Type 99

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This page is about the Japanese tank destroyer Type 99. For other uses, see Type 99 (Disambiguation).
jp_type_99.png
GarageImage Type 99.jpg
Type 99
AB RB SB
7.3 7.3 7.3
Research:82 000 Specs-Card-Exp.png
Purchase:240 000 Specs-Card-Lion.png
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Description

The Type 99 155 mm SPH (99式自走155mmりゅう弾砲) is currently one of the 155 mm howitzers in JGSDF service as the direct replacement of the obsolete, shorter-barreled Type 75 155 mm SPH. The JGSDF had already planned for a replacement of the Type 75 SPH as early as 1985; development began in 1987, with MHI responsible for the extended hull based on the chassis of what would become the Type 89 IFV, while JSW developed the weapon systems with a domestic 155 mm L/52 howitzer. The new SPH was ready for trials in 1996, and tests were conducted in 1998, with the first four SPH units delivered to the training corps. However, due to the high unit price, the complete replacement of all Type 75 SPHs will be fulfilled by the Type 99 SPH alongside a new, wheeled Type 19 155 mm SPH.

Introduced in Update "Air Superiority" as the second SPH of JGSDF, the Type 99 is equipped with a Japanese NATO standard 155 mm howitzer and shares similar shells, but due to the increased length, it offers a whopping 940 m/s shell velocity. The new gun system retains the relatively fast gun traverse speed and new autoloader for faster reload; meanwhile, tank crews have to beware of the rather underpowered engine and huge size; enemy commanders can easily spot this long-nosed "lying Pinocchio" from afar.

Nicknames
  • JGSDF Abbreviation: 99HSP / SP - (Howitzer) Self-Propelled
  • Public nickname: ロングノーズ - Lit. "Long Nose"

General info

Survivability and armour

Armourfront / side / back
Hull20 / 20 / 20
Turret20 / 20 / 20
Crew4 people
Visibility96 %

Instead of opting for NATO SPHs, the JGSDF initiated plans to develop a domestic SPH, resulting in the creation of the Type 99. The most distinctive feature of the Type 99 is its notably long 155 mm L/52 howitzer, contrasting with the short chassis based on the Type 89 IFV. This characteristic earned it the nickname "Long Nose." However, this length poses a challenge as it makes the Type 99 easily identifiable on the battlefield. With an overall length, including the barrel, measuring 11.3 m, it cannot move unnoticed unless enemies are overly focused on a specific area. The overall protection comprises 20 mm RHA plates for both the chassis and turret. This means that any .50 calibre heavy machine gun won't struggle to target the crews within 300 m, let alone autocannons at even longer ranges. Taking cover and staying behind the frontline is advisable to prolong its survival. Extra caution is needed to conceal the rear of the turret, as the last thing commanders want is to witness the detonation of the 30 shells and charges located directly behind it, creating a significant explosion.

Equipped with a mechanized loader, the Type 99 operates with a smaller crew than NATO/Warsaw Pact SPHs, numbering only four individuals. While the SPH is rather spacious, the driver and assistant loader are rather spread out while the gunner and commander are squeezed together, making for an easy collateral. This crew composition will usually result in needing at least two well-placed AP shots frontally, or one side-on hitting all three turret crew in a single shot. Other possibilities of one-shots are by overpressure, a sensitive APHE fused shell into the turret or the ammo rack.

Armour type:

Armour Front (Slope angle) Sides Rear Roof
Hull 20 mm UFP (80°)

20 mm LFP

20 mm Top
20 mm Bottom
20 mm 20 mm
Turret 20 mm Turret front
20 mm Gun mantlet
20 mm 20 mm 20 mm

Notes:

Mobility

Speedforward / back
AB54 / 33 km/h
RB and SB50 / 31 km/h
Number of gears9 forward
4 back
Weight40.0 t
Engine power
AB1 145 hp
RB and SB600 hp
Power-to-weight ratio
AB28.6 hp/t
RB and SB15.0 hp/t

As the hull was developed from Mitsubishi's Type 89 IFV with an extended length, the Type 99 retained the identical 6SY31WA V8 engine and transmission. While the 50 km/h speed and its 12.1 hp/t ratio might not seem particularly impressive, it does offer a -30 km/h reverse speed for a quick retreat.

Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Forward Reverse Stock Upgraded Stock Upgraded
Arcade 54 33 40 _,___ 1,145 __.__ 28.63
Realistic 50 31 _,___ 600 __.__ 15

Modifications and economy

Repair costBasic → Reference
AB4 630 → 6 125 Sl icon.png
RB4 871 → 6 444 Sl icon.png
SB7 742 → 10 242 Sl icon.png
Total cost of modifications69 100 Rp icon.png
117 800 Sl icon.png
Talisman cost1 900 Ge icon.png
Crew training68 000 Sl icon.png
Experts240 000 Sl icon.png
Aces990 Ge icon.png
Research Aces620 000 Rp icon.png
Reward for battleAB / RB / SB
140 / 210 / 240 % Sl icon.png
184 / 184 / 184 % Rp icon.png
Modifications
Mobility Protection Firepower
Mods new tank traks.png
Tracks
Research:
3 600 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 900 Sl icon.png
170 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank suspension.png
Suspension
Research:
3 200 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 200 Sl icon.png
150 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank break.png
Brake System
Research:
3 200 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 200 Sl icon.png
150 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank filter.png
Filters
Research:
4 500 Rp icon.png
Cost:
7 300 Sl icon.png
210 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank transmission.png
Transmission
Research:
7 700 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
360 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank engine.png
Engine
Research:
7 700 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
360 Ge icon.png
Mods tank tool kit.png
Improved Parts
Research:
2 300 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 900 Sl icon.png
170 Ge icon.png
Mods extinguisher.png
Improved FPE
Research:
2 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 200 Sl icon.png
150 Ge icon.png
Mods tank reinforcement jp.png
Crew Replenishment
Research:
4 500 Rp icon.png
Cost:
7 300 Sl icon.png
210 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank horizontal aiming.png
Horizontal Drive
Research:
3 600 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 900 Sl icon.png
170 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
155mm_M110_Smoke_ammo_pack
Research:
3 600 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 900 Sl icon.png
170 Ge icon.png
Mods tank cannon.png
Adjustment of Fire
Research:
3 200 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 200 Sl icon.png
150 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
155mm_M107_HE_PF_ammo_pack
Research:
3 200 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 200 Sl icon.png
150 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank vertical aiming.png
Elevation Mechanism
Research:
4 500 Rp icon.png
Cost:
7 300 Sl icon.png
210 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
155mm_Type_75_HE_ammo_pack
Research:
4 500 Rp icon.png
Cost:
7 300 Sl icon.png
210 Ge icon.png
Mods night vision device.png
NVD
Research:
7 700 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
360 Ge icon.png

Armaments

Night vision device
Improves visibility by enhancing natural light or active illumination.

Main armament

155 mm JSW L/52 cannon
Autoloader
Automatically feeds projectiles into the breech. The speed does not depend on the skills of the loader
Ammunition30 rounds
Reload7.5 s
Vertical guidance-2° / 70°
Main article: JSW L/52 (155 mm)

To align with the late Cold War trend of self-propelled howitzers featuring long barrels, the Type 99 is equipped with a domestic 155 mm L/52 howitzer by JSW. The gun system boasts 30 shells in storage with an autoloader, enabling a firing rate of one shot every 7.5 seconds. Although not as rapid as the Bkan 1C at 3.2 seconds, this rate is more than sufficient for engaging tanks at its tier, which typically have longer reload times. The ballistics remain relatively straight due to its impressive 940 m/s velocity, facilitating easier long-range engagements. An area where the Type 99 excels is a supporting role.

However, caution is advised to avoid overextension, especially with the barrel exposed behind cover, as this may lead to the gun's disablement and, eventually, the Type 99 itself.

155 mm JSW L/52 Turret rotation speed (°/s) Reloading rate (seconds)
Mode Capacity Vertical Horizontal Stabilizer Stock Upgraded Full Expert Aced Autoloader
Arcade 30 -2°/+70° ±180° - __._ __._ __._ __._ __._ 7.5
Realistic __._ __._ __._ __._ __._

Ammunition

  • M107: NATO standard 155 mm HE shell, providing a reasonable 9.1 kg TNTe explosive mass.
  • M107(PF): M107, but equipped with a proximity fuse. The excellent velocity of the L/52, coupled with the proximity fuse, makes it a versatile ad-hoc AA shell.
  • L15A2: The pinnacle of NATO 155 mm shells, it offers an impressive 14.8 kg TNTe explosive mass. It has the potential to obliterate even the most heavily armoured vehicles.
  • M110: NATO Standard 155 mm Smoke shell.

Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)
10 m 100 m 500 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m
M107 HE 61 61 61 61 61 61
M107 (PF) HE-VT 61 61 61 61 61 61
L15A2 HE 64 64 64 64 64 64
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
mass (kg)
Fuse delay
(m)
Fuse sensitivity
(mm)
Explosive mass
(TNT equivalent) (kg)
Ricochet
0% 50% 100%
M107 HE 940 43.1 0.3 0.1 9.14 79° 80° 81°
L15A2 HE 940 43.5 0.3 0.1 14.8 79° 80° 81°
Proximity-fused shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
mass (kg)
Fuse delay
(m)
Fuse sensitivity
(mm)
Arming
distance (m)
Trigger
radius (m)
Explosive mass
(TNT equivalent) (kg)
Ricochet
0% 50% 100%
M107 (PF) HE-VT 940 43.1 0 0 300 3 9.14 79° 80° 81°
Smoke shell characteristics
Ammunition Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
mass (kg)
Screen radius
(m)
Screen deploy
time (s)
Screen hold
time (s)
Explosive mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
M110 940 40.8 21 5 30 50

Ammo racks

Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
4th
rack empty
5th
rack empty
6th
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
30 __ (+__) __ (+__) __ (+__) __ (+__) __ (+__) __ (+__) __

Machine guns

Ammunition600 rounds
Belt capacity200 rounds
Reload8.0 s
Fire rate575 shots/min
Vertical guidance-8° / 45°
Main article: M2HB (12.7 mm)

Offensive and anti-aircraft machine guns not only allow you to fight some aircraft but also are effective against lightly armoured vehicles. Evaluate machine guns and give recommendations on its use.

12.7 mm M2HB
Mount Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal
___ (___) ___ __° __°

Usage in battles

With a very high shell velocity of 940 m/s but low armor and a high profile, the Type 99 155 mm should be played as either a sniping vehicle or an anti-air vehicle. With the L15A2 high explosive shells, which have an explosive mass of 14.8 kg of TNT, it can destroy every vehicle at its rank and higher with a well-placed shot between the hull and the turret (Even the Maus or the Object 279 heavy tank). The hull of the Type 99 155mm also has a large empty spot without any important modules, meaning that some enemy shells will just go through the hull without activating the explosive fuse, creating little to no damage. Your most problematic enemies you have to keep an eye of are other vehicles with large caliber cannons or vehicles with autocannons. Avoid artillery at any cost, since the chance of getting hit by the artillery is much higher than other tanks due to its very large profile of the Type 99 155 mm.

Since the HE shells don't have a tracer mark while firing, shooting at an enemy group from a long distance while staying near cover is the best way to go to not be seen. The Type 99’s engine has very good backward speed of 31 km/h (RB). Meaning that if a situation becomes too hot, shooting a smoke shell on the ground while driving backwards is the safest way to retreat out of a dangerous situation. Alternately, the Type 99 can be played as an excellent anti-air vehicle to shoot down planes or helicopters nearby or from long distance. The even faster reload of only 7.5 seconds (from its predecessor Type 75 SPH with its 10 seconds reload), which also stays the same when its loader gets knocked out thanks to its autoloader and a very fast shell velocity for a caliber of 155 mm can make it very deadly for enemies in the sky. But make sure to equip the M107 (PF) HE shells when doing so. The engine compartment is also frontally placed and separated by a 5mm steel plate from the rest of the crew. Which means, that when the frontal hull gets hit, the engine can soak up the entire amount of potential damage the shell was about to unleash. Leaving the rest of the components and the crew itself unharmed. One of the major downsides of the Type 99 is the very little amount of gun depression of only -2 degrees, which can be difficult on rural and hilly maps.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Excellent shell velocity of 940 m/s (for a SPH)
    • Can make the M107 (PF) a reliable AA shell
  • 7.5-second auto-loader
  • 30 shells in the ready rack
  • 20 mm RHA armour offers a balance of protection without excessive weight
    • Thin enough to avoid triggering most APHE fuses
    • Effective protection against HMGs at longer ranges
  • Moderate mobility with a respectable -30 km/h reverse speed
  • Large and spacious
    • Requires more than one penetration

Cons:

