Type 10 MBT (Family)

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The Type 10 (10式戦車) is a main battle tank (MBT) of the Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF). Initially accepted into service in 2010 (with effect in 2012) to complement and replace the existing Type 74 and Type 90 main battle tanks. Compared to its predecessors, there was a bigger emphasis on the C4I system, weight reduction, and modular armour.


Rank VII

  • TKX (P) Serial TKX-2-0005 - (Early) 3rd Type 10 Prototype
  • TKX Serial TKX-2-0005 - 3rd Type 10 Prototype
  • Type 10


Challenges of New Millennium

In the mid-1990s, after the introduction of the previous TKX-1, Type 90 MBT, the Ministry of Defense soon realised that, despite its superior FCS even for NATO standards, further upgrading the Type 90 would be impractical (for the time being) due to its already heavy weight in Japan's standards; while the previous Type 61 Medium Tank had no chance when facing even the earliest MBTs and Type 74 MBT was too costly to be upgraded. The possible rivals of Japan, like Mainland China and the Russia Federation had already developed their new MBTs (PLAGF ZTZ96 and ZTZ99/Russian T-90A); in view of maintaining a team of tank designers as well as a part of national defense, JGSDF passed a new plan for a next-generation MBT with redundancy for further upgrades (modularity), thus inherited the project name: TKX-2.

A JGSDF Type 10 at Camp Takeyama, Japan.

From Kyumaru to Hitomaru

The TKX-2 project aimed for the light weight of a Type 74 (at 40 tons, loaded) while being smaller than Type 90, equipping a domestic 120 mm smoothbore gun with latest C4ISR system, modular composite armour, and new engines paired with HMT transmission. TKX-2 was led by the TRDI with help from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. The new smoothbore gun and its new APFSDS were developed by Nippon Steel Corporation and Daikin Industries respectively. These designs were tested on a Tank Test Bed (TTB) developed from the 6th prototype of Type 90 and was first shown in a booklet in the early 2000s; the result of TTB proved the designs and project TKX-2 started in 2002. The 1st prototype was assembled in November 2004 and tested at JGSDF Camp Higashi-Chitose; MHI built the 2nd prototype in 2005, while there were also 3 Type 90s converted as the test bed for tank platoon command systems.

Finally, with the evaluations from JGSDF Fuji School, Ordnance School, and leaked photos of the 2nd prototype, the TKX-2 was unveiled on 14 June 2010 to the public during the opening of JGSDF East Fuji Manoeuvre Area and it was then named Type 10 in October. It served as the most advanced MBT of the first decade of the 2000s, and is an icon of the JGSDF moving forward into the 21st century.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (三菱重工業株式会社)
Ground Vehicles 
APC  Type 60 · SUB-I-II
IFV  Type 89
MCV  Type 16 (P) · Type 16 (FPS) · Type 16
SPH  Type 75 · Type 99
SPAAG  Type 87
Main Battle Tanks 
Type 61  ST-A1 · ST-A2 · ST-A3 · Type 61
Type 74  ST-B2 · Type 74 (C) · Type 74 (E) · Type 74 (F) · Type 74 (G)
Type 90  Type 90 · Type 90 (B)
Type 10  TKX (P) · TKX · Type 10
Air Vehicles 
Jet Fighters 
F-86  F-86F-30 ▅* · F-86F-40 ▅* · F-86F-40 JASDF▅*
F-104  F-104J*
F-1  T-2 Early · T-2 · F-1
F-4  F-4EJ Phantom II* · F-4EJ ADTW* · F-4EJ Kai Phantom II*
F-15  F-15J*
Naval Vehicles 
Patrol Boats (PT) 
No. 7 class  PT-8 (PT-808)
No. 11 class  PT-15 (PT-815)
Destroyers (DD) 
Harukaze-class  JDS Harukaze (DD-101)
Ayanami-class  JDS Ayanami (DD-103)
  MHI's shipyards are positioned in Kobe, Nagasaki, and Shimonoseki
  * Licensed Production / Variants
See also  Mitsubishi Aircraft Company (1928-1945) · Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (1938-1945) · Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Company (1884-1945)
  North American Aviation · Lockheed · McDonnell Aircraft Corporation

Japan medium tanks
Type 97  Chi-Ha · Chi-Ha Kai · Chi-Ha Kai TD · Chi-Ha Short Gun
Type 1  Chi-He · Chi-He (5th Regiment) · Ho-I
Type 3  Chi-Nu · Chi-Nu II
Type 4  Chi-To · Chi-To Late
Type 5  Chi-Ri II
Type 61 MBT  ST-A1* · ST-A2* · ST-A3* · Type 61
Type 74 MBT  ST-B2* · Type 74 (C) · Type 74 (E) · Type 74 (F) · Type 74 (G)
Type 90 MBT  Type 90 · Type 90 (B) · Type 90 (B) "Fuji"
Type 10 MBT  TKX (P)* · TKX* · Type 10
Other  Ka-Chi
USA  ▅M4A3 (76) W · ▅M47