Type 10

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This page is about the Japanese medium tank Type 10. For other versions, see Type 10 (Family). For other uses, see Type 10 (Disambiguation).
Type 10
GarageImage Type 10.jpg
ArtImage Type 10.png
Type 10
11.7 11.7 11.7
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The Type 10 (10式戦車) , sometimes shorten as Hitomaru (Kun'yomi of 1 and 0 in Japanese) was the certified production variant of the 21st Century TK-X program accepted into service in 2010 (with effect in 2012) to complement and replace the existing Type 74 and Type 90 main battle tanks; in view of the end of Cold War and further improvements against potential foes with the most advanced possible technology available, JGSDF issued the development of new MBT for the 21st Century. Compared to its predecessors, there was a bigger emphasis on the C4I system, weight reduction, and modular armour.

It was introduced in Update "Winged Lions". Like the prototype before it (after in the tech tree: TKX), it comes densely armoured with a weaker engine compared to its heavier brother the Type 90; but provides an excellent end tier Type 10 APFSDS shell which it can fire every 4 seconds. It can brawl at CQC combat due to its fast fire-rate and excel at sniping with its enhanced Gen 3 thermal imaging, sight zoom, and LWS/LRF. The Type 10 is an MBT that can fulfill its role, with the only major downsides being the long first-ammo rack replenish rate and the armour not being on par with other end-tier MBTs.

General info

Survivability and armour

Composite armour
Balanced protection against all types of ammunition
Smoke grenades
Creation of a smoke screen in front of the vehicle
Notifies about the vehicle's exposure to laser emissions
Armourfront / side / back
Hull40 / 35 / 25
Turret50 / 35 / 25
Crew3 people
Visibility96 %

The Type 10 was designed to be a lighter yet more protected version of its predecessor, the Type 90 (Kyumaru); thanks to advances in technology during the two decades and its overall design, the Type 10 reaches a high level of protection with an detachable composite block on the front of the hull, the turret has also been designed to fit new composite armour blocks. The overall protection of the hull front can reach up to 575-580 mm against kinetic rounds on average, while the turret is another story - with only frontal arc protection and around 500 mm of KE protection, chances are most darts at the same BR range can penetrate the turret with relatively ease, and turret sidescraping is not an option as the inner part of the turret has very little protection.

The lower glacis is yet another story, with its fairly large area and very low protection, it can be the death sentence of the Type 10 if the spalling after penetration spreads in a wide area and does fatal damage to the crew.

The huge hull can mitigate some spalling from KE rounds thanks to its relatively hollow battle compartment, but having only 3 crew members like the Type 90 means that a loss of 2 crew will result in a knock out.

Armour type:

Armour Front (Slope angle) Sides Rear Roof
Hull 5 mm (35-85°) Upper glacis
40 mm (32°) Lower glacis
30 mm Top
35 + 10 mm Bottom
25 mm
15 mm Engine grille
25 mm
10 mm Engine grille
Turret 5 mm Turret front
20 mm Gun mantlet
77 mm Rear mantlet plate
5 + 35 mm 5 + 25 mm 20 - 40 mm
Cupola 50 mm 50 mm 50 mm 30 mm


  • Suspension wheels and tracks are 20 mm thick
  • Turret ring is 50 mm thick and has additional 10 mm internal armour in front of it
  • Belly armour is 25 mm thick
  • Composite armour covers upper glacis and turret:
Composite armour Front (Slope angle)
Hull Upper glacis
__ - __ mm Kinetic
__ - __ mm Chemical
Turret Turret cheeks
__ - __ mm Kinetic
__ - __ mm Chemical
Gun mantlet
__ - __ mm Kinetic
__ - __ mm Chemical


Controlled suspension
It is possible to adjust the ground clearance or more complex suspension positions
Reverse gearbox
Forward and backward movement is possible at the same maximum speed
Speedforward / back
AB78 / 78 km/h
RB and SB71 / 71 km/h
Number of gears8 forward
8 back
Weight44.4 t
Engine power
AB2 290 hp
RB and SB1 200 hp
Power-to-weight ratio
AB51.6 hp/t
RB and SB27.0 hp/t
Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Forward Reverse Stock Upgraded Stock Upgraded
Arcade 78 78 44.4 1626 2,290 36.62 51.58
Realistic 71 71 1061 1,200 23.9 27.03

