Difference between revisions of "Type 61"

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[[File:GarageImage_Type61.jpg|420px|thumb|left]]
 
[[File:GarageImage_Type61.jpg|420px|thumb|left]]
 
{{break}}
 
{{break}}
The '''Type 61''' is a Rank IV Japanese medium tank with a battle rating of 6.7. It was introduced along with the initial Japanese Ground Forces tree in [[Update_1.65_"Way_of_the_Samurai"|Update 1.65 "Way of the Samurai"]].
+
The '''{{Specs|name}}''' is a rank {{Specs|rank}} Japanese medium tank {{Battle-rating}}. This medium tank was introduced along with the initial Japanese Ground Forces tree in [[Update 1.65 "Way of the Samurai"]].
  
 
The Type 61 looks like a bizarre cross between the American M41 Walker Bulldog and M60 tanks. It is very similar in its overall length and size to the M41 and the turret looks like the M60's turret with the same prominent commander's cupola on top of the turret housing a rangefinder.  
 
The Type 61 looks like a bizarre cross between the American M41 Walker Bulldog and M60 tanks. It is very similar in its overall length and size to the M41 and the turret looks like the M60's turret with the same prominent commander's cupola on top of the turret housing a rangefinder.  
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The Type 61 with its low armour protection and the presence of cannons like the 88 mm KwK43, 105 mm L7A1, 100 mm D-10T cannons at its BR of ~6.7 makes it extremely weak to incoming fire.  
 
The Type 61 with its low armour protection and the presence of cannons like the 88 mm KwK43, 105 mm L7A1, 100 mm D-10T cannons at its BR of ~6.7 makes it extremely weak to incoming fire.  
  
Good Type 61 users will typically used the decent mobility to position themselves on flanks of opposition pushes, allowing them to use the decent M318A1 AP round or the M82 shot APHE round to hit weaker side armour or weakspots, alternatively the M431 shell HEAT-FS is a viable choice for longer range shooting, however it has meagre damage potential compares to the M318A1 AP round and M82 shot APHE round.
+
Good Type 61 users will typically use the decent mobility to position themselves on flanks of opposition pushes, allowing them to use the decent M318A1 AP round or the M82 shot APHE round to hit weaker side armour or weak spots, alternatively the M431 shell HEAT-FS is a viable choice for long range shooting, however it has meagre damage potential compares to the M318A1 AP round and M82 shot APHE round.
  
 
The quick turret traverse will benefit the Type 61 in a close range engagement however the large profile, low armour protection and non-stabilized gun combined with the sometimes lacking penetration of the M318A1 AP round, M82 shot APHE round and poor damage potential of the M431 shell HEAT-FS, means that it not a particularly effective at brawling combat.  
 
The quick turret traverse will benefit the Type 61 in a close range engagement however the large profile, low armour protection and non-stabilized gun combined with the sometimes lacking penetration of the M318A1 AP round, M82 shot APHE round and poor damage potential of the M431 shell HEAT-FS, means that it not a particularly effective at brawling combat.  
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== General info ==
 
== General info ==
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
<!--''Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpfull for survival in combat?''
+
<!--''Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpful for survival in combat?''
  
 
''If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.''-->
 
''If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.''-->
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* Suspension wheels are 15 mm thick while tracks are 20 mm thick.
 
* Suspension wheels are 15 mm thick while tracks are 20 mm thick.
  
Due to its weak armour nearly every tank is a serious threat to the Type 61, as well as a number of SPAA vehicles, however fast medium tanks such as the T-44, M46/M47 Pattons or Panther II which can match its mobile are a painful to avoid, while anything with heavy armour (T29, T32, T34 and King Tigers) forces the reliance on the M431 shell HEAT-FS to punch through frontally, taking multiple shots to overcome.  
+
Due to its weak armour nearly every tank is a serious threat to the Type 61, as well as a number of SPAA vehicles, however fast medium tanks such as the T-44, M46/M47 Patton or Panther II which can match its mobile are a painful to avoid, while anything with heavy armour (T29, T32, T34 and King Tigers) forces the reliance on the M431 shell HEAT-FS to punch through frontally, taking multiple shots to overcome.  
  
