Optics - Target Magnification
What are optics and where to look for them
Optics are a device used by vehicle crews to increase the magnification of the enemy being targeted for a more reliable targeting solution. Typically used in specific modes, optics come into play whenever using the sniper scope (gunner position) or the commander's binoculars (from commander's cupola).
When operating the Gunner scope, objects are initially seen with the scope set to the minimum zoom setting. To toggle between the minimum and maximum zoom settings, this can be achieved utilising the scrolling mouse wheel, pressing the default "zoom in" key Z or through any other key mapped specifically for this function on a keyboard, mouse or joystick/throttle controller.
When looking at a vehicle in the vehicle garage of War Thunder, vehicles with optics will show their location when looking at the vehicle in X-ray mode. Using the cursor to hover over the optic a pop-up bubble will appear annotating the device as an "optic", some will even have additional information listed in the pop-up bubble. Generally, if the vehicle has more than one set of optics, only one of them will list the zoom levels options and typically this will appear when hovering over the gunner's optics, however, this is not always the case and all optics may have to be checked for more information.
Some vehicles do not contain as much information as others and when the optic pop-up bubble only lists one zoom level, it is assumed that this is the maximum zoom available for the optics on this vehicle as in the Ho-Ri Production Japanese tank destroyer.
Several vehicles may not have a zoom range specified, when it comes to these, it is best to take the vehicle out on a training run and choose a fixed object in which to compare the zoom rate in comparison to other vehicles with known zoom rates. This will provide a general range in which to have a better idea of what the optics are capable of during combat manoeuvres.
Optics themselves can be pivotal in the ability to disable an enemy tank or it can also be an Achilles' heel, especially for super heavy tanks such as IS-7, in which the viewports where the optics are at providing a very weak point in the armour structure. Although they are extremely hard to target due to their extremely small size, nonetheless they can be hit.
Damage to the optics generally will not affect vehicle or crew gameplay at all, however, the optics will become unusable until they are repaired, which can affect certain vehicles (As example, Warrior cannot launch ATGM if commander's optics were destroyed).
Differences between various optics in game
Optics zoom levels are an important indicator as to what type of tank is being used. Typically brawler tanks meant to be used on the front lines will not have much zoom capabilities beyond X4 as they are meant for up-close fighting and not long range sniping. Tanks with zoom ranges of +X12 are meant for more reserve positions where they can maximize the zoom capabilities at disabling vehicles from a long distance. Those who are comfortable with the different vehicles and the optics located there can sometimes effectively push the limits of the optics and make the long-range shots with weaker optics or utilise a sniper-tank in close quarters battle.
An important note to remember in arcade mode is that it is easier to fine-tune gun aim with stronger magnification, especially if an enemy tank has only one small weak spot and you are limited on time. Also, the stronger the zoom is, the further apart the shell drop marks become making it slightly less confusing when estimating the shooting angle targeting solution.
Also worth noting, the optics of certain nations and/or vehicles may show vignetting or dark areas around the view area from a scope which limit the amount of area which can be viewed through the scope. As optics developed the vignetting lessened or virtually disappeared allowing for a larger viewing area.
Commander's binoculars always have about X6 zoom and same lenses across all vehicles.
Examples of zoom levels for different confirmed vehicles
The below screenshots were taken from the test drive map, always from a specific position on the edge between E-4 and D-4 (seen on the minimap) to allow for accurate comparison between vehicle optics being tested, especially with vehicles where the optic value is not known. The testing vehicle's hull front is always aligned towards the target to minimize a collision.
Weather settings for this test are at 16:00 and overcast. It surely would be easier to spot enemy at good weather, but when fighting in realistic battles tanks have camouflage and often begin engagements at the 2 km range. The potential of fog and other weather effects can make targets more difficult to see, therefore these testing purposes will use less than ideal circumstances to compare the different optics results.
In the screenshots the target is always located exactly 1 km to ensure a more accurate comparison. The enemy tank which spawns at the back of the practice map is always different depending on the vehicle chosen for test-drive, however, it is generally standing exactly 1.2 km away from testing spot.
When having problems coordinating the zoom level visually, utilising the compass at the top of the screen may help with the corelation - its size changes accordingly with the zoom level.
Click on an image and browse them with arrow keys/buttons on screenshot sides to make them easier to compare.
X1 - No zoom, 3PV in front of gun. View from a Ho-Ri Production.
X2.5 zoom. View from Tiger II (H) Sla.16 optics.
X3 zoom. Made with Calliope.
X3.5 zoom. Made with Object 120.
X4 zoom. Made with M46 “Tiger”. Notice the lack of vignetting compared to other images.
X5 zoom. Made with T20.
X6 zoom. Made with Ho-Ri Production.
X6.8 zoom. Made with AMX-30.
X7 zoom. Made with Object 120.
X7.5 zoom. Made with AMX-13 (SS.11).
X8 zoom. Made with AMX-30.
X9.2 zoom. Made with Panzer IV/70(A).
X10 zoom. Made with Challenger tank line.
X16.1 zoom. Made with ST-A1. So far, the strongest optics a non-specialized in game tank can have.
X40 zoom. Made with Stormer HVM, which is the only vehicle that uses it. So far, the strongest optics an in game tank can have.
One option in War Thunder is the ability for users to create their own version of crosshairs found within the optics which may better fit with their gameplay style, streamline information presented or recreate a historically accurate representation. As such, default optics can be replaced with custom created systems (these changes do not affect zoom levels, gun characteristics or users abilities, they just change out the crosshair targeting application. For more details relate to this specialized article.
The User-made optics also share a common trait of being static (being unable to adjust to the changes of ammunition or the gun elevation) and force the players to use manual gun adjustment at longer range, especially when utilising the default HEAT rounds, so use them at your own risk.
For use around Wiki
Several tanks do not have specified zoom levels listed, however, after being checked and compared in a test-drive map, that information can be listed in the "main armament" section of the chosen vehicle, either by simply noting the minimum and maximum zoom levels or by filling it with a small table much like below:
|Which ones||Default magnification||Maximum magnification|
|Main Gun optics||X8||X12|
|Comparable optics||XM-1 (GM)|
In the case where magnification values are not known, values can be listed as "X8.3 (estimated)" and then a vehicle can be linked in the Comparable optics area which has optics of a known value which accurately compare to the unknown value optics being tested.