13.5 inch/45 Mark 5(H) (343 mm)
Write an introduction to the article in 2-3 small paragraphs. Briefly tell us about the history of the development and combat using the weaponry and also about its features. Compile a list of air, ground, or naval vehicles that feature this weapon system in the game.
Vehicles equipped with this weapon
Tell us about the tactical and technical characteristics of the cannon or machine gun.
|Ammunition|| Type of
|Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)|
|1,000 m||2,500 m||5,000 m||7,500 m||10,000 m||15,000 m|
|Ammunition|| Type of
| Fuse delay
| Fuse sensitivity
| Explosive mass
(TNT equivalent) (kg)
Comparison with analogues
Give a comparative description of cannons/machine guns that have firepower equal to this weapon.
Usage in battles
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Pros and cons
Summarise and briefly evaluate the weaponry in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark pros and cons as a list.
After the 12 inch/50 Mark XI failed to be the high-velocity improvement over the 12 inch/45 Mark X the Royal Navy expected, they concluded that they had reached the limits of what could be achieved with that calibre and moved on to a larger low-velocity design which became the 13.5-inch 45-calibre Mark 5 gun. The Anglo-German Arms Race was in full swing by this point and with the Hague Convention of 1907 failing to restrict the size of naval guns, the Royal Navy requested a gun that was either 13, 13.5, or 14 inches that fired with the nominal velocity of the 12-inch Mark X in October 1908. Vickers went with the 13.5-inch design which was adopted in January 1909. With even more explosive power to their shells than the 12-inch predecessors with similar range and penetration, the British decided to conceal the true calibre of these weapons by designating them the 12-inch 'A'. This did not prevent the Germans or the Americans from learning the true size of the guns, leading them to upgrades to 12 and 14-inch guns for their respective navies.
There are two variants of the 13.5-inch Mark V, the (L) and (H), which differ by the weight of the rounds. The Mark 5(H) was first used for the King George V-class dreadnoughts which carried 1,400-pound rounds with the loading machinery modified to accommodate the new rounds. This modification gave the ship the ability to use rounds 150 lb heavier than the ones found on the preceding Orion class which was armed with Mark 5(L) guns and was the first dreadnought in the Royal Navy to adopt the centerline mountings that were standard on designs from other nations. The Mark 5(H) was also used on the Iron Duke-class dreadnoughts, the dreadnought HMS Erin originally built for the Ottoman Navy as Reşadiye before being acquired by the Royal Navy under the orders of Winston Churchill when World War I began, and the battlecruisers HMS Tiger and HMS Queen Mary.
The 13.5 inch Mark 5 bears the unique distinction of being the first gun to solve the longstanding problem of "steel choke" which plagued Royal Navy large calibre guns starting with the 12-inch/35 Mark VIII in 1895, which caused the cannons to blow out their liners. The fix came with a low taper fit between inner A and A tubes along with moving the locating shoulders to well back in the guns instead of at the front to reduce longitudinal stress.
By the time World War II began in 1939, the 39 guns were still in service along with six turrets removed from both HMS Tiger and HMS Iron Duke to comply with the 1930 London Naval Treaty where the former was scrapped and the latter demilitarized to serve as a training ship retaining three turrets. Three of the remaining guns were converted to railway guns named the "Gladiator", "Peace Maker", and "Scene Shifter". They were deployed to Dover to bombard German batteries and shipping across the English Channel at Calais in occupied France. Another three guns were relined to 8-inches in calibre in an experiment to make hyper-velocity guns in Kent during the war that did not amount to anything.
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