 
=== Mobility ===
 
=== Mobility ===
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== Armaments ==
 
== Armaments ==
 
=== Main armament ===
 
=== Main armament ===
<!--''Give the reader information about the characteristics of the main gun. Assess its effectiveness in a battle based on the reloading speed, ballistics and the power of shells. Do not forget about the flexibilty of the fire, that is how quickly the cannon can be aimed at the target, open fire on it and aim at another enemy. Add a link to the main article on the gun: <code><nowiki>{{main|Name of the weapon}}</nowiki></code>. Describe in general terms the ammunition available for the main gun. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage.''-->
+
<!--''Give the reader information about the characteristics of the main gun. Assess its effectiveness in a battle based on the reloading speed, ballistics and the power of shells. Do not forget about the flexibility of the fire, that is how quickly the cannon can be aimed at the target, open fire on it and aim at another enemy. Add a link to the main article on the gun: <code><nowiki>{{main|Name of the weapon}}</nowiki></code>. Describe in general terms the ammunition available for the main gun. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage.''-->
 
{{main|Type 61 (90 mm)}}
 
{{main|Type 61 (90 mm)}}
  
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! style="width:4em" |Prior + Ace qualif.
 
! style="width:4em" |Prior + Ace qualif.
 
|-
 
|-
| ''Arcade'' || 14.28 || 19.80 || 24.0 || 26.60 || 28.24
+
| ''Arcade'' || 22.85 || _.__ || _.__ || _.__ || _.__
 
|-
 
|-
| ''Realistic'' || 14.28 || 16.80 || 20.4 || 22.60 || 24.00
+
| ''Realistic'' || 18.81 || _.__ || _.__ || _.__ || _.__
 
|-
 
|-
 
! colspan="4" | Reloading rate (seconds)
 
! colspan="4" | Reloading rate (seconds)
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! colspan="1" style="width:4em" |Prior + Ace qualif.
 
! colspan="1" style="width:4em" |Prior + Ace qualif.
 
|-
 
|-
| 10.00 || __.__ || __.__ || __.__
+
| 9.75 || __.__ || __.__ || 7.5
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="50%"
 +
! colspan="3" | {{PAGENAME}} Optics
 +
|-
 +
! Which ones
 +
! Default magnification
 +
! Maximum magnification
 +
|-
 +
! Main Gun optics
 +
| x4 || x8 <!--Sometimes the actual value may not be known and here it should be referenced if the optic values are an estimate such as with an "X8.3 (estimated)" notation or something else that way the user will then be able to look to the comparable optics section and see a referenced optic which will have actual in-game data to back up the claim.-->
 +
|-
 +
! Comparable optics
 +
| colspan="2;" style="text-align:center;" | [[M46 “Tiger”]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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! rowspan="2" data-sort-type="text" | Ammunition
 
! rowspan="2" data-sort-type="text" | Ammunition
 
! rowspan="2" class="unsortable" | Type of <br /> warhead
 
! rowspan="2" class="unsortable" | Type of <br /> warhead
! colspan="6" | '''Penetration''' '''''in mm''''' '''@ 0°'''
+
! colspan="6" | '''Penetration''' '''''in mm''''' '''@ 0° Angle of Attack'''
 
|-
 
|-
 
! 10m
 
! 10m
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== Usage in the battles ==
 
== Usage in the battles ==
 
<!--''Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).''-->
 
<!--''Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).''-->
The Type 61 has excellent horizontal traverse and gun depression combined with a fairly mobile chassis, making it a good choice for progressing from turret down (be careful about the large cupola sticking up), to hull down and firing at opposition before retreating back to turret down cover.
+
The Type 61 has excellent horizontal traverse and gun depression combined with a fairly mobile chassis, making it a good choice for progressing from turret down (be careful about the large cupola sticking up), to hull down and firing at the opposition before retreating back to turret down cover.
  
Its mobility is quite good at getting it to position, where it can ambush tanks early in the game or change position when required, particularly when disengaging when it position is discovered.
+
Its mobility is quite good at getting it to position, where it can ambush tanks early in the game or change position when required, particularly when disengaging when its position is discovered.
  
Its lack of armour and the decent but not overwhelmingly powerful gun means it is not a wonderful frontline tank to hold a defensive position when the opposition know its position, as its armour is unlike to prevent any opposition rounds from penetrating and dealing damage, leaving the user to more often than not, rely on luck when engaging opposition frontally.
+
Its lack of armour and the decent but not overwhelmingly powerful gun means it is not a wonderful frontline tank to hold a defensive position when the opposition knows its position, as its armour is unlike to prevent any opposition rounds from penetrating and dealing damage, leaving the user to more often than not, rely on luck when engaging opposition frontally.
  
