Difference between revisions of "Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 (610 mm)"

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{{DISPLAYTITLE:Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 (610 mm)}}
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[[File:Type93_Model1_mod2.png|thumbnail|right|x250px|The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedo being launched.]]
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== Description ==
 
== Description ==
 
<!--Write an introduction to the article in 2-3 small paragraphs. Briefly tell us about the history of the development and combat using the weaponry and also about its features. Compile a list of air, ground, or naval vehicles that feature this weapon system in the game.-->
 
<!--Write an introduction to the article in 2-3 small paragraphs. Briefly tell us about the history of the development and combat using the weaponry and also about its features. Compile a list of air, ground, or naval vehicles that feature this weapon system in the game.-->
Mounted on various Japanese destroyers and cruisers, the Type 93 Torpedo is one of the best ship-launched torpedoes in the game. Combining an unrivaled 20 km range, excellent 91 km/h top speed, and large 627.2 kg equivalent warhead, this powerful torpedo can allow even light ships to effectively damage or even sink the largest ships in the game.
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The '''Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2''' is one of two versions of the 24-inch (610 mm) Type 93 torpedoes, the other being the [[Type 93 Model 3 (610 mm)|Type 93 Model 3]]. Mounted on many destroyers and cruisers in the Japanese naval tech tree, the Type 93 torpedo has one of the furthest range and is one of the largest and fastest ship-launched torpedoes in the game. This powerful torpedo can allow even light ships to remain effective against the most armoured ships in the game.
  
 
=== Vehicles equipped with this weapon ===
 
=== Vehicles equipped with this weapon ===
 
<!-- ''List out vehicles that are equipped with the weapon.'' -->
 
<!-- ''List out vehicles that are equipped with the weapon.'' -->
  
* {{Specs-Link|jp_destroyer_yugumo}}
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* {{Specs-Link|jp_destroyer_yugumo|short}}
* {{Specs-Link|jp_destroyer_yuudachi}}
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* {{Specs-Link|jp_destroyer_yuudachi|short}}
* {{Specs-Link|jp_cruiser_agano}}
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* {{Specs-Link|jp_cruiser_agano|short}}
* {{Specs-Link|jp_cruiser_furutaka}}
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* {{Specs-Link|jp_cruiser_mogami_mikuma|short}}
* {{Specs-Link|jp_cruiser_mogami}}
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* {{Specs-Link|jp_cruiser_mogami_suzuya|short}}
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* {{Specs-Link|jp_cruiser_furutaka|short}}
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* {{Specs-Link|jp_cruiser_mogami|short}}
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* {{Specs-Link|jp_cruiser_tone}}
  
 
== General info ==
 
== General info ==
 +
<!--''Tell us about the tactical and technical characteristics of the torpedo.''-->
  
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" width="100%"
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The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedo has a diameter of 610 mm, a length of 9 m, and weighs 2,700 kg. The Torpedo Mode modification is not available for this torpedo.
|-
 
! Mass (kg) !! Maximum Speed in water (km/h) !! Travel Distance (km) !! Depth Stroke (m) !! Arming Distance (m) !! Explosive Type !! Explosive Mass (kg) !! TNT Equivalent (kg)
 
|-
 
| 2700 || 91 || 20.00 || 1 || 50 || Type 97 || 490 || 627.2
 
|}
 
  
 
=== Effective damage ===
 
=== Effective damage ===
 
<!--Describe the type of damage produced by this type of torpedo (high explosive, splash damage, etc)-->
 
<!--Describe the type of damage produced by this type of torpedo (high explosive, splash damage, etc)-->
  
The Type 93 Model 1, mod 2 torpedo carries a warhead with a TNT equivalence of 627.2 kg, making it one of the most deadly torpedoes in the game, behind only the [[Type 93 Model 3]] and [[Mk.16|Mk.16.]] A single hit is usually enough to severely cripple large ships such as heavy and light cruisers, if not outright sink them.
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The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedo carries 490 kg Type 97 warhead, which is equivalent to 627.2 kg TNT. This makes it one of the most powerful torpedoes in the game, behind only the [[Type 93 Model 3 (610 mm)|Type 93 Model 3]] and [[Mk.16|Mk.16]]. A single hit is usually enough to sink destroyers and can cripple or even sink cruisers, depending on where it hit.
  
