F-16A ADF (Italy)

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This page is about the jet fighter F-16A ADF (Italy). For other versions, see F-16 (Family).
▄F-16A ADF
f_16a_block_15_adf_italy.png
GarageImage F-16A ADF (Italy).jpg
▄F-16A ADF
AB RB SB
12.0 12.0 12.0
Research:400 000 Specs-Card-Exp.png
Purchase:1 080 000 Specs-Card-Lion.png
Show in game

Description

During the late '90s, Italy decided on the Eurofighter Typhoon as its next generation air-defense fighter. However, the Typhoon faced delivery delays for some time, and as a result, multiple interim temporary fighters were loaned from various countries: 24 Panavia Tornado ADV jets from the United Kingdom were leased to cover the gap. This lease ran out in 2003, with the Typhoon still not ready for service. A solution was provided by the United States in a special program titled the Italian Foreign Military Sales program, a.k.a "PEACE CAESAR". A five-year lease of 34 F-16s, with an option to extend the lease for another five years, was offered to the Italian Air Force. Of those, 30 aircraft were F-16A Block 15 ADFs and F-16B twin-seater trainers, while the remaining four were earlier-block aircraft for spares. These were all older used reserve aircraft from US Air Force inventory. Throughout the late 2010s, the Italian Typhoon was finally starting to come online, and in June 2010, the Italian Air Force started the return of the F-16s to the United States. The process was completed on 23 May, 2012, when all the Italian F-16s were returned to the US.

The ▄F-16A Block 15 ADF Fighting Falcon, introduced in Update "Apex Predators", is a direct copy of the F-16A ADF found in the American tech tree. Like its American brother, it sits in a middle ground between the F-16s in-game. The ADF lacks the advanced systems and extra countermeasures found on the newer F-16C/D, but includes the required electronics for firing the AIM-7M Sparrow missiles, something the older and lighter F-16A variants lacked. The F-16A ADF ensures that Italy has access to air-combat capability with some of the most advanced missiles in-game, as well as advanced avionics and manoeuvrability. It does not have notable air-to-ground capability, however the M61 20 mm cannon can still be effective against lightly armoured targets, such as SPAAs or IFVs.

General info

Flight performance

Arrestor gear
Accelerates braking by grabbing the brake cable on the deck of the aircraft carrier
Air brakes
Allows you to dramatically reduce the flight speed by releasing special flaps
Max speed
at 10 973 m2 146 km/h
Turn time19 s
Max altitude15 240 m
EnginePratt & Whitney F100-PW-220
Type
Cooling systemAir
Take-off weight15 t

The F-16 is very strong in a dogfight due to its excellent TWR and energy retention. It is highly manoeuvrable and can easily reach its top speed even when climbing. You will often experience the effects of the G-limit, so when making a sharp turn keep that in mind.

Characteristics Max speed
(km/h at 10,973 m)
Max altitude
(metres)
Turn time
(seconds)
Rate of climb
(metres/second)
Take-off run
(metres)
AB RB AB RB AB RB
Stock 2,093 2,063 15240 20.3 20.7 254.4 242.7 850
Upgraded 2,199 2,146 19.3 19.8 339.3 295.0

Details

Features
Combat flaps Take-off flaps Landing flaps Air brakes Arrestor gear Drogue chute
X X
Limits
Wings (km/h) Gear (km/h) Flaps (km/h) Max Static G
Combat Take-off Landing + -
1,555 482 N/A 470 463 ~10 ~3
Optimal velocities (km/h)
Ailerons Rudder Elevators Radiator
< ___ < ___ < ___ N/A

Engine performance

Engine Aircraft mass
Engine name Number Basic mass Wing loading (full fuel)
Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220 1 7,970 kg 402 kg/m2
Engine characteristics Mass with internal fuel (no weapons load) Max Gross
Weight
Weight (each) Type 8m fuel 20m fuel 29m fuel
1,470 kg Afterburning low-bypass turbofan 8,942 kg 10,193 kg 11,210 kg 12,914 kg
Maximum engine thrust @ 0 m (RB/SB) Thrust to weight ratio @ 0 m (WEP)
Condition 100% WEP 8m fuel 20m fuel 29m fuel MGW
Stationary 6,490 kgf 8,985 kgf 1.01 0.88 0.80 0.70
Optimal 7,434 kgf
(1,555 km/h)
15,225 kgf
(1,400 km/h)
1.71 1.49 1.36 1.18

