305 mm/46 Armstrong model 1909 (305 mm)
The 305 mm/46 Armstrong model 1909 is a naval gun that was developed by the British company Armstrong Whitworth in the early 1900s.
Vehicles equipped with this weapon
The gun fires 305 mm rounds at a maximum range of over 24 km and can fire up to 2 rounds per minute.
|Ammunition|| Type of
|Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)|
|1,000 m||2,500 m||5,000 m||7,500 m||10,000 m||15,000 m|
|305 mm SAP||SAP||418||375||314||264||224||172|
|305 mm APCBC||APCBC||673||611||521||447||387||303|
|Ammunition|| Type of
| Fuse delay
| Fuse sensitivity
| Explosive mass
(TNT equivalent) (kg)
|305 mm SAP||SAP||861||401.2||0.03||17||31||47°||60°||65°|
|305 mm APCBC||APCBC||861||452.37||0.035||17||5.66||48°||63°||71°|
Comparison with analogues
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Usage in battles
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Pros and cons
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The Regia Marina (Royal Italian Navy) was ahead of the curve to an extent when it came to warship design in the early 1900s. The idea of an all-big-gun-battleship that was codified with the launch of HMS Dreadnought as the new standard for battleship design was first proposed by Italian officer Vittorio Cuniberti in 1903, though the Regia Marina were hesitant to adopt this new design until 1909 when they laid down their dreadnought RN Dante Alighieri. Like the Royal Navy, the Italians decided to use 12-inch (305 mm) guns. The 305 mm/46 Armstrong model 1909 was one of the two 12-inch guns used by the Regia Marina along with the 305 mm/46 Vickers model 1909. While they were used by the Regia Marina interchangeably on their dreadnoughts, the two designs were not compatible. The Armstrong Elswick Pattern "T" was first purchased for Dante Alighieri before licensed production began in Pozzuoli, Naples, the site of Armstrong's Italian subsidiary. These guns were used on the Guilio Cesare and the Duilio. The Armstrong model was a wire-wound design with an inner A tube, a two-part air tube with screwed collar, B tube, half-length wire, jacket, breech ring, and a Welin breech block with hydraulic mounts and weighed 68.2 tons.
The Dante Alighieri never fired her guns in anger. The only combat operation was on October 2nd, 1917 where she was assigned to attack any potential Austro-Hungarian ships that attempted to leave Cattaro (now Kotor, Montenegro) to attack allied ships bombarding Durazzo, though no ships left port. The Giulio Cesare, like the Dante Alighieri, sat out most of World War I and during a modernization program in 1933 some of the guns were bored out to 320 mm (12.6 inches). The few guns that were not modernized were repurposed as coastal defense guns that served in World War II. The Duilio like the other ships using this gun did not see much action in World War I, but did see service in the Black Sea during the Russian Civil War assisting the White Fleet, though its action in World War II was limited and its guns were bored out later too.
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