 
The biggest issue with the Type 61 is shot selection! Should one choose the M431 shell HEAT-FS which will punch through most opposition tanks, but do little damage? Or use the M318A1 AP round, M82 shot APHE rounds for more damage, but will struggle to penetrate opposition frontally at times?
 
The biggest issue with the Type 61 is shot selection! Should one choose the M431 shell HEAT-FS which will punch through most opposition tanks, but do little damage? Or use the M318A1 AP round, M82 shot APHE rounds for more damage, but will struggle to penetrate opposition frontally at times?
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* Good acceleration
 
* Good acceleration
 
* Great post-penetration damage on the M82 APCBC shell
 
* Great post-penetration damage on the M82 APCBC shell
 +
 
'''Cons:'''
 
'''Cons:'''
 
* 90 mm Type 61 can struggle to overcome certain opposing tanks frontally without relying on M431 HEAT-FS shell
 
* 90 mm Type 61 can struggle to overcome certain opposing tanks frontally without relying on M431 HEAT-FS shell
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<!--''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the ground vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too big, take it to a separate article, taking a link to an article about the vehicle and adding a block "/historical reference" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/Name-vehicles/historical reference) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to include links to sources at the end of the article.''-->
 
<!--''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the ground vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too big, take it to a separate article, taking a link to an article about the vehicle and adding a block "/historical reference" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/Name-vehicles/historical reference) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to include links to sources at the end of the article.''-->
 
===Development===
 
===Development===
With the subsequent events of Japanese surrender in September 1945, the end of World War II, and the ensuing Allied occupation of Japan, the Japanese were ordered to lay down their military activities, essentially abolishing the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy. For a short period past VE-Day, Japan was without a military with the exception of the Allied troops still occupying the country. This stance on a Japanese military was reversed with the advent of the Cold War and the much-closer Korean War in the early 1950s. With the departure of a majority of the Allied troops from Japan to Korea, there was a concern on the vulnerability of Japan without the aid of these nations. So in 1954, Japan formally organized the Defense Agency heading the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF). To jump start the remilitarization of the JSDF, the United States gave Japan a handful of [[M4A3 (76) W (Japan)|M4A3E8 Shermans]] and [[M24 (Japan)|M24 Chaffees]]. However, in the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) service, these tanks presented some problems. The problems the Sherman presented was that its interior was too large for an average Japanese stature, with drivers unable to even reach the foot pedals, and the M24 Chaffee was just plain outdated against [[T-34-85|Soviet armour]]. The Japanese were then given options to replace these tanks with the newer American [[M46|M46 Patton]] and [[M47|M47 Patton]] or develop their own tank. Given the price of buying the tanks and the tanks not suiting to their specifications, the Japanese opted to develop their own tank for the JGSDF.
+
With the subsequent events of the Japanese surrender in September 1945, the end of World War II, and the ensuing Allied occupation of Japan, the Japanese were ordered to lay down their military activities, essentially abolishing the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy. For a short period past VE-Day, Japan was without a military with the exception of the Allied troops still occupying the country. This stance on a Japanese military was reversed with the advent of the Cold War and the much-closer Korean War in the early 1950s. With the departure of a majority of the Allied troops from Japan to Korea, there was a concern on the vulnerability of Japan without the aid of these nations. So in 1954, Japan formally organized the Defense Agency heading the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF). To jump-start the remilitarization of the JSDF, the United States gave Japan a handful of [[M4A3 (76) W (Japan)|M4A3E8 Shermans]] and [[M24 (Japan)|M24 Chaffees]]. However, in the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) service, these tanks presented some problems. The problems the Sherman presented was that its interior was too large for an average Japanese stature, with drivers unable to even reach the foot pedals, and the M24 Chaffee was just plain outdated against [[T-34-85|Soviet armour]]. The Japanese were then given options to replace these tanks with the newer American [[M46|M46 Patton]] and [[M47|M47 Patton]] or develop their own tank. Given the price of buying the tanks and the tanks not suiting to their specifications, the Japanese opted to develop their own tank for the JGSDF.
  
