Type 91 Model 2 (835 kg)

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Type 91 Model 2
Type91 Mod2 torpedo.png
Information
Aerial TorpedoType
Japan Japan flag.pngCounty of Origin
General Characteristics
470 mm (17.7")Diameter
5.486 m (18')Length
0 - 481 km/hDrop Speed
0 - 260 mDrop Altitude
-15°/+15°Drop Angle
850 kgMass
77 km/hMax Speed
2.00 kmMax Range
1 mDepth Stroke
50 mArming Distance
Production History
Imperial Japanese NavyDesigner
Full ProductionProduction Status
1939 - 1945Produced

Description

The Type 91 Model 2 is an aerial torpedo that can be found on several Japanese WWII bombers and torpedo bombers, often with a separate option for its other variant, Type 91 Model 3 (850 kg).

Vehicles equipped with this weapon

General info

The Type 91 Model 2 has a diameter of 450 mm, a length of 5.486 m, and weighs 835 kg. It can travel at a maximum speed of 77 km/h in the water for 2 km.

Msg-info.png Dropping the torpedo outside of these ranges will result in the torpedo being drowned
Drop Ranges
Game Modes Drop Speed Range (km/h) Drop Altitude Range (m) Drop Angle Range
AB 0 - 936 0 - 350 -30°/+30°
RB/SB 0 - 481 0 - 260 -15°/+15°

Effective damage

In air battles, a single hit is usually enough to sink most AI ships. Certain larger ships such as aircraft carriers and battleships may require two or more hits to sink, depending on where the torpedo hits. In naval battles, many of the larger ships such as heavy cruisers can require multiple torpedo hits, depending on where they are hit. Destroyers and smaller vessels can usually be sunk with a single torpedo.

Comparison with analogues

Compared with its other variant,Type 91 Model 3 (850 kg), the Type 93 Model 2 is inferior, with a lower maximum drop speed and drop angle as well as a more powerful warhead, with everything else being the same. The Type 91 Model 2 is 15 kg lighter than the Type 91 Model 3, although differences in flight performance when carrying one or the other is negligible.

Compared to common torpedoes in other nations:

  • Mk.13 (569 mm): Type 91 Model 2 has a higher maximum speed, is lighter, and has much better drop speeds and altitudes; but has a smaller warhead, has worse drop angles, and has 3.76 km less range
  • Mk.13/44 (569 mm): Type 91 Model 2 has a higher maximum speed and is lighter; but has a smaller warhead, has 3.76 km less range, and slightly worse drop speeds, altitudes, and angles
  • F5W: Type 91 Model 2 has a larger warhead, is lighter, and has much higher drop speeds and altitudes; but has a slightly slower maximum speed and has 1 km less range
  • Mark XII: Type 91 Model 2 has a higher maximum speed, has a larger warhead, and has much higher drop speeds and altitudes; but is much heavier, has worse drop angles, and has 3.2 km less range
  • Mark XV: Type 91 Model 2 has much high higher drop speeds and altitudes; but has a slightly slower maximum speed, is heavier, has worse drop angles, has a smaller warhead, and has 3.5 km less range
  • F200/450 (450 mm): Type 91 Model 2 has a larger warhead and has much better drop speeds and altitudes; but is heavier, has a slightly slower maximum speed, and has 2 km less range

Usage in battles

In air battles, the Type 91 Model 2 can be used to attack enemy AI shipping, which usually can be sunk with a single hit. Notable are AI aircraft carriers, which usually require two hits to sink. Because of their short range of only 2 km, aircraft with this torpedo are required to close in much closer to their target than with other torpedoes, which exposes the aircraft to stronger AAA for longer. Despite that, because of the high maximum drop speed and drop altitude, the aircraft can dive in and exit at high speeds, making for a harder target.

