ZSU-23-4 (Italy)

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Rank 6 USA
F-5C Pack
This page is about the SPAA ZSU-23-4 (Italy). For the other versions, see ZSU-23-4 (Family).
◔ZSU-23-4
it_zsu_23_4.png
GarageImage ZSU-23-4 (Italy).jpg
◔ZSU-23-4
AB RB SB
8.0 8.0 8.0
Class:
Research:135 000 Specs-Card-Exp.png
Purchase:380 000 Specs-Card-Lion.png
Show in game

Description

The ◔ZSU-23-4 is a rank VI Hungarian SPAA with a battle rating of 8.0 (AB/RB/SB) in the Italian research tree. It was introduced in Update "Sons of Attila" as part of the Hungarian subtree of the Italian tech tree. This is a "suppressing fire" style of SPAA, providing insane fire rate at the cost of accuracy, penetrating power and mobility.

General info

Survivability and armour

Armourfront / side / back
Hull9 / 9 / 9
Turret8 / 8 / 8
Crew4 people
Visibility341 %

The armour of ZSU-23-4 is better characterized as "paper". There are a lot of openings for even 7.62 mm MG to penetrate. Even other 20 mm SPAA HE belts can penetrate it at places and damage the crew inside.

Still, the SPAA is fully enclosed and armour sometimes manage to miraculously block overpressure damage at weird angles, so it's not always an instant death for the entirety of the crew upon being hit, but it will fail to do literally anything else.

Armour type:

  • Rolled homogeneous armour
Armour Front Sides Rear Roof
Hull 9.4 mm (57°) 9.4 mm 9.4 mm (46°) Upper
9.4 mm (22°) Lower
9.4 mm
Turret 8.9 mm (23°) 8.9 mm (8-10°) 8.9 mm (1°) 8.9 mm
Cupola 8.9 mm 8.9 mm 8.9 mm 8.9 mm

Notes:

  • Suspension wheels are 20 mm thick while tracks are 15 mm thick.
  • Belly armour is 9.4 mm thick.

Mobility

Speedforward / back
AB55 / 8 km/h
RB and SB51 / 7 km/h
Number of gears5 forward
1 back
Weight20.7 t
Engine power
AB534 hp
RB and SB280 hp
Power-to-weight ratio
AB25.8 hp/t
RB and SB13.5 hp/t

The SPAA is rather slow even when fully upgraded. It can only really go 30-40 km/h, very rarely reaching the advertised 50 km/h when driving forward for a long time. It can go -8 in reverse, which isn't fast enough considering its armour. Overall, operating it in the heat of battle requires a lot of quick thinking, and it is unlikely to outmanoeuvre medium tanks unless it is a 1 on 1 duel at short range.

Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Forward Reverse Stock Upgraded Stock Upgraded
Arcade 55 8 20.7 398 534 19.23 25.8
Realistic 51 7 248 280 11.98 13.53

Modifications and economy

Repair costBasic → Reference
AB4 795 → 6 617 Sl icon.png
RB4 102 → 5 660 Sl icon.png
SB5 159 → 7 119 Sl icon.png
Total cost of modifications112 200 Rp icon.png
193 400 Sl icon.png
Talisman cost2 300 Ge icon.png
Crew training110 000 Sl icon.png
Experts380 000 Sl icon.png
Aces1 400 Ge icon.png
Research Aces830 000 Rp icon.png
Reward for battleAB / RB / SB
150 / 190 / 230 % Sl icon.png
208 / 208 / 208 % Rp icon.png
Modifications
Mobility Protection Firepower
Mods new tank traks.png
Tracks
Research:
6 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 600 Sl icon.png
200 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank suspension.png
Suspension
Research:
5 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
8 600 Sl icon.png
180 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank break.png
Brake System
Research:
5 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
8 600 Sl icon.png
180 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank filter.png
Filters
Research:
10 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank transmission.png
Transmission
Research:
9 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank engine.png
Engine
Research:
9 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods tank tool kit.png
Improved Parts
Research:
1 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 600 Sl icon.png
200 Ge icon.png
Mods extinguisher.png
Improved FPE
Research:
1 600 Rp icon.png
Cost:
8 600 Sl icon.png
180 Ge icon.png
Mods tank reinforcement it.png
Crew Replenishment
Research:
10 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank horizontal aiming.png
Horizontal Drive
Research:
6 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 600 Sl icon.png
200 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
23mm_ussr_HEIT_ammo_pack
Research:
6 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 600 Sl icon.png
200 Ge icon.png
Mods tank cannon.png
Adjustment of Fire
Research:
5 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
8 600 Sl icon.png
180 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
23mm_ussr_APIT_ammo_pack
Research:
5 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
8 600 Sl icon.png
180 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank vertical aiming.png
Elevation Mechanism
Research:
10 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods art support.png
Artillery Support
Research:
9 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods night vision device.png
NVD
Research:
9 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png

Armaments

Night vision device
Improves visibility by enhancing natural light or active illumination.