The initial specifications for the development of their domestic tank design followed as 1) Small enough to be train-transported, 2) Not be heavier than 25 tons, and 3) an armament of 90 mm caliber. The job of designing the tank was given to Mitsubishi, the same company responsible for making the majority of Japanese tanks in World War II. The first specification was important to not only improve cross-country travel, but because if it could be followed, the tanks can be transported via truck transports as well. The second specification was a dodgy one in that 25 tons did not allow for much armour to be placed, but it was hoped a new engine could supplement a weight increase to 35 tons by improving mobility. When the new engine got delayed, the weight was reduced back to 25 tons to retain mobility. The last specification of a 90 mm gun was due to the Japanese experience with a [[M36 GMC|M36 tank destroyer]], believing the 90 mm to be sufficient in the mountainous region of Japan and be the limit where Japanese physique could adequately service the gun. These specifications would lead to the first prototype being developed in 1956.
+
The initial specifications for the development of their domestic tank design followed as 1) Small enough to be train-transported, 2) Not be heavier than 25 tons, and 3) an armament of 90 mm calibre. The job of designing the tank was given to Mitsubishi, the same company responsible for making the majority of Japanese tanks in World War II. The first specification was important to not only improve cross-country travel but because if it could be followed, the tanks can be transported via truck transports as well. The second specification was a dodgy one in that 25 tons did not allow for much armour to be placed, but it was hoped a new engine could supplement a weight increase to 35 tons by improving mobility. When the new engine got delayed, the weight was reduced back to 25 tons to retain mobility. The last specification of a 90 mm gun was due to the Japanese experience with a [[M36 GMC|M36 tank destroyer]], believing the 90 mm to be sufficient in the mountainous region of Japan and be the limit where Japanese physique could adequately service the gun. These specifications would lead to the first prototype being developed in 1956.
  
In December 1956, the first prototype labeled ''[[ST-A1]]'' was produced. Testing and various changes led to the second prototype, ''[[ST-A2]]'', to be produced in February 1957. Two more prototypes labeled ''ST-A3'' and ''ST-A4'' were completed in 1959 and 1960 that led to the final production design to be produced in 1961. This would be accepted into service as the '''Type 61''' main battle tank, with deployment to start within the same year. The Type 61 was formally adopted in 1961, but the starting numbers were low as production only put out 10 Type 61 tanks in the span of 1961 to 1962. This only marginally increase up to 1966, with 250 tanks. Production continued until 1975 with 560 tanks produced.
+
In December 1956, the first prototype labelled ''[[ST-A1]]'' was produced. Testing and various changes led to the second prototype, ''[[ST-A2]]'', to be produced in February 1957. Two more prototypes labelled ''ST-A3'' and ''ST-A4'' were completed in 1959 and 1960 that led to the final production design to be produced in 1961. This would be accepted into service as the '''Type 61''' main battle tank, with deployment to start within the same year. The Type 61 was formally adopted in 1961, but the starting numbers were low as production only put out 10 Type 61 tanks in the span of 1961 to 1962. This only marginally increases up to 1966, with 250 tanks. Production continued until 1975 with 560 tanks produced.
  
 
===Service===
 
===Service===
The first few Type 61 tanks were put into service of the JGSDF. Due to low production numbers, it was supplemented with the tanks America gave it. The time the Type 61 was deployed, it was already quite outdated in comparison to Soviet contenders such as the [[T-54 (1951)|T-54/55]] and [[T-62]] tanks. In 1962, the successor of the Type 61 was already in development process. Even when it was finished, which would be the [[Type 74]], the Type 61 would stick around as supplement due to low production numbers as well, starting from 1980.  
+
The first few Type 61 tanks were put into service of the JGSDF. Due to low production numbers, it was supplemented with the tanks America gave it. The time the Type 61 was deployed, it was already quite outdated in comparison to Soviet contenders such as the [[T-54 (1951)|T-54/55]] and [[T-62]] tanks. In 1962, the successor of the Type 61 was already in the development process. Even when it was finished, which would be the [[Type 74]], the Type 61 would stick around as supplement due to low production numbers as well, starting from 1980.  
  
 
The Type 61 would start being retired in the 1990s, showing its obvious age in comparison with newer third-generation main battle tanks. The transition can be seen in that 400 Type 61 were still in service in 1990 to 190 tanks in 1995. In this time period, the Type 61 went through a modernization program to add infra-red searchlights and smoke dischargers. Regardless, all were decommissioned by 2000, paving the way to the newer Japanese tank designs.
 