 
=== Comparison with analogues ===
 
=== Comparison with analogues ===
''Give a comparative description of torpedoes that have firepower equal to this weapon.''
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<!--''Give a comparative description of torpedoes that have firepower equal to this weapon.''-->
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The other version of the Type 93 torpedo in the game, [[Type 93 Model 3 (610 mm)|Type 93 Model 3]], has a considerably larger warhead, 998.4 kg TNT equivalence, though this comes at the cost of having a maximum range that is 5 km less, at 15 km. The maximum speeds of both torpedoes are the same. The Torpedo Mode modification is also not available for the Type 93 Model 3.
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Besides the Type 93 Model 3, one other torpedo has a larger warhead is the [[Mk.16 (533 mm)|Mk.16 torpedo]], which has a 915.2 kg TNT equivalent warhead. However, the Mk.16 can only travel at a maximum speed of 85 km/h for only 6.4 km. In terms of maximum range and speed, there are several notable torpedoes: the [[Seal DM2A1 (533 mm)|Seal DM2A1 torpedo]], the [[53-39 (533 mm)|53-39 torpedo]], and the [[Type 89 (533 mm)|Type 89 torpedo]]. The Seal DM2A1 torpedo matches the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 in range, but it can only travel at 61 km/h and only has a 250 kg TNT equivalent warhead. The 53-49 torpedo has a slightly higher maximum speed, 94 km/h, but it has a smaller warhead, 317 kg TNT equivalence, and can only travel for 4 km. Finally, the Type 89 torpedo actually surpasses the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 quite substantially in both maximum range and speed, 38 km and 102 km/h respectively; however, it has a smaller warhead, only 267 kg TNT equivalence.
 +
 
 +
Compared to common torpedoes mounted on destroyers and cruisers among other nations:
 +
 
 +
* [[Mk.15 (533 mm)]]: The Mk.15 has a lower maximum range (5.5 km), has a lower maximum speed (83 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (224 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the Mk.15 has a lower maximum range (9.15 km) and has a lower maximum speed (62 km/h).
 +
 
 +
* [[G7a (533 mm)]]: The G7a has a lower maximum range (6 km), has a lower maximum speed (81 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (358.4 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the G7a has a lower maximum range (14 km) and has a lower maximum speed (56 km/h).
 +
 
 +
* [[G7e (mod. T5a) (533 mm)]]: The G7e has a lower maximum range (8 km), has a lower maximum speed (41 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (256 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the G7e has a lower maximum range (16 km) and has a lower maximum speed (24.3 km/h).
 +
 
 +
* [[53-38 (533 mm)]]: The 53-38 has a lower maximum range (4 km), has a lower maximum speed (82 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (300 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the 53-38 has a lower maximum range (10 km) and has a lower maximum speed (56 km/h).
 +
 
 +
* [[Mk.V (533 mm)]]: The Mk.V has a lower maximum range (9.6 km), has a lower maximum speed (74 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (305 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the Mk.V has a lower maximum range (12.35 km) and has a lower maximum speed (46 km/h).
 +
 
 +
* [[Mk.IX (533 mm)]]: The Mk.IX has a lower maximum range (9.6 km), has a lower maximum speed (67 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (340 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the Mk.IX has a lower maximum range (12.35 km) and has a lower maximum speed (56 km/h).
  
