Type 99 Model 2 (20 mm)
The Type 99 Model 2 was the main 20 mm aircraft cannon for the Imperial Japanese Navy during WW2, replacing the earlier drum-fed Type 99 Model. It was mounted on nigh every IJN aircraft in a pair or quad setup, allowing for a significant firepower boost that helped the fighters of the time compete with the exceedingly well-armed American aircraft that they faced.
The principal differences between Model 2 and Model 1 consist of a longer barrel and a longer chamber. The barrel protrudes 18 inches beyond the leading edge when mounted in the wings of fighter aircraft. The projectiles used are identical to the Model 1, but the cartridge employed contains approximately 40% more propellant than the older type, thereby increasing the velocity of the Model 2 to a respectable 750 m/s opposed to the Model 1's 600 m/s.
Vehicles equipped with this weapon
|Vehicles equipped with this weapon|
|A6M||A6M3 mod. 22Ko · A6M5 · A6M5 Ko · A6M5 otsu · A6M5 Hei|
|A7M||A7M1 (NK9H) · A7M2|
|J2M||J2M2 · J2M3 · J2M4 Kai · J2M5|
|N1K||N1K1-Ja · N1K2-J · N1K2-Ja|
|Twin-engine fighters||J1N1 · J5N1|
|Bombers||B7A2 · G8N1 (Defensive)|
The Model 2 cannons have a rate of fire of 490 RPM, implying the variant in game is the Model 2 Mark 3, as the later Model 2 Mark 5 cannon had a sustained rate of fire of 620 RPM. Muzzle velocity is average, between 700 m/s and 750 m/s depending on the shell. It is of note that the Model 2 cannons typically hold a large amount of rounds per gun, ranging from 150 to 250, which allows for a significantly large ammunition pool in its traditional quad or double mount setup.
- T - Standard tracer shell
- FI - Fragment Incendiary shell
- AP-I - Armour Piercing Incendiary shell, second most common among belt setups
- HEF - High Explosive Fragmentation shell, most common among belt setups
- HEF-T - Tracer variant of HEF shell, slightly higher muzzle velocity but lower explosive power
- Default: T, FI, FI, API
- Universal: HEF-T, HEF, HEF, AP-I
- Ground Targets: AP-I, AP-I, AP-I, AP-I, HEF, HEF-T
- Tracers: HEF-T, HEF-T, HEF-T, HEF-T
- Stealth: HEF, HEF, HEF, AP-I, AP-I
Comparison with analogues
|Rate of fire||Muzzle
|Hispano 404||20 × 110||130||700||880||60|
|MG FF||20 × 80RB||134||520||600||28|
|MG FF/M||20 × 80RB||92/115||540/520||700/585||28|
|MG 151/20||20 × 82||92/115||750–800||800/720||42|
|Ho-1||20 × 125||144||400||805||45|
|Ho-3||20 × 125||144||400||805||45|
|Ho-5||20 × 94||96||750–850||715||37|
|Type 99 Mark 1 Model 2~3||20 × 72RB||129||520~550||600||23~27|
|Type 99 Mark 2 Model 3~5||20 × 101RB||129||480~720||750||35~38|
|Hispano Mk.II (20 mm)||20 × 110||130||600||880||50|
|Hispano Mk.V (20 mm)||20 × 110||130||750||840||42|
|ShVAK||20 × 99R||95||800||750–770||42|
|B-20||20 × 99R||95||800||750–770||25|
|VYa-23||23 × 152B||200||550||880||69|
|NS-23||23 × 115||200||550||690||37|
|AN/M2||20 × 110||130||600–700||870||51|
|M3||20 × 110||130||600–750||840||54|
Usage in battles
The Type 99 Mark 2's are very "middle of the road" cannons in War Thunder, as they are not amazing at anything but not bad at anything either. Although they have gotten a bad reputation for poor damage output, the Mark 2's raw damage is quite respectable when aimed well. Being middle of the road weapons means that you can use them in many scenarios and they will perform their job amicably, but the usage style changes depending on what aircraft one is approaching. When engaging fighter aircraft, a quick burst to the cockpit or tail is generally enough to get the job done, but you might have to use more ammunition for heavier aircraft such as twin-engined fighters or attackers. When engaging bombers, the pilot must take a more reserved approach when attacking as a good amount of bombers that one will face can soak up damage like a sponge, so aiming at the engines and wings are crucial for preserving ammunition.