The Type 61 would start being retired in the 1990s, showing its obvious age in comparison with newer third-generation main battle tanks. The transition can be seen in that 400 Type 61 were still in service in 1990 to 190 tanks in 1995. In this time period, the Type 61 went through a modernization program to add infra-red searchlights and smoke dischargers. Regardless, all were decommissioned by 2000, paving the way to the newer Japanese tank designs.

Latest revision as of 15:29, 20 May 2019

Type 61
jp_type_61.png
AB
RB
SB
General characteristics
Brief
Detailed
6.7/6.7/6.7BR
4 peopleCrew
front / side / backArmour
45 / 30 / 20Hull
40 / 60 / 35Turret
Mobility
34.5 tWeight
50 km/h forward
8 km/h back
45 km/h forward
8 km/h back
Speed
Armament
90 mm Type 61 cannonMain weapon
51 roundsAmmunition
-10° / 13°Vertical guidance
12.7 mm M2HB machine gunMachinegun
2 175 roundsAmmunition
200 roundsBelt capacity
577 shots/minFire rate
-10° / 40°Vertical guidance
4 900 roundsAmmunition
250 roundsBelt capacity
500 shots/minFire rate
Economy
120 000 Rp icon.pngResearch
300 000 Sl icon.pngPurchase
Sl icon.png3 860 / 5 817/2 330 / 3 511/1 340 / 2 019Repair
85 000 Sl icon.pngCrew training
300 000 Sl icon.pngExperts
1 200 Ge icon.pngAces
× (196) % Rp icon.pngReward for battle

Description

GarageImage Type61.jpg


The Type 61 is a rank IV Japanese medium tank with a battle rating of 6.7 (AB/RB/SB). This medium tank was introduced along with the initial Japanese Ground Forces tree in Update 1.65 "Way of the Samurai".

The Type 61 looks like a bizarre cross between the American M41 Walker Bulldog and M60 tanks. It is very similar in its overall length and size to the M41 and the turret looks like the M60's turret with the same prominent commander's cupola on top of the turret housing a rangefinder.

The Japanese Type 61 mimics the American M47 Patton in firepower and M41 Walker bulldog in armour, it has the large, tall profile and fairly mobile medium tank characteristics from of the M47 Patton, with the same decent 90 mm M36/Type61 cannon, but the armour protection qualities more akin to those of the M41 Walker Bulldog.

The Type 61 with its low armour protection and the presence of cannons like the 88 mm KwK43, 105 mm L7A1, 100 mm D-10T cannons at its BR of ~6.7 makes it extremely weak to incoming fire.

Good Type 61 users will typically use the decent mobility to position themselves on flanks of opposition pushes, allowing them to use the decent M318A1 AP round or the M82 shot APHE round to hit weaker side armour or weak spots, alternatively the M431 shell HEAT-FS is a viable choice for long range shooting, however it has meagre damage potential compares to the M318A1 AP round and M82 shot APHE round.

The quick turret traverse will benefit the Type 61 in a close range engagement however the large profile, low armour protection and non-stabilized gun combined with the sometimes lacking penetration of the M318A1 AP round, M82 shot APHE round and poor damage potential of the M431 shell HEAT-FS, means that it not a particularly effective at brawling combat.

General info

Survivability and armour

Armour Type:

  • Rolled homogeneous armour
  • Cast homogeneous armour (Turret)
Armour Front Sides Rear Roof
Hull 45 mm (49-61°) Front glacis
50 mm (54°) Lower glaics
30 mm (30°) Top
35 mm Bottom
25 mm (13°) Top
20 mm (30°), 10 mm (59°) Bottom
12 mm
Turret 40 mm (4-78°) Turret front
80 mm (0-68°) Gun mantlet
40-60 mm (0-38°) 35 mm 18 mm
Armour Sides Roof
Cupola 31.7 mm 31.7 mm

Notes:

  • Suspension wheels are 15 mm thick while tracks are 20 mm thick.

Due to its weak armour nearly every tank is a serious threat to the Type 61, as well as a number of SPAA vehicles, however fast medium tanks such as the T-44, M46/M47 Patton or Panther II which can match its mobile are a painful to avoid, while anything with heavy armour (T29, T32, T34 and King Tigers) forces the reliance on the M431 shell HEAT-FS to punch through frontally, taking multiple shots to overcome.