 
== Usage in battles ==
 
== Usage in battles ==
 
<!--Describe situations when you would utilise this torpedo in-game (vehicle, pillbox, base, etc)-->
 
<!--Describe situations when you would utilise this torpedo in-game (vehicle, pillbox, base, etc)-->
  
One useful feature of the Type 93 torpedo is that on all ships to which they are mounted on as of [[Update 1.89 "Imperial Navy"]], extra torpedoes are stored on the ship and allows the torpedo launchers to be reloaded in battle, usually enough for one full reload of the torpedo launchers. While limiting the amount of torpedoes the ship can send at once, this feature is very useful and allows these ships to carry much more torpedoes than most other ships. This is particularly useful in [[Realistic Battles]] as a single ship can launch multiple salvos of torpedoes without having to visit a capture point to reload. In [[Arcade Battles]], this will allow you to have a faster rate of fire for your torpedoes, since the torpedoes will replenish faster than the standard Arcade reload, allowing you to launch waves of torpedoes very quickly.
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One useful feature of the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedo is that on all ships that carry them, extra torpedoes are stored on the ship, which allows the torpedo launchers to be reloaded in battle, usually enough for one full reload of the torpedo launchers. While this does limit the number of torpedoes the ship can send at once, the total amount of torpedoes is often much more than what destroyers and cruisers of other nations can carry. This is useful in [[Realistic Battles]] as a single ship can launch multiple salvos of torpedoes without having to visit a capture point to reload. In [[Arcade Battles]], this will allow the torpedoes launchers to effectively have a faster rate of fire, since the torpedo launchers will refill faster than the standard AB torpedo reload.
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Be aware though that having extra torpedoes means that the ship essentially has above-deck, unarmoured ammo racks which can destroy the entire ship if detonated. These racks are, of course, emptied as their torpedoes are used to refill the launchers, so it might be a good idea to launch off at least enough torpedoes to empty the racks right away after spawning in. Unlike other torpedoes and fortunately for the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2, its unique combination of both a large maximum range and a fast top speed make such strategies viable. By firing a wide salvo at the beginning of the match towards areas where many enemy ships are likely to be pass through (for example, capture points or narrow passes), these sections of the map can effectively be blocked off, and, because of their range and speed, they can catch enemies off-guard who either don't expect seeing torpedoes so early in the match or don't expect seeing torpedoes in areas of the map where other torpedoes usually fail to reach. The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 is a particularly useful weapon in the Encounter game mode. The 20 km maximum range is more than enough to reach across the entire map, which usually spans roughly 15 km. Ships armed with the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedoes can strike the enemy team's AI convoy immediately from spawn.  
  
The Type 93 is a very useful weapon in the Encounter gamemode, as their long range and fast speed will allow it to strike at the enemy convoy immediately from spawn. They can also be used against players by firing a large spread in an area where one would expect many ships to pass through, such as a narrow pass. They can catch an enemy ships off-guard at a distance where most conventional torpedoes will not be able to reach and effectively shut down sections of the map where they are launched.
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The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 really shines in naval [[Enduring Confrontation]], where the much larger map sizes render many other torpedoes useless outside of close engagements. The 20 km maximum range is enough to reach halfway across the map, or more on certain maps.  
  
 
=== Pros and cons ===
 
=== Pros and cons ===
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'''Pros:'''
 
'''Pros:'''
  
* Extremely powerful warhead
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* Very large explosive mass, third-largest in the game
* One of the fastest torpedoes in the game
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* Very high top speed, one of the fastest torpedoes in the game
* Tied for longest range torpedo, at 20 km
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* Very long range, tied for second-highest in the game
* Ships that carry Type 93 often carry a large amount
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* Ships that carry Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 often carry a large amount, upwards of 16
  
 
'''Cons:'''
 
'''Cons:'''
  