Survivability and armour

Flares/Chaff
Aircraft countermeasures to distract IR and radar-guided missiles and also AA radar
Crew1 person
Speed of destruction
Structural0 km/h
Gear482 km/h

The F-16 ADF is not very armoured, so enemy aircraft can easily tear into your jet with some good timed shots. Its advised that you try to avoid being shot in the first place. The F-16 has access to flares however so in the event of an enemy missile coming your way you'll be able to defend yourself, if not you can be lucky and survive some hits if the missile doesn't damage any vital components that are critical for your flight.

Modifications and economy

Repair costBasic → Reference
AB2 915 → 4 392 Sl icon.png
RB8 422 → 12 691 Sl icon.png
SB9 933 → 14 969 Sl icon.png
Total cost of modifications304 000 Rp icon.png
466 000 Sl icon.png
Talisman cost3 100 Ge icon.png
Crew training310 000 Sl icon.png
Experts1 080 000 Sl icon.png
Aces3 400 Ge icon.png
Research Aces1 280 000 Rp icon.png
Reward for battleAB / RB / SB
90 / 320 / 490 % Sl icon.png
250 / 250 / 250 % Rp icon.png
Modifications
Flight performance Survivability Weaponry
Mods jet compressor.png
Compressor
Research:
15 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
23 000 Sl icon.png
350 Ge icon.png
Mods booster.png
New boosters
Research:
17 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
26 000 Sl icon.png
400 Ge icon.png
Mods aerodinamic wing.png
Wings repair
Research:
19 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
29 000 Sl icon.png
440 Ge icon.png
Mods jet engine.png
Engine
Research:
50 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
77 000 Sl icon.png
1 200 Ge icon.png
Mods aerodinamic fuse.png
Fuselage repair
Research:
15 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
23 000 Sl icon.png
350 Ge icon.png
Mods armor frame.png
Airframe
Research:
17 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
26 000 Sl icon.png
400 Ge icon.png
Mods armor cover.png
Cover
Research:
19 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
29 000 Sl icon.png
440 Ge icon.png
Mods heli false thermal targets.png
Flares/Chaff
Research:
15 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
23 000 Sl icon.png
350 Ge icon.png
Mods ammo.png
M60_belt_pack
Research:
15 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
23 000 Sl icon.png
350 Ge icon.png
Mod arrow 1.png
Mods g suit.png
G-suit
Research:
17 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
26 000 Sl icon.png
400 Ge icon.png
Mods air to air midrange missile.png
AIM-7M
Research:
17 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
26 000 Sl icon.png
400 Ge icon.png
Mod arrow 0.png
Mods weapon.png
M60_new_gun
Research:
19 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
29 000 Sl icon.png
440 Ge icon.png
Mods air to air missile.png
AIM-9L
Research:
19 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
29 000 Sl icon.png
440 Ge icon.png
Mods jet engine extinguisher.png
EFS
Research:
50 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
77 000 Sl icon.png
1 200 Ge icon.png

Armaments

Ballistic Computer
CCIP (Guns) CCIP (Rockets) CCIP (Bombs) CCRP (Bombs) EEGS
alt={{{alt}}} alt={{{alt}}} alt={{{alt}}} alt={{{alt}}} alt={{{alt}}}

Offensive armament

Main article: M61A1 (20 mm)

The F-16A ADF (Italy) is armed with:

  • 1 x 20 mm M61A1 cannon, wing root-mounted (512 rpg)
  • 60 x countermeasures

Suspended armament

The F-16A ADF (Italy) can be outfitted with the following ordnance:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Hardpoints F-16A.png
AIM-7M Sparrow missiles 1 1
AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles 1 1 1 1 1 1
300 gal drop tanks 1
370 gal drop tanks 1 1
Default weapon presets
  • 2 x 370 gal drop tanks + 1 x 300 gal drop tank
  • 2 x AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles
  • 6 x AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles
  • 2 x AIM-7M Sparrow missiles