Main armament

4 x 23 mm AZP-23 cannon
Two-plane stabilizer
Reduces the swing of the gun in two planes while moving
Ammunition2 000 rounds
Belt capacity500 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
1.3 → 1.0 s
Fire rate850 shots/min
Vertical guidance-4° / 85°
Main article: AZP-23 (23 mm)

This ZSU is armed with four 23 mm autocannons, all being fed by one giant belt (technically, 4 separate belts). AP shells for these have rather low penetration values and can only threaten very lightly armoured tanks (and maybe European and Soviet medium tank sides at close range), but cannons have very high fire rate and thus can saturate air with so many shells that even decently agile vehicles have to actually evade the lead wall to avoid being shredded.

Due to how the game is coded, any "potential" penetration (yellow crosshair in aim assist) will happen if the same point is hit over 100 times, so even such "weakspots" are worth researching. For example, sometimes, weakspots like the typical USSR MBT fuel tanks will spontaneously explode when fired at from the side, even when penetration should not be possible due to an extreme angle. Another great weak spot is enemy tank engine deck - much like with BTR before, it is possible to push an obscene amount of AP through the engine compartment in hopes that it has a small random hole somewhere that will allow the shell to explode into the crew compartment.

While the cannons aren't very powerful, if penetration is possible at all, they will get through eventually.

Even the belt with minimal amount of HE in it can deal catastrophic damage to aircraft simply through sheer amount of critical hits, so taking API belt is generally the best idea. That being said, the cannons are extremely inaccurate, with dispersion being a gigantic circle around where the SPAA aims, rather than a proper square. Radar aim is required to achieve even a semblance of accurate aircraft interception.

Although the overwhelming fire suggests that the SPAA can easily intercept ATGM and bombs, it is very much not recommended to rely on it when fighting ground based ATGM tanks, as more often than not the shells just bounce off the ATGM and any attack from below 1 km range will bypass the lead wall anyway.

Due to low shell velocity, SPAA can fire on other SPAA and light tanks over hills. At about 800 m range half of guns will fail to get over and enemy light tanks can respond with HEAT or HESH, at about 1200 m range the shells will start losing their punch, but all of the guns will have a chance to hit a target and they will be less likely to fire back. For the same reason, it is sometimes necessary to fire ahead of the radar aiming circle, as sometimes shells just fail to fight gravity and barely miss the aircraft.

Guns overheat after firing 400 shells (about 100 per gun), so despite having an absurd amount of ready ammunition without having to reload, it is still necessary to give them some rest. Every encounter needs to be planned ahead of time.

23 mm AZP-23 (x4) Turret rotation speed (°/s) Reloading rate (seconds)
Mode Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal Stabilizer Stock Upgraded Full Expert Aced Stock Full Expert Aced
Arcade 2,000 (500) 850 -4°/+85° ±180° Two-plane 61.6 85.3 103.6 114.6 121.9 5.20 4.60 4.24 4.00
Realistic 41.6 49.0 59.5 65.8 70.0

Ammunition

  • Default: API-T · HEF-I
  • HEFI-T: HEF-I · HEFI-T · HEF-I · API-T
  • APIT: API-T · API-T · API-T · HEFI-T

Penetration statistics
Ammunition Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)
10 m 100 m 500 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m
HEF-I 6 6 4 3 2 2
API-T 51 48 36 26 18 13
HEFI-T 6 6 4 3 2 2
Shell details
Ammunition Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
mass (kg)
Fuse delay
(m)
Fuse sensitivity
(mm)
Explosive mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
Ricochet
0% 50% 100%
HEF-I 980 0.18 0.1 0.1 28.49 79° 80° 81°
API-T 970 0.19 - - - 47° 60° 65°
HEFI-T 970 0.19 0.1 0.1 20.02 79° 80° 81°

Ammo racks

Ammo racks of the ZSU-23-4 (Italy)
Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
4th
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
4 0 (+4) 0 (+4) 0 (+4) 0 (+4) No

Radars

Main article: 1RL33

The ZSU-23-4 is equipped with a 1RL33 search and tracking radar, mounted on top of the turret, at the rear. The radar system lacks track while scan, but can track targets in a full 360° area around the turret (instead of just to the front of the turret). The radar has very slow scan speed.

Msg-info.png By default the radar will scan a 60° arc, this can be changed to a 360° scan if desired, using the "change radar search mode" key.

This radar is quite weak and aim solution will practically always wobble around the target unless it dives directly onto the SPAA, so paying attention to lock-on square position is necessary to not miss the volley entirely. Juxtapose the aim back towards the target to hit anyway.