Modifications and economy

Repair costBasic → Reference
AB4 665 → 6 941 Sl icon.png
RB4 530 → 6 740 Sl icon.png
SB5 737 → 8 536 Sl icon.png
Total cost of modifications282 200 Rp icon.png
474 000 Sl icon.png
Talisman cost3 100 Ge icon.png
Crew training310 000 Sl icon.png
Experts1 080 000 Sl icon.png
Aces2 200 Ge icon.png
Research Aces1 280 000 Rp icon.png
Reward for battleAB / RB / SB
150 / 190 / 210 % Sl icon.png
250 / 250 / 250 % Rp icon.png
Mobility Protection Firepower
Mods new tank traks.png
20 000 Rp icon.png
31 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank suspension.png
14 000 Rp icon.png
22 000 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank break.png
Brake System
14 000 Rp icon.png
22 000 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank filter.png
19 000 Rp icon.png
29 000 Sl icon.png
400 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank transmission.png
20 000 Rp icon.png
31 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank engine.png
20 000 Rp icon.png
31 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods tank tool kit.png
Improved Parts
6 000 Rp icon.png
31 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods extinguisher.png
Improved FPE
4 200 Rp icon.png
22 000 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods tank reinforcement jp.png
Crew Replenishment
19 000 Rp icon.png
29 000 Sl icon.png
400 Ge icon.png
Mods smoke screen.png
Smoke grenade
20 000 Rp icon.png
31 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank horizontal aiming.png
Horizontal Drive
20 000 Rp icon.png
31 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods tank cannon.png
Adjustment of Fire
14 000 Rp icon.png
22 000 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods counterMeasures.png
14 000 Rp icon.png
22 000 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank vertical aiming.png
Elevation Mechanism
19 000 Rp icon.png
29 000 Sl icon.png
400 Ge icon.png
Mods thermal sight.png
19 000 Rp icon.png
29 000 Sl icon.png
400 Ge icon.png
Mods art support.png
Artillery Support
20 000 Rp icon.png
31 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
20 000 Rp icon.png
31 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png


Laser rangefinder
Reduces the error and increases the maximum measurable distance of the rangefinder
Night vision device
Improves visibility by enhancing natural light or active illumination.
Thermal imager
Allows to see thermal radiation in the infrared range day and night

Main armament

120 mm TKG cannon
Two-plane stabilizer
Reduces the swing of the gun in two planes while moving
Automatically feeds projectiles into the breech. The speed does not depend on the skills of the loader
Ammunition35 rounds
First-order14 rounds
Reload4.0 s
Vertical guidance-7° / 10°
Main article: TKG (120 mm)

Type 10 utilises a new domestic 120 mm smoothbore gun, developed by Nippon Steel Works; thanks to new alloy technology used on this gun, the new gun can fire rounds at even higher bore pressure, thus enhancing the penetration even more than Type 90. Another key feature is the 14 round autoloader that reloads every 4 seconds, located at the back of the turret, making Type 10 a very formidable opponent in battle.

The Type 10 is equipped with thermals for both gunner and commander and night-vision for the driver. these thermals have a resolution of 800x1200, this qualifies them as 3/2+ gen. thermals.

120 mm TKG Turret rotation speed (°/s) Reloading rate (seconds)
Mode Capacity Vertical Horizontal Stabilizer Stock Upgraded Full Expert Aced Autoloader
Arcade 35 -7°/+10° ±180° Two-plane 28.6 39.5 48.0 53.1 56.5 4.00
Realistic 17.9 21.0 25.5 28.2 30.0


The stock shell that comes with the tank is very familiar to JGSDF players: JM12A1 HEATFS, equivalent of DM12A1 and M830 HEATFS of NATO guns. At top tier, it struggles to penetrate any modern MBTs with composite armour with up to 900 mm CE protection and its explosive filler is nowhere near enough to overpressure any MBTs as well, just enough to ruin the day for lighter vehicles or SPAAGs. However, thanks to the Type 10's above average mobility, taking the flanks is still achievable; and the reload rate is forgiving for misplaced shots, players might still have a second chance to knock out the enemy's gun or the whole tank right away with its 4-second reload.

The first kinetic round is another familiar shell as well: JM33 APFSDS, equivalent of DM33, at tier I modification. Players who have experienced the Type 90 duo knows how the shell struggles when facing the masses of Soviet/Russian MBTs with sturdy front arc protection; only well-placed shots on their weak spots or lower glacis can knock them out. This is still far superior to the stock JM12A1, and should be a priority for research.

The final researchable shell is the brand new Type 10 APFSDS, which is also the latest shell of JGSDF that came commissioned with Type 10 itself. New technologies on this dart boost both its penetration and velocity - delivering a whopping 615 mm of penetration every 4 seconds can certainly be the nightmare of any tank trying to break through the frontline.

Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)
10 m 100 m 500 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m
JM12A1 HEATFS 480 480 480 480 480 480
JM33 APFSDS 481 478 470 461 450 440
Type 10 APFSDS 615 613 604 592 582 571
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
mass (kg)
Fuse delay
Fuse sensitivity
Explosive mass
(TNT equivalent) (kg)
0% 50% 100%
JM12A1 HEATFS 1,140 13.5 0.05 0.1 2.15 65° 72° 77°
JM33 APFSDS 1,640 4.3 - - - 78° 80° 81°
Type 10 APFSDS 1,780 4.2 - - - 78° 80° 81°

Ammo racks

rack empty
rack empty
35 15 (+20) (+34) No


  • Hull empty: 15 (+20) shells.
  • The autoloader contains 14 shells. Once these have all been fired, the autoloader must be replenished before being able to fire again.

Machine guns

Ammunition1 000 rounds
Belt capacity200 rounds
Reload8.0 s
Fire rate575 shots/min
Vertical guidance-8° / 60°
Ammunition3 000 rounds
Belt capacity250 rounds
Reload8.0 s
Fire rate701 shots/min

The Type 10 mounts two machine guns; one pintle-mounted 12.7 mm and one coaxial mounted 7.62 mm. These can be used as deterrent for aircraft, clearing light obstacles or crew from open-top vehicles, or spotting enemy vehicles.

12.7 mm M2HB
Mount Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal
Pintle 1,000 (200) 577 -8°/+60° ±180°
7.62 mm Type 74
Mount Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal
Coaxial 3,000 (250) 701 N/A N/A

Usage in battles

Main article: Type 90

The Type 10 series of tanks are a sidegrade of the Type 90 supposed to supplement the latter by being lighter on Japanese infrastructure and improving on their electronic capabilities. With the main focus of the Type 10 being lighter than the Type 90, it swaps out the engine and transmission to a lighter model contributing the most to its weight re-distribution next to its smaller over profile. Next to that the armour on the Type 10 is modular with the overall armour package being more efficient yet slightly heavier than on the Type 90, the Type 10 comes in standard configuration at totalling 44 tons offering roughly the same armour equivalence to the Type 90. The improved FCS also includes the ability to fire the new Type 10 APDSFS shell through Gen 3 thermals.

The Type 10 is a highly mobile and fast-firing MBT that excels in flanking and sniping roles. However, its armour is not reliable and it is vulnerable to enemy fire, so it requires constant situational awareness and effective use of its hydropneumatic suspension, LWS, Laser Rangefinder and smoke grenades. The Type 10 should not engage in frontal assaults or close combat, but rather support allied MBTs from a safe distance and exploit its mobility and firepower to deal damage and relocate as needed. Getting early warnings of potential incoming fire thanks to its LWS, providing enough time and knowledge to retreat or dodge incoming shells.

Notable Opponents
  • T-80/T-72 - The Russian top-rank MBTs pose a dangerous opponent for the Type 10. They possess good firepower and frontal protection. Frontally, the player wants to aim at the lower plate or driver's port. If facing from the sides, be aware that the Russian ERA blocks may stop the shell (even one as powerful as the Type 10 APFSDS) and always note that it may take a follow-up shot to knock it out.
  • M1 Abrams (Family) - The M1A2 possesses good straight-line mobility that rivals the Type 10 with superior protection and survivability. The player wants to aim at the massive turret ring, this will usually knock out or cripple the tank. Take a follow up shot if needed. If turret ring is not visible, the player wants to aim at the gun breech or mantlet to knock out the gun and kill
  • Challenger 2 (Family) - The Challenger 2 is a slow, large target with subpar protection against top battle-rating kinetic munitions. Though players should still beware of its 5-second (with ace crew) reload that is almost as fast as the Type 10's (within its ready rack range). The player can aim at its lower plate, drivers port or breech area.
  • Leopard 2 (Family) - Superior firepower and turret protection, these tanks have vulnerable hulls that are rather easy to penetrate with the Type 10 round. The player can aim lower plate. If the Leopard 2 is hull down - player can aim at the barrel or try to knock out the gun breech through a turret ring shot (Warning: Turret ring shots tend to be unreliable so be careful of the angle!)
  • Leclerc (Family) - Mobile autoloaded tanks with decent protection, the Leclerc(s) have a large weak spot in the breech area that can disable the gun or possibly knock out the tank.