* Ships that carry Type 93 must reload in order to access entire load
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* Ships that carry Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedoes must reload in order to access entire load
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
Without the required number of capital warships, nor the industry to produce them, to match the United States in the Pacific, Japan would not be able to win a prolonged gun fight with as there would always be more US ships than Japanese. Instead, they opted for a strategy in which series of mass torpedo attacks would weaken the US fleet ahead of a major decisive battle. Thus, development for a stealthy, long range torpedo began in 1928.
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<!--''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the weapon in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too long, take it to a separate article, taking a link to the article about the weapon and adding a block "/History" (example: <nowiki>https://wiki.warthunder.com/(Weapon-name)/History</nowiki>) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to reference text and sources by using <code><nowiki><ref></ref></nowiki></code>, as well as adding them at the end of the article with <code><nowiki><references /></nowiki></code>.''-->
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Without the required number of capital warships, nor the industry to produce them, to match the United States in the Pacific, Japan would not be able to win a prolonged war with the US or engage them in a massive battle as there would always be more US ships than Japanese ships. To combat this disadvantage, the Imperial Japanese Navy developed a strategy in which a series of mass torpedo attacks would weaken the US fleet ahead of a major decisive battle. For this, a long-range, stealthy torpedo would be needed. Both the British Royal Navy and the IJN had experimented with oxygen torpedoes in the past. The use of oxygen as an oxidizer, while very efficient, is also extremely dangerous, and, after casualties from premature explosion, development halted. It was in the wake of the new British battleship HMS Rodney, which carried oxygen torpedoes, that interest renewed in Japan. Taking inspiration from HMS Rodney's torpedoes, development began again in 1928 for a long-range, wakeless oxygen torpedo.
 +
 
 +
The resulting torpedo, the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 1 torpedo, referred to as Sanso Gyorai (酸素魚雷, "oxygen torpedo"), entered service in 1935. The Type 93 torpedo had a diameter of 610 mm (24 inches), was 9 meters (29 feet, 6 inches) long, weighed 2700 kg, and, being a 24-inch torpedo, was rather large compared to its contemporaries, most of which were 21-inch torpedoes. Many torpedoes of the time used combustion engines for propulsion with compressed air as the oxidizer. In contrast, the Type 93 torpedo utilized pure, compressed oxygen as its oxidizer. Air is composed of roughly 20% oxygen and 78% nitrogen, the latter of which was a waste product that manifested as long bubble trails. Using pure oxygen allowed the Type 93 torpedo to effectively quintuple its efficiency while also eliminating the nitrogen byproduct. This greatly reduced the torpedo's bubble trail and left it virtually wakeless. The use of oxygen allowed the Type 93 torpedo to carry a large explosive charge, 490 kg of Type 97 explosive, without sacrificing fast speeds or long range.  
  
The resulting torpedo was the Type 93 torpedo, referred to as Sanso Gyorai (酸素魚雷). The Type 93 torpedo has a diameter of 610 mm (24 inches), is 9 meters (29 feet, 6 inches) long, and weighs 2700 kg. It was rather large compared to its analogues in other nations, allowing it to carry a large 490 kg explosive charge. Many torpedoes of the time used combustion engines with compressed air oxidizers for propulsion. In contrast, the Type 93 torpedo utilized pure, compressed oxygen as the oxidizer. Air is composed of roughly 20% oxygen and 78% nitrogen, the latter of which was a waste product that manifested as long bubble trails. Using pure oxygen allowed the Type 93 torpedo to effectively quintuple its fuel while also eliminating the nitrogen byproduct. This greatly reduced the torpedo's bubble trail. The use of oxygen allowed to Type 93 torpedo achieve both fast speeds and extremely long ranges. However, it was not without its drawbacks; the torpedo was prone early detonation, so a secondary compressed air tank was used at launch, switching to the oxygen tank once the torpedo was a safe distance away from the launching ship.
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However, this was not without its drawbacks: the torpedo was prone to early detonation. To counter this, a secondary compressed air tank was used at launch, only switching to the oxygen tank once the torpedo was a safe distance away from the launching ship. The Type 93 torpedo was also more susceptible to shrapnel and shock-induced detonation, which lead to the loss of a number of Japanese warships. Most notable is the case of the light cruiser Suzuya, which had its Type 93 torpedoes detonate from a near-miss air attack, sinking the entire ship.
  