1RL33 - Target Detection Radar
Maximum
Detection
Range
Minimum
Detection
Range
Max Azimuth
Scan Angle
Max Elevation
Scan Angle
Minimum
relative speed
20,000 m 100 m ±30° (optionally 360°) -9°/+87° 15 m/s (54 km/h)
1RL33 - Target Tracking Radar
Maximum
Tracking
Range
Minimum
Tracking
Range
Azimuth Tracking
Angle
Elevation Tracking
Angle
Minimum
relative speed
16,000 m 100 m 360° -9°/+87° 15 m/s (54 km/h)

Usage in battles

The ZSU-23-4 should be played entirely as an AA vehicle if possible. Do not go tank hunting in this vehicle unless you have perfect intel, as you do not have the armour, speed or even penetration to win direct fights. Lurk around allies and focus on keeping the skies clear - something that this vehicle does very well. A high rate of fire and very fast turret traverse means that you should be able to target and destroy even the fastest jets.

You have a high ammo count with this vehicle, meaning that you can afford to find a good spot away from the main fight in order to pick off enemy planes and helicopters. Unless you need to reload your ammo, avoid spawn points. They are usually the hub of most of the fighting and going to them will put you in the firing line.

While it is fully enclosed, the ZSU-23-4 has armour which makes the M18 Hellcat look like a heavy tank. Even 7.62 mm machine guns stand a fair chance of penetrating this vehicle. This makes ZSU a primary target for aircraft, which at this BR are usually armed with cannons or high penetration machine guns, which will easily take you out. To avoid that, keep moving around while firing, as the radar lock should keep your aim true.

Top rank helicopters and high BR jets like the FJ-4B VMF 232 are the greatest threat to your existence. They are both capable of sitting comfortably outside your firing range, while firing lethal ATGMs at you. Hide and slowly creep up onto them until they are either dealt with by an allied plane or they come close enough to be dealt with by your 23 mm cannons. If you can clearly see that enemy ATGM is approaching you, attempt to shoot it down. You can even alternate between ATGM and the helicopter that is guiding it, as generally firing more than a 100 shells in a single burst at any given aircraft is a waste of ammunition.

If you know that there are light tanks in your vicinity, or something like a Leopard 1 is driving nearby, you can plot to remove them. Ambush tactics and artillery style shenanigans are most of the time your only option due to the lack of armour and speed. Even if you know how to obliterate T-54, it's not like they will just give up and let you dismantle them, so know your place and wait for the proper moment.

While ZSU-23-4 can't really fight enemy tanks directly, it can certainly mess up their plans by thinking out of the box.

For light tanks and SPAA, simply make sure that you can get a gun on them before they fire (focus on the turret first) and push them. For medium tanks, try to position yourself in such a way, that they drive past you while being completely flat towards your cannons (maybe they are busy trying to rush your allies somewhere else). Try to not get spotted while waiting. Due to the stupidly high fire rate, ZSU should be able to melt them before they can react, but if they manage to answer by spinning their hull towards you (as opposed to just stopping), there isn't much that can be done other than attempting to ruin their cannon and cut your losses by moving away.

If a light or artillery tank is camping on a hill and is bullying your teammates (or even you), you can actually help by damaging it with indirect fire, preferrably with the AP belt. Obviously, it is difficult to pull it off without help of an allied light tank, but at least in AB you can find such targets by paying attention to the minimap or using binoculars when not firing at the aircraft. Take aim at ranges between 800-1300 m and unload until they explode or you feel like they had learned their lesson. This will become increasingly less useful as the BR increases, but should work until at least 9.3. Be aware that some light tanks are armed with shells slow enough to actually fire back at the ZSU, even if this situation is going to shock them for a few seconds.

If you are hiding behind a corner, and you are pretty sure that the approaching tank will easily obliterate you, try to break their further track to make them flip over and neutralize the gun as they frantically try to stabilize themselves, then break the second track and either run or wreck the tank by firing at any available weak spot.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • High rate of fire; allows for area saturation
  • Relatively high top speed
  • High ammo count
  • Fast turret traverse
  • Can penetrate lightly armoured vehicles (like other SPAAs) even with indirect fire
  • Radar-assisted fire control; a lead indicator is shown in Realistic.

Cons:

  • Thin armour; aircraft cannons will cause severe damage
  • Low power to weight ratio; very slow; struggles with slopes and off-road
  • Low penetration for 23 mm cannons; means troubles penetrating certain MBTs from the side
  • Radar has very low scan speed
  • Low shell speed compared to other SPAA sometimes makes intercepting aircraft harder than it should be

History

Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too long, take it to a separate article, taking a link to the article about the vehicle and adding a block "/History" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/(Vehicle-name)/History) and add a link to it here using the main template. Be sure to reference text and sources by using <ref></ref>, as well as adding them at the end of the article with <references />. This section may also include the vehicle's dev blog entry (if applicable) and the in-game encyclopedia description (under === In-game description ===, also if applicable).

Media

Skins

See also

External links

Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:

  • topic on the official game forum;
  • other literature.


Italy anti-aircraft vehicles
R3 Capraia  R3 T20 FA-HS
SIDAM 25  SIDAM 25 · SIDAM 25 (Mistral)
Wheeled  AS 42 · CM52
Tracked  M42 Contraereo · Leopard 40/70 · OTOMATIC
Hungary  ◔ZSU-57-2 · ◔ZSU-23-4