Your belt of choice should be the reliable Universal belt, as it provides the most balanced ammunition spread and a tracer for aiming. However, if you are familiar with the Mark 2's ballistics, the Stealth belt is an excellent choice due to the removal of the tracer round and an additional AP-I shell, allowing you to sneakily strike unaware enemies.
Pros and cons
- Good all-rounder weapons that deal decent damage to all targets
- Typically carries a large ammunition load
- Lower rate of fire allows for forced conservation of ammunition
- Hard to jam, able to fire continuously for nearly 10 seconds with crew skills
- Reasonably accurate
- Seems to excel in starting fires
- HEF shell is excellent and deals great damage
- Has a tendency to spark
- Low rate of fire, nearly half of contemporaries
- Guns are usually mounted on the wings, creating significant convergence
Around early 1935, Japan noticed that it was starting to fall behind in armaments as the 7.7 mm Type 97 and Type 87 machine guns became obsolete, and as such turned their gaze northwest to search for a solution. The Japanese Army sought to upscale their M2 Browning derived Ho-103 machine gun, which became the excellent Ho-5, but the Navy searched for a lighter cannon due to the emphasis on weight saving in aircraft. The Oerlikon FF became the weapon of choice and the IJN negotiated to produce the cannon in Japan, which was designated simply as E-Shiki. The E-Shiki was continuously refined and improved until 1941, when it received the Type 99 designation. Although inferior to the Army's Ho-5, it was the lightest aircraft cannon of the war at a mere ~23-27 kilograms thanks to its APIB action, making it the first choice for the Navy's new lightweight, carrier-borne fighter aircraft that would become the legendary A6M Zero. The early Model 1 cannon was based on the Oerlikon FF and was fed by a 60 round drum magazine, although this changed to a higher capacity 100-round drum magazine around 1942.
The Model 2 cannon emerged mid-1942 as a heavier alternative based on the Oerlikon FFL in response to the larger and stronger airframes of later Japanese aircraft that could accommodate larger weapons. The larger size, weight and more efficient cyclic action allowed for a significant increase in muzzle velocity, from 600 m/s to 750 m/s at the cost of a slightly lower rate of fire of 490 RPM in the earlier marks (something that was remedied in the later marks). The first mark used the same 60-100 round drum magazines as the Model 1 cannon, but this was changed to proper belt feeds that allowed for significantly more ammunition to be carried in mark 3, the most common of the versions. The last mark to see service was the Mark 5, which introduced a number of improvements and innovations in the bolt and belt feed systems to achieve a much higher rate of fire of 750~850 RPM but saw limited use due to its late introduction in May of 1945.
An excellent addition to the article would be a video guide, as well as screenshots from the game and photos.
Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example:
- reference to the article about the variant of the cannon/machine gun;
- references to approximate analogues by other nations and research trees.
Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:
- topic on the official game forum;
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|Japan aircraft cannons|
|20 mm||Ho-1 · Ho-3 · Ho-5 · JM61A1 · Type 99 Model 1 · Type 99 Model 2|
|30 mm||Ho-155 · Type 5|
|37 mm||Ho-203 · Ho-204 · Type 94|
|75 mm||Type 88|
|20 mm||M61 (USA) · M197 (USA) · MG FF (Germany) · MG FF/M (Germany) · MG 151 (Germany)|
|30 mm||M230E-1 (USA)|