The Type 93 torpedo entered service in 1935. The United States vastly underestimated the torpedo's effectiveness, resulting in large losses of warships and cargo ships. After the war, the Type 93 torpedo was dubbed "Long Lance" in the west.
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During WWII, Japanese light forces used the Type 93 torpedo in night attacks against Allied shipping, where the stealthy torpedo could often find its target before the enemy was even aware that there was a torpedo attack underway. This, combined with the extreme secrecy of the torpedo, resulted in the loss of many Allied ships and false attributions to some sinkings. After the war, the Type 93 torpedo was dubbed "Long Lance" in the west.
  
 
== Media ==
 
== Media ==
Line 61: Line 89:
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
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<!--''Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example:''
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* ''reference to the article about the variant of the weapon;''
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* ''references to approximate analogues by other nations and research trees.''-->
  
* ''references to approximate analogues by other nations and research trees.''
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* [[Type 93 Model 3 (610 mm)]]
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* [[Type 89 (533 mm)]]
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* [[Mk.15 (533 mm)]]
  
 
== External links ==
 
== External links ==
''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
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<!--''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
  
 
* ''topic on the official game forum;''
 
* ''topic on the official game forum;''
 
* ''encyclopedia page on the weapon;''
 
* ''encyclopedia page on the weapon;''
* ''other literature.''
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* ''other literature.''-->
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* [http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WTJAP_WWII.php NavWeaps - WWII Torpedoes of Japan]
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* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_93_torpedo Wikipedia - Type 93 Torpedo]
  
 
{{Torpedoes}}
 
{{Torpedoes}}
  
 
[[Category:Naval special armaments]]
 
[[Category:Naval special armaments]]

Latest revision as of 03:06, 19 November 2020


The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedo being launched.

Description

The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 is one of two versions of the 24-inch (610 mm) Type 93 torpedoes, the other being the Type 93 Model 3. Mounted on many destroyers and cruisers in the Japanese naval tech tree, the Type 93 torpedo has one of the furthest range and is one of the largest and fastest ship-launched torpedoes in the game. This powerful torpedo can allow even light ships to remain effective against the most armoured ships in the game.

Vehicles equipped with this weapon

General info

The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedo has a diameter of 610 mm, a length of 9 m, and weighs 2,700 kg. The Torpedo Mode modification is not available for this torpedo.

Effective damage

The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedo carries 490 kg Type 97 warhead, which is equivalent to 627.2 kg TNT. This makes it one of the most powerful torpedoes in the game, behind only the Type 93 Model 3 and Mk.16. A single hit is usually enough to sink destroyers and can cripple or even sink cruisers, depending on where it hit.

Comparison with analogues

The other version of the Type 93 torpedo in the game, Type 93 Model 3, has a considerably larger warhead, 998.4 kg TNT equivalence, though this comes at the cost of having a maximum range that is 5 km less, at 15 km. The maximum speeds of both torpedoes are the same. The Torpedo Mode modification is also not available for the Type 93 Model 3.

Besides the Type 93 Model 3, one other torpedo has a larger warhead is the Mk.16 torpedo, which has a 915.2 kg TNT equivalent warhead. However, the Mk.16 can only travel at a maximum speed of 85 km/h for only 6.4 km. In terms of maximum range and speed, there are several notable torpedoes: the Seal DM2A1 torpedo, the 53-39 torpedo, and the Type 89 torpedo. The Seal DM2A1 torpedo matches the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 in range, but it can only travel at 61 km/h and only has a 250 kg TNT equivalent warhead. The 53-49 torpedo has a slightly higher maximum speed, 94 km/h, but it has a smaller warhead, 317 kg TNT equivalence, and can only travel for 4 km. Finally, the Type 89 torpedo actually surpasses the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 quite substantially in both maximum range and speed, 38 km and 102 km/h respectively; however, it has a smaller warhead, only 267 kg TNT equivalence.