  • Limited protection with 20 mm RHA armour
    • Minimal defense against shell penetration
    • In close-quarter combat, vulnerable to heavy machine guns
  • Relatively small crew size
  • Large and easily recognizable target
    • Very long barrel can be exposed when positioned behind cover
    • only -2 degrees of gun depression can be very difficult on maps with hills

History

Development

The previous Type 75 self-propelled 155 mm howitzer, which was formalized in 1975, has a maximum range of only 19 km even when using specially developed long-range ammo. On the other hand, the towed 155mm howitzer FH-70 (jointly developed by Britain, West Germany and Italy), which began licensed production in 1983, has a maximum range of 30 km when using base-bleed ammunition. Even the French-made 120 mm towed mortar RT, which is deployed in infantry units, reaches a maximum range of 13 km when using rocket-assisted propellant. Maximum range stands as one of the most pivotal characteristics of artillery; thus, the maximum range of the Type 75 self-propelled howitzer fell short of contemporary standards, irrespective of its developmental era.

Consequently, development on the soon-to-be Type 99 SPH commenced in 1985. Initially, the sole consideration for the upgrade was to replace the Type 75's 155 mm L/30 with a longer L/39 calibre gun. However, as project requirements evolved, including the integration of a new fire control system and systematically newer features, the entire project underwent redevelopment in 1987, utilizing an adapted hull from a prototype Type 89 IFV.

JSW, serving as the main contractor, spearheaded the development of the turret and cannon, collaborating with Mitsubishi overseeing the hull, Asahi Kasei for the entire shell, Nippon Yushi for the inner cylinder of the shell, and Hitachi for the ammunition carrier/loader. By 1996, the design phase of the vehicle concluded, with over 5 billion yen invested. Subsequently, technical and practical tests ensued with four proto-production vehicles. Upon the completion of all testing by 1998, the 4 vehicles were allocated to training divisions in 1999, officially marking the adoption of the "Type 99 self-propelled 155 mm howitzer".

Usage

The Type 99 SPH boasts a maximum firing range of approximately 30 km, surpassing that of the Type 75 SPH by more than 1.5 times. When equipped with the Type 93 Long-Range shell (base-bleed), the maximum range extends to approximately 40 km. Notably, a Type 03 Multi-Purpose shell (Cluster) was once developed and deployed, featuring submunitions with explosive charges capable of eliminating lightly armoured vehicles within a radius of approximately 100 m. However, this ammunition type was discontinued due to its violation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Despite using an auto-loader, the Type 99 SPH offers enhanced flexibility, allowing loading at any angle. This results in faster loading compared to the Type 75, which required the main gun to be returned to a fixed angle for loading. Additionally, unlike the Type 75, which exclusively automatically loaded warheads, with charges manually loaded afterwards, the Type 99 is automatically loaded with uni-charged shells. With a maximum firing rate exceeding 6 rounds per minute and over 18 rounds per 3 minutes, it showcases a significant improvement in firepower.

Furthermore, the Type 99 ammunition feeder, exclusively developed for this vehicle, can be connected behind the hatch on the right rear of the turret. This configuration enables the automatic replenishment of ammunition, further enhancing the continuous rate of fire.

Replacement

While the initial objective of the Type 99 SPH was to replace the earlier Type 75 SPH, the unit cost, reaching the extremely high approximate 960 million yen per unit, has limited manufacturing and procurement to a range of 6 to 8 vehicles annually. Failing on the complete replacement, a more cost-effective alternative emerged in the form of the Type 19 self-propelled 155 mm howitzer. Designed to replace the Japanese inventory of FH-70 towed howitzers, it shares the same advanced gun technology as the Type 99.

The Type 19, however, is not a direct replacement for its mechanized counterpart but serves as a supplement. Its primary role is to replace motorized artillery. Since its assignment to training corps in 2019, deployment to active units commenced in 2023.

Media

Skins
Videos

See also

Related Development
Other vehicles of similar configuration and role

External links

Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:

  • topic on the official game forum;
  • other literature.


Japan tank destroyers
Ro-Go Derivatives  Ro-Go Exp.
Chi-Ha Derivatives  Ho-Ni I · Ho-Ni III · Ho-Ro · Chi-Ha LG
Ho-Ri  Ho-Ri Prototype · Ho-Ri Production
Other  Na-To
JGSDF 
SPRG  Type 60 (C)
SPH  Type 75 · Type 99
ATGM  Type 60 ATM
Rocket  Type 75 MLRS
USA  ▅M36