Pros and cons


  • Autoloaded 120 mm cannon, 4-second reload unaffected by crew or fire
  • Has access to 3rd generation thermal sights for the gunner and commander
  • Type 10 APFSDS round is competitive (Comparable to DM53, the 'improved' round on the Leopard 2A5)
  • Quite mobile, high power-to-weight ratio and high reverse speed
  • Fitted with hydropneumatic suspension, although this can only be operated when stationary
    • Can lower the tank significantly, allowing you to hide behind relatively low hills and ridges
  • Primary ammunition storage protected within blow-out containment in the rear of the turret
  • Relatively small profile


  • Only three crew, a well-placed shot can easily cause a full crew knock-out
  • Can only carry 15 rounds before additional ammo is stored in the unsafe hull racks
  • Hydropneumatic suspension ceases to work when the engine is hit
  • Relatively poor gun depression, unless the suspension is used
  • Armour is very spread out in the front with the only well-defended places being the upper front plate, turret cheeks, and breech
  • While fast in top speed, this tank is a bit slow to accelerate
  • Slow elevation/depression speed for the main gun
  • Slower turret traverse than most other MBTs


Main article: Type 10 (Family)

Challenges of New Millennium

In the mid-1990s, after the introduction of the previous TKX-1, Type 90 MBT, the Ministry of Defense soon realised that, despite its superior FCS even for NATO standards, further upgrading the Type 90 would be impractical (for the time being) due to its already heavy weight in Japan's standards; while the previous Type 61 Medium Tank had no chance when facing even the earliest MBTs and Type 74 MBT was too costly to be upgraded. The possible rivals of Japan, like Mainland China and the Russia Federation had already developed their new MBTs (PLAGF ZTZ96 and ZTZ99/Russian T-90A); in view of maintaining a team of tank designers as well as a part of national defense, JGSDF passed a new plan for a next-generation MBT with redundancy for further upgrades (modularity), thus inherited the project name: TKX-2.

A JGSDF Type 10 at Camp Takeyama, Japan.

From Kyumaru to Hitomaru

The TKX-2 project aimed for the light weight of a Type 74 (at 40 tons, loaded) while being smaller than Type 90, equipping a domestic 120 mm smoothbore gun with latest C4ISR system, modular composite armour, and new engines paired with HMT transmission. TKX-2 was led by the TRDI with help from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. The new smoothbore gun and its new APFSDS were developed by Nippon Steel Corporation and Daikin Industries respectively. These designs were tested on a Tank Test Bed (TTB) developed from the 6th prototype of Type 90 and was first shown in a booklet in the early 2000s; the result of TTB proved the designs and project TKX-2 started in 2002. The 1st prototype was assembled in November 2004 and tested at JGSDF Camp Higashi-Chitose; MHI built the 2nd prototype in 2005, while there were also 3 Type 90s converted as the test bed for tank platoon command systems.

Finally, with the evaluations from JGSDF Fuji School, Ordnance School, and leaked photos of the 2nd prototype, the TKX-2 was unveiled on 14 June 2010 to the public during the opening of JGSDF East Fuji Manoeuvre Area and it was then named Type 10 in October. It served as the most advanced MBT of the first decade of the 2000s, and is an icon of the JGSDF moving forward into the 21st century.



See also

Related Development
Other vehicles of similar configuration and role

External links

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (三菱重工業株式会社)
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Type 74  ST-B2 · Type 74 (C) · Type 74 (E) · Type 74 (F) · Type 74 (G)
Type 90  Type 90 · Type 90 (B)
Type 10  TKX (P) · TKX · Type 10
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See also  Mitsubishi Aircraft Company (1928-1945) · Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (1938-1945) · Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Company (1884-1945)
  North American Aviation · Lockheed · McDonnell Aircraft Corporation

Japan medium tanks
Type 97  Chi-Ha · Chi-Ha Kai · Chi-Ha Kai TD · Chi-Ha Short Gun
Type 1  Chi-He · Chi-He (5th Regiment) · Ho-I
Type 3  Chi-Nu · Chi-Nu II
Type 4  Chi-To · Chi-To Late
Type 5  Chi-Ri II
Type 61 MBT  ST-A1* · ST-A2* · ST-A3* · Type 61
Type 74 MBT  ST-B2* · Type 74 (C) · Type 74 (E) · Type 74 (F) · Type 74 (G)
Type 90 MBT  Type 90 · Type 90 (B) · Type 90 (B) "Fuji"
Type 10 MBT  TKX (P)* · TKX* · Type 10
Other  Ka-Chi
USA  ▅M4A3 (76) W · ▅M47