Mobility

Mobility characteristic
Weight (tons) Add-on Armor
weight (tons)
Max speed (km/h)
34.3 N/A 50 (AB)
45 (RB/SB)
Engine power (horsepower)
Mode Stock Upgraded
Arcade 883 ___
Realistic/Simulator 504 570
Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Mode Stock Upgraded
Arcade 25.74 __.__
Realistic/Simulator 14.69 16.62

Armaments

Main armament

Main article: Type 61 (90 mm)
90 mm Type 61
Capacity Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
Stabilizer
51 -10°/+13° ±180° N/A
Turret rotation speed (°/s)
Mode Stock Upgraded Prior + Full crew Prior + Expert qualif. Prior + Ace qualif.
Arcade 22.85 _.__ _.__ _.__ _.__
Realistic 18.81 _.__ _.__ _.__ _.__
Reloading rate (seconds)
Stock Prior + Full crew Prior + Expert qualif. Prior + Ace qualif.
9.75 __.__ __.__ 7.5
Type 61 Optics
Which ones Default magnification Maximum magnification
Main Gun optics x4 x8
Comparable optics M46 “Tiger”
Ammunition
Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration in mm @ 0° Angle of Attack
10m 100m 500m 1000m 1500m 2000m
M318A1 shot AP 191 189 175 160 147 134
M71 shell HE 13 13 13 13 13 13
M82 shot APCBC 182 180 168 153 140 128
M431 shell HEATFS 320 320 320 320 320 320
Shell details
Ammunition Velocity
in m/s
Projectile
Mass in kg
Fuse delay

in m:

Fuse sensitivity

in mm:

Explosive Mass in g
(TNT equivalent):
Normalization At 30°
from horizontal:
Ricochet:
0% 50% 100%
M318A1 shot 912 11 N/A N/A N/A +4° 43° 30° 25°
M71 shell 823 11 0.1 0.5 925 +0° 11° 10°
M82 shot 853 11 1.2 15 137.2 +4° 42° 27° 19°
M431 shell 1216 5.8 0.0 0.1 712.64 25° 18° 15°
Smoke characteristic
Ammunition Velocity
in m/s
Projectile
Mass in kg
Screen radius
in m
Screen time
in s
Screen hold time
in s:
Explosive Mass in g
(TNT equivalent):
M313 821 11 13 5 20 50
Ammo racks
Ammo racks of the Type 61
Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
4th
rack empty
5th
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
51 35 (+16) 23 (+28) 14 (+37) 11 (+40) (+50) No

Hull empty: 23 (+28)

Machine guns

12.7 mm M2HB
Pintle mount
Capacity (Belt capacity) Fire rate
(shots/minute)
Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
2,175 (200) 576 -10°/+40° ±180°
7.62 mm M1919A4
Coaxial mount
Capacity (Belt capacity) Fire rate
(shots/minute)
Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
4,900 (250) 500 N/A N/A

Usage in the battles

The Type 61 has excellent horizontal traverse and gun depression combined with a fairly mobile chassis, making it a good choice for progressing from turret down (be careful about the large cupola sticking up), to hull down and firing at the opposition before retreating back to turret down cover.

Its mobility is quite good at getting it to position, where it can ambush tanks early in the game or change position when required, particularly when disengaging when its position is discovered.

Its lack of armour and the decent but not overwhelmingly powerful gun means it is not a wonderful frontline tank to hold a defensive position when the opposition knows its position, as its armour is unlike to prevent any opposition rounds from penetrating and dealing damage, leaving the user to more often than not, rely on luck when engaging opposition frontally.

The biggest issue with the Type 61 is shot selection! Should one choose the M431 shell HEAT-FS which will punch through most opposition tanks, but do little damage? Or use the M318A1 AP round, M82 shot APHE rounds for more damage, but will struggle to penetrate opposition frontally at times?