Usage in battles

The F-16A ADF can be a powerful fighter with multiple playstyles, rushing straight into battle or hanging high and utilizing the AIM-7M Sparrow. Players that plan to stay low and accelerate straight into action will be satisfied with the F-16's low-altitude performance and radar. Players that want to keep high and sling AIM-7Ms at targets will be more than pleased with the F-16's strong climb rate, range of the AIM-7M, and radar. A mixed countermeasure loadout (1 flare, 1 chaff) is recommended because it allows 30 countermeasure drops against radar or IR missiles. In order to be prepared for matches that may extend longer than usual, select the 20-minute fuel option in conjunction with the 300-gallon drop tank. The F-16 consumes a lot of fuel on afterburner, so it's essential to use it wisely unless the max fuel amount is selected. The AIM-7Ms must be used wisely since only 2 Sparrows can be carried simultaneously. For long-range, high-altitude fights, seek out targets closing in fast. Do not fire at targets already about to notch or beginning to notch. AIM-7Ms are excellent for these types of engagements due to their range and manoeuvrability. As for low-altitude engagements, look for targets closing in fast and at around 500 metres altitude or above. Do not fire at targets that are flying very close to the ground because the radar will track underneath the intended target, and the missile will miss. As for AIM-9L Sidewinders, players can be more generous with them since the ADF can carry up to 6 AIM-9Ls. If a player finds themselves above the fight, it will be effortless to fire off missiles at distracted enemies and score kills quickly. AIM-9Ls are very strong from the rear aspect and require hard defending from the opponent to evade successfully. The F-16 is very strong in a dogfight due to its excellent TWR and energy retention. Before entering a dogfight, however, it's critical to be at the correct speed. The F-16 has a very wide turning circle at high speeds, so make sure to stay around 800-850 km/h (497-528 mph) when entering a dogfight. Sadly unlike the American F-16A, the Italian F-16 ADF does not have access to any air to ground armaments, so taking the aircraft in ground battles will only mean the user will have to rely on either staying away from the battlefield and picking off enemy helicopters and jets, or trying to take out lightly armoured targets with the 20mm Vulcan the F-16 ADF has access to.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • High power-to-weight ratio gives it an incredible acceleration
  • Highly manoeuvrable at lower speeds
  • 20 mm Vulcan cannon has high velocity and rate of fire
  • Able to carry a drop tank to extend flight time
  • Access to 6 x AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles
  • Bubble canopy with excellent unobstructed 360° visibility gives great situational awareness in simulator mode

Cons:

  • Consumes fuel quickly
  • G limit
  • No air-to-ground armament

History

The history of the F-16 ADF began during the mid 1980s, America had phased out their USAF Air Defense Command which meant the duty to protect the American skies would completely fall to the Air National Guard. Their main task was to intercept bombers from the Soviet Union during a theoretical invasion. This meant that they would need an agile aircraft which would not only be fast enough to intercept the high altitude bombers, but also be properly equipped to shoot enemy aircraft down. General Dynamics initially would convert up to 270 F-16A/F-16B airframes into ADF standard. The modification would retain the ability to mount air-to-ground missiles, rockets and bombs however it introduced the AN/APG-66 radar which greatly improved target acquisition of small targets, IFF for distinguishing friendlies and foes (AN/APX-109), and a 150,000-candlepower night spotlight for identification. The ADF would be in service for many years, but ultimately due to the Cold War dying down after the dissolution of the USSR, the need for all the surplus F-16s would dwindle down. Some of the ADFs would be converted back into regular F-16As or Bs, whilst others were either put in storage or exported to other nations.

In Italy's case, during the end of the Cold War the F-104s were still Italy's primary defence against enemy bombers and fighter jets, and although it did have some upsides as it was still extremely fast meaning it could react to threats quicker, it was not fit for dogfighting. Italy joined in the Eurofighter program, which also included Spain, Germany and the UK, this would allow them to have a common modern multi-role fighter that would go into service and remain in service for decades to come. The issue however was development of this new fighter required time and money, something which after the Soviet Union collapsed was not readily available, especially due to all western/NATO countries deciding to downsize their armed forces. Italy would be put in a very tough situation, the F-104s were still in service but they could not risk them being shot down in case they were forced to enter a dogfight.