In naval battles, the short range is a much greater issue, since the enemy's AAA will be much greater, although most torpedo attacks in this mode happen at closer ranges anyway. In turn, the high drop ranges become an even greater asset. To give the enemy as little time as possible to avoid, the Type 91 Model 2 should be dropped as close to the target and the water as possible and at the fastest speed possible, since its initial speed in the air will transfer somewhat to its speed in the water for some distance. Take care though not to drop the torpedo too close to the target, since the torpedo must travel 50 m in the water before its warhead is armed. Be sure to take into account that the torpedo travels a bit in the air before it hits the water.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Very good drop speeds and drop altitudes
  • Above average maximum speed

Cons:

  • Lowest range of any aerial torpedo
  • Below average drop angles

History

At the time of the Type 91's inception, no aerial torpedo designs existed in Japan. In 1925, Rear Admiral Seiji Naruse was promoted to development management officer at Kampon and sent to the United Kingdom to obtain aerial torpedo technology. He returned in 1927 and began development on Japan's first domestic aerial torpedo, the Type 91, with his team, the 91 Association, at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. A prototype was tested in December 1930, with the Type 91 entering production a year later in December 1931. In 1934, Kampon halted production and development of the Type 91 in favor of an aerial version of the Type 93 torpedo, though designs were impractical and production of the Type 91 continued nonetheless. In 1936, a new version, Type 91 Mod 1, added wooden stabilization fins to the tail fins, which would improve water entry. The torpedo would discard the wooden fins upon entering the water. Type 91 Mod 1 had a diameter of 450 mm, a length of 5.275 m, weighed 784 kg, and carried a 150 kg Type 97 explosive charge. It had a range of 2 km and a speed of 33 knots (80 km/h).

Type 91 Mod 2 was a strengthened version of Type 91 Mod 1 designed in 1938. Later in August 1941, a modification of Type 91 Mod 2 was developed for use in a planned attack of the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. This design featured an advanced anti-rolling system was added that, in the case of rolling, would use torpedo's rudders to steer it back to the neutral position. Unique to the Type 91's anti-rolling system was a system that would deflect the rudders in the opposite direction, countersteer, as it approached the neutral position, slowing its angular velocity, something that no other aerial torpedo at the time had. Entering production and service later that year, Type 91 Mod 2 increased the length to 5.486 m, the weight to 835 kg, and the warhead to 205 kg of Type 97 explosive. The anti-rolling system allowed the Type 91 Mod 2 to be successfully used in water as shallow as 20 m, and they would ultimately be used in the Attack on Pearl Harbor.

Beginning production in 1941, Type 91 Mod 3 was an improvement of the Type 91 Mod 2 that increased the explosive charge to 240 kg of Type 97 explosive, among other minor changes. A version of the Type 91 Mod 3 with a strengthened body called the Type 91 Mod 3 Improved was introduced in 1942. The reinforced structure allowed for it to be dropped at speeds of 555.6 km/h.

Media

An excellent addition to the article would be a video guide, as well as screenshots from the game and photos.

See also

External links


Torpedoes
USA 
46 cm  Mk.7
53 cm  Mk.8 · Mk.8-3 C/D · Mk.15 · Mk.16
57 cm  Mk.13 * · Mk.13/44 *
Germany 
45 cm  F5W * · LT 1A/1
53 cm  G7a · G7E (mod.T5a) · Seal DM2A1
USSR 
40 cm  SET-40
45 cm  45-36AN * · 45-36MAN * · 45-36NU
53 mm  53-38 · 53-39 · 53-56 · SET-65
Britain 
45 cm  Mark XII * · Mark XV
53 cm  Mk.V · Mk.VIII · Mk.IX
Japan 
32 cm  Mark 46
45 cm  Type 2 · Type 44 No.2 · Type 91 Mod.2 * · Type 91 Mod.3 *
53 cm  Type 6
61 cm  Type 8 No.2 · Type 90 · Type 93 Model 1, Mod 2 · Type 93 Model 3
Italy 
45 cm  F200/450 *
  * = Aircraft launched