|This page is about the American main battle tank M60A1 (AOS). For other vehicles of the family, see M60 (Family). For other uses, see M60 (Disambiguation).|
- 1 Description
- 2 General info
- 3 Armaments
- 4 Usage in battles
- 5 History
- 6 Media
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
The 105 mm Gun Tank M60A1 (AOS) is a rank VI American medium tank with a battle rating of 8.3 (AB/RB/SB). It was introduced in Update 1.61 "Road to Glory".
Survivability and armour
The M60A1 is well-protected for a medium tank of its battle rating. From the front, it can resist most types of full-calibre armour-piercing shells, even at the muzzle. Across the turret, line-of-sight armour thickness varies from approximately 200-440 mm, sufficient against all types of 105 mm APDS. Across its hull, line-of-sight protection ranges from 220 mm over the upper glacis, to 280 mm on the lower glacis. The upper glacis may be penetrated from 100 mm and 105 mm APDS from ranges inside of 1,000 m, while the lower glacis is completely immune to those shells. The M60A1's own 105 mm M728 APDS can defeat the upper glacis even at 2,500 m, but the lower glacis can reliably stop M728 at ranges exceeding 1,500 meters.
The M60A1 is at risk of being engaged with APFSDS, HEAT, and large-calibre (>105 mm) APDS shells, which may easily bypass its protection, despite being stronger than average. The M60A1 also features numerous weak spots that make it vulnerable to vehicles that would not normally be expected to penetrate its armour. In particular, the mantlet, commander's cupola