Compared to common torpedoes mounted on destroyers and cruisers among other nations:

  • Mk.15 (533 mm): The Mk.15 has a lower maximum range (5.5 km), has a lower maximum speed (83 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (224 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the Mk.15 has a lower maximum range (9.15 km) and has a lower maximum speed (62 km/h).
  • G7a (533 mm): The G7a has a lower maximum range (6 km), has a lower maximum speed (81 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (358.4 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the G7a has a lower maximum range (14 km) and has a lower maximum speed (56 km/h).
  • G7e (mod. T5a) (533 mm): The G7e has a lower maximum range (8 km), has a lower maximum speed (41 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (256 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the G7e has a lower maximum range (16 km) and has a lower maximum speed (24.3 km/h).
  • 53-38 (533 mm): The 53-38 has a lower maximum range (4 km), has a lower maximum speed (82 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (300 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the 53-38 has a lower maximum range (10 km) and has a lower maximum speed (56 km/h).
  • Mk.V (533 mm): The Mk.V has a lower maximum range (9.6 km), has a lower maximum speed (74 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (305 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the Mk.V has a lower maximum range (12.35 km) and has a lower maximum speed (46 km/h).
  • Mk.IX (533 mm): The Mk.IX has a lower maximum range (9.6 km), has a lower maximum speed (67 km/h), and has a smaller explosive mass (340 kg TNT eq.). With the Torpedo Mode modification installed, the Mk.IX has a lower maximum range (12.35 km) and has a lower maximum speed (56 km/h).

Usage in battles

One useful feature of the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedo is that on all ships that carry them, extra torpedoes are stored on the ship, which allows the torpedo launchers to be reloaded in battle, usually enough for one full reload of the torpedo launchers. While this does limit the number of torpedoes the ship can send at once, the total amount of torpedoes is often much more than what destroyers and cruisers of other nations can carry. This is useful in Realistic Battles as a single ship can launch multiple salvos of torpedoes without having to visit a capture point to reload. In Arcade Battles, this will allow the torpedoes launchers to effectively have a faster rate of fire, since the torpedo launchers will refill faster than the standard AB torpedo reload.

Be aware though that having extra torpedoes means that the ship essentially has above-deck, unarmoured ammo racks which can destroy the entire ship if detonated. These racks are, of course, emptied as their torpedoes are used to refill the launchers, so it might be a good idea to launch off at least enough torpedoes to empty the racks right away after spawning in. Unlike other torpedoes and fortunately for the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2, its unique combination of both a large maximum range and a fast top speed make such strategies viable. By firing a wide salvo at the beginning of the match towards areas where many enemy ships are likely to be pass through (for example, capture points or narrow passes), these sections of the map can effectively be blocked off, and, because of their range and speed, they can catch enemies off-guard who either don't expect seeing torpedoes so early in the match or don't expect seeing torpedoes in areas of the map where other torpedoes usually fail to reach. The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 is a particularly useful weapon in the Encounter game mode. The 20 km maximum range is more than enough to reach across the entire map, which usually spans roughly 15 km. Ships armed with the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedoes can strike the enemy team's AI convoy immediately from spawn.

The Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 really shines in naval Enduring Confrontation, where the much larger map sizes render many other torpedoes useless outside of close engagements. The 20 km maximum range is enough to reach halfway across the map, or more on certain maps.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Very large explosive mass, third-largest in the game
  • Very high top speed, one of the fastest torpedoes in the game
  • Very long range, tied for second-highest in the game
  • Ships that carry Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 often carry a large amount, upwards of 16

Cons:

  • Ships that carry Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 torpedoes must reload in order to access entire load

History

Without the required number of capital warships, nor the industry to produce them, to match the United States in the Pacific, Japan would not be able to win a prolonged war with the US or engage them in a massive battle as there would always be more US ships than Japanese ships. To combat this disadvantage, the Imperial Japanese Navy developed a strategy in which a series of mass torpedo attacks would weaken the US fleet ahead of a major decisive battle. For this, a long-range, stealthy torpedo would be needed. Both the British Royal Navy and the IJN had experimented with oxygen torpedoes in the past. The use of oxygen as an oxidizer, while very efficient, is also extremely dangerous, and, after casualties from premature explosion, development halted. It was in the wake of the new British battleship HMS Rodney, which carried oxygen torpedoes, that interest renewed in Japan. Taking inspiration from HMS Rodney's torpedoes, development began again in 1928 for a long-range, wakeless oxygen torpedo.

