Type 90 (75 mm)

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Description

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Vehicles equipped with this weapon

General info

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Available shells

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Comparison with analogues

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Usage in battles

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Pros and cons

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History

In the aftermath of World War I, the Japanese sought to modernize their inventory of artillery weapons, which mainly consisted of the 75 mm Type 38 field gun. A new field artillery design utilizing the new autofrettage manufacturing method was desired and so the Japanese went to the Schneider company in 1925 to acquire the license to be able to obtain the equipment needed for this manufacturing method. During the visit, the Japanese also acquired batches of Schneider 75 mm field guns and 105 mm field howitzers for trails.[1]

Around the same time, a Colonel Saigo from the Technical Department's artillery office, in cooperation with the Osaka Arsenal, designed a 75 mm field gun for use. Its characteristics were comparable to the Schneider's 75 mm field gun, and so the two underwent comparative trials in April 1927. The result was mixed as both guns have their praise and complaints. The decision was made for parts of the Schneider gun to be license-produced in Japan while incorporating their own design requirements in the weapon, including the retention of a Krupp-type horizontal breech seen on the Type 38 field gun. The completed assembled weapon was designated the 75 mm Type 90 field gun in 1930.[2]

A Type 90 field gun at the U.S. Army Field Artillery Museum.

A total of 786 of the Type 90 field guns were produced from 1931 to 1944.[2][3] Two variants of the 75 mm Type 90 gun was produced, one with a horse-drawn carriage with wooden wheels (221 produced[2]), and another with a stronger suspension and rubber wheels for motor vehicle towing.[3][4] The motorized variant began seeing production in 1935-36, but an attempt was made in 1935 to replace the Type 90 with the more lightweight 75 mm Type 95 field gun (which used the Type 38's barrel and ordnance), briefly stopping the Type 90's production.[5] However, the fighting in Manchuria showed that the Type 90 field gun's longer range, in part due to the new high-pressure ammunition fired from the autofrettage manufactured barrels, was more desired for the fighting. When the Type 90 restarted production in 1940, the motorized variant became the main manufactured version.[5]

The Type 90 gun's high-pressure barrel and ammunition would make it a favorable weapon for use against enemy tanks, whether as an emplaced weapon or mounted in a armored fighting vehicle such as that of the Ho-Ni SPG[6] or Chi-Nu (with a gun based off the 75 mm Type 90).[7]

Although built as a replacement to the Type 38 field gun, the Type 90 was never able to completely replace the weapon. Allied reports indicated that they never encountered the Type 90 field gun in any theater up until the Battle of Luzon in 1945.[5][8]

Media

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See also

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  • reference to the article about the variant of the cannon/machine gun;
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External links

References
  1. Ness 2014, p.98-100
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Ness 2014, p.100-101
  3. 3.0 3.1 Taki "Type 90 75mm Field Gun"
  4. Pacific Wrecks Inc. "Japanese 75mm Field Gun Type 90 (1930)"
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Ness 2014, p.102
  6. Ness 2014, p.248
  7. Ness 2014, p.258
  8. War Department 1944, p.222
Bibliography
  • Ness, Leland. Rikugun. Volume 2: Weapons of the Imperial Japanese Army & Navy Ground Forces. Helion and Company, 19 Dec. 2014.
  • Pacific Wrecks Inc. "Japanese 75mm Field Gun Type 90 (1930) Technical Information" Pacific Wrecks, Website.
  • Taki "Type 90 75mm Field Gun" Imperial Japanese Army Page, Website.
  • War Department Technical Manual TM-E 30-480: Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, War Department, 15 Sep. 1944, ibiblio/HyperWar Resource Link


Japan tank cannons
37 mm  Type 1 · Type 94 · Type 100
47 mm  Type 1
57 mm  Type 90 · Type 97
70 mm  Type 94
75 mm  Lightweight Type I Model II · Type II Model I · Type II Model II · Type 3 · Type 90 · Type 99
90 mm  Type 61
105 mm  Experimental High Velocity · JSW · Type 5
106 mm  Type 60 (B)
120 mm  10th Year Type · Navy short gun · Schneider-Canet 1898 · Type 90 L/44
150 mm  Type 38
155 mm  NSJ L/30
  Foreign:
25 mm  Oerlikon KBA B02
35 mm  Oerlikon KDE
75 mm  M6 (USA)
76 mm  M1 (USA) · M32 (USA)
88 mm  KwK36 (Germany)
90 mm  M3A1 (USA)
105 mm  L7A3 (Germany)