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Fast turret rotation
  • Excellent gun depression
  • Good forward speed and mobility
  • Good acceleration
  • Great post-penetration damage on the M82 APCBC shell

Cons:

  • 90 mm Type 61 can struggle to overcome certain opposing tanks frontally without relying on M431 HEAT-FS shell
  • Very thin overall armour, any tank gun will make short work of the Type 61, and even certain SPAAs can give the tank trouble
  • The reverse speed -8 kph can hinder the tank at times
  • Very tall profile with the cupola on top of the turret, makes using certain cover impossible

History

Development

With the subsequent events of the Japanese surrender in September 1945, the end of World War II, and the ensuing Allied occupation of Japan, the Japanese were ordered to lay down their military activities, essentially abolishing the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy. For a short period past VE-Day, Japan was without a military with the exception of the Allied troops still occupying the country. This stance on a Japanese military was reversed with the advent of the Cold War and the much-closer Korean War in the early 1950s. With the departure of a majority of the Allied troops from Japan to Korea, there was a concern on the vulnerability of Japan without the aid of these nations. So in 1954, Japan formally organized the Defense Agency heading the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF). To jump-start the remilitarization of the JSDF, the United States gave Japan a handful of M4A3E8 Shermans and M24 Chaffees. However, in the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) service, these tanks presented some problems. The problems the Sherman presented was that its interior was too large for an average Japanese stature, with drivers unable to even reach the foot pedals, and the M24 Chaffee was just plain outdated against Soviet armour. The Japanese were then given options to replace these tanks with the newer American M46 Patton and M47 Patton or develop their own tank. Given the price of buying the tanks and the tanks not suiting to their specifications, the Japanese opted to develop their own tank for the JGSDF.

The initial specifications for the development of their domestic tank design followed as 1) Small enough to be train-transported, 2) Not be heavier than 25 tons, and 3) an armament of 90 mm calibre. The job of designing the tank was given to Mitsubishi, the same company responsible for making the majority of Japanese tanks in World War II. The first specification was important to not only improve cross-country travel but because if it could be followed, the tanks can be transported via truck transports as well. The second specification was a dodgy one in that 25 tons did not allow for much armour to be placed, but it was hoped a new engine could supplement a weight increase to 35 tons by improving mobility. When the new engine got delayed, the weight was reduced back to 25 tons to retain mobility. The last specification of a 90 mm gun was due to the Japanese experience with a M36 tank destroyer, believing the 90 mm to be sufficient in the mountainous region of Japan and be the limit where Japanese physique could adequately service the gun. These specifications would lead to the first prototype being developed in 1956.

In December 1956, the first prototype labelled ST-A1 was produced. Testing and various changes led to the second prototype, ST-A2, to be produced in February 1957. Two more prototypes labelled ST-A3 and ST-A4 were completed in 1959 and 1960 that led to the final production design to be produced in 1961. This would be accepted into service as the Type 61 main battle tank, with deployment to start within the same year. The Type 61 was formally adopted in 1961, but the starting numbers were low as production only put out 10 Type 61 tanks in the span of 1961 to 1962. This only marginally increases up to 1966, with 250 tanks. Production continued until 1975 with 560 tanks produced.

Service

The first few Type 61 tanks were put into service of the JGSDF. Due to low production numbers, it was supplemented with the tanks America gave it. The time the Type 61 was deployed, it was already quite outdated in comparison to Soviet contenders such as the T-54/55 and T-62 tanks. In 1962, the successor of the Type 61 was already in the development process. Even when it was finished, which would be the Type 74, the Type 61 would stick around as supplement due to low production numbers as well, starting from 1980.

The Type 61 would start being retired in the 1990s, showing its obvious age in comparison with newer third-generation main battle tanks. The transition can be seen in that 400 Type 61 were still in service in 1990 to 190 tanks in 1995. In this time period, the Type 61 went through a modernization program to add infra-red searchlights and smoke dischargers. Regardless, all were decommissioned by 2000, paving the way to the newer Japanese tank designs.

Media

An excellent addition to the article will be video guides, as well as screenshots from the game and photos.

Read also

[Devblog] Type 61: The Japanese-style Patton

Sources

Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:

  • topic on the official game forum;
  • other literature.


Japan medium tanks
Chassis Chi-Ha  Type 97 Chi-Ha · Type 97 Chi-Ha Kai · Type 97 Chi-Ha Short Gun
Chassis Chi-He  Type 1 Chi-He · Type 2 Ho-I · Type 3 Chi-Nu · Chi-Nu II
End war  Type 4 Chi-To · Type 4 Chi-To Late · Type 5 Chi-Ri II
Post-war  ST-A1 · ST-A2 · Type 61 · STB-1 · Type 74 · Type 74 mod G/Kai · Type 90
USA  Medium Tank M4A3 (76) W HVSS Sherman