The resulting torpedo, the Type 93 Model 1, Mod 1 torpedo, referred to as Sanso Gyorai (酸素魚雷, "oxygen torpedo"), entered service in 1935. The Type 93 torpedo had a diameter of 610 mm (24 inches), was 9 meters (29 feet, 6 inches) long, weighed 2700 kg, and, being a 24-inch torpedo, was rather large compared to its contemporaries, most of which were 21-inch torpedoes. Many torpedoes of the time used combustion engines for propulsion with compressed air as the oxidizer. In contrast, the Type 93 torpedo utilized pure, compressed oxygen as its oxidizer. Air is composed of roughly 20% oxygen and 78% nitrogen, the latter of which was a waste product that manifested as long bubble trails. Using pure oxygen allowed the Type 93 torpedo to effectively quintuple its efficiency while also eliminating the nitrogen byproduct. This greatly reduced the torpedo's bubble trail and left it virtually wakeless. The use of oxygen allowed the Type 93 torpedo to carry a large explosive charge, 490 kg of Type 97 explosive, without sacrificing fast speeds or long range.

However, this was not without its drawbacks: the torpedo was prone to early detonation. To counter this, a secondary compressed air tank was used at launch, only switching to the oxygen tank once the torpedo was a safe distance away from the launching ship. The Type 93 torpedo was also more susceptible to shrapnel and shock-induced detonation, which lead to the loss of a number of Japanese warships. Most notable is the case of the light cruiser Suzuya, which had its Type 93 torpedoes detonate from a near-miss air attack, sinking the entire ship.

During WWII, Japanese light forces used the Type 93 torpedo in night attacks against Allied shipping, where the stealthy torpedo could often find its target before the enemy was even aware that there was a torpedo attack underway. This, combined with the extreme secrecy of the torpedo, resulted in the loss of many Allied ships and false attributions to some sinkings. After the war, the Type 93 torpedo was dubbed "Long Lance" in the west.

Media

An excellent addition to the article would be a video guide, as well as screenshots from the game and photos.

See also

External links


Torpedoes
USA 
450 mm  Mk.7
533 mm  Bliss-Leavitt Mk.1 · Mk.8 · Mk.8-3 C/D · Mk.15 · Mk.16
569 mm  Mk.13 · Mk.13-1 * · Mk.13-1 Case *
Germany 
324 mm  Mark 44
450 mm  C/06D · LT 1A/1 · F5W *
500 mm  G6c
533 mm  G7a · Mark 35 · Seal DM2A1
USSR 
400 mm  SET-40
450 mm  45-36NU · 45-36AN * · 45-36MAN *
456 mm  Pattern 1910 · Pattern 1912
533 mm  53-38 · 53-39 · 53-56 · SET-65
Britain 
450 mm  R.G.F. Mark VI · Mark XII ** · Mark XV **
533 mm  Mark I · Mk.V · Mk.VIII · Mk.IX
Japan 
324 mm  Mark 46
450 mm  Type 2 · Type 43 · Type 44 No.2 · Type 91 Model 2 * · Type 91 Model 3 *
533 mm  Type 6 · Type 43 (1910) · Type 54 model 3 · Type 89
610 mm  Type 8 No.2 · Type 90 · Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 · Type 93 Model 3
Italy 
450 mm  F200/450 * · S.I.170/450X5,25 · W.200/450X5,75
533 mm  S.I.270 · S.I. 250/533,4X7,5 Tipo A · S.I. 270/533,4X7,2 Tipo I · S.I. 270/533X6.84 Tipo L · S.I. 270/533,4X7,2 Tipo M
Sweden 
450 mm  m/38* · m/41*
  *  = Aerial torpedo
** = Aerial and ship-launched torpedo