.2 · Challenger Mk.3 · Challenger 2