As a stop-gap measure, Italy would initially order several Tornadoes from the UK in the ADV (F.3) variant which would be able to give Italy a decent fighter which was capable of dogfighting. They weren't bought, but instead rented to the Italian Air Force from stocks belonging to the RAF in 1993 with a decade-long contract, since Italy also operated quantities of the IDS variant. They did their job but the joint-developed Eurofighter program had other setbacks once again which meant that Italy had to make a choice, either extend the rental of the ADV fighters or choose another stop-gap option. The ADV would become too expensive to rent again so they were returned, Italy would study its choices but ended up preferring the American F-16, especially in its ADF variant. Thus in 2001, an agreement was signed with the United States on 15th March to provide the Italian Air Force with 30 F-16A ADFs, 1 F-16B ADF, and 3 F-16B block 5 and 10 in OCU configuration.

Before delivery to the Italian Air Force, the aircraft would be brought out of storage at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona and transferred to the Ogden ALC at Hill AFB, Utah, where they would undergo 220 days of refurbishment and upgrades. Part of the upgrades included the Falcon-Up and several changes to the aircraft such as replacement of particular bulkheads, updating the landing gear and anything which extended its life, as the ones which were put in storage already had several hundred hours of flight time. Once refurbishment was completed in the US, the F-16s would be delivered to the Italian Air Force as part of the "Peace Caesar" program.[1] It's good to note that whilst the F-16s were being ready, several pilots from the Italian Air Force would be sent to America to be trained on the aircraft, which also included armament familiarization.

Italian F-16s in service would not be equipped with rockets, bombs or air to ground munitions, however they did still retain the ability to do so. Italian F-16 armament consisted of AIM-120, AIM-9L, and also AIM-7E and M anti-air missiles. The 20 mm Vulcan was also kept. Italian F-16s would be a main component of the Italian Air Force. One of their first deployments would be in Libyan airspace, as part of NATO's Operation Unified Protector which established a no-fly zone over Libya. They'd also be used as escorts for Italian SEAD packages. As the first decade went by relatively peacefully and the eventual commission of Eurofighters for Italy, Italian F-16s belonging to the 5° Stormo would be retired at Cervia air base in 2010 with each F-16 being painted in a special colour. On the 23rd of May 2012, a disbanding ceremony would held at Trapani-Birgi air force base to mark the disbandment of the 18° Gruppo, which at that point was the sole surviving F-16 squadron within the Italian Air Force. Not all Italian F-16s were returned to America, some were stored in Italy whilst some made their way to museums; for example, at the Vigna di Valle museum, there is an F-16 which belonged to 23° Gruppo of the 5° Stormo, MM7251.

Media

Skins

See also

Related development

External links

References


General Dynamics Corporation
Jet Fighters  F-16A · F-16A ADF · F-16C
Strike Aircraft  F-111A
Export  Netz · Barak II · ▄F-16A ADF · ␗F-16A MLU · F-16AJ

Italy jet aircraft
Aerfer  Sagittario 2 · Ariete
Fiat  G.91 pre-serie · G.91 R/1 · G.91 R/4 (Portugal) · G.91 Y · G.91 YS
AMX International  AMX
Panavia  Tornado ADV · ▄Tornado IDS (1995)
  Foreign:
Vampire  Vampire FB 52A
F-84  ▄F-84F · ▄F-84G-21-RE
F-86  CL-13 Mk.4 · ▄F-86K
F-104  ▄F-104G · F-104S · ▄F-104S TAF (Turkey) · F-104S.ASA
F-16  ▄F-16A ADF
AV-8  ▄AV-8B Plus
Hungary 
Mikoyan-Gurevich  ◔MiG-15bis · ◔MiG-17PF · ◔MiG-21MF · ◔MiG-21bis-SAU · ◔MiG-23MF · ◔MiG-29
Ilyushin  ◔IL-28
Sukhoi  ◔Su-22M3
Saab  ◔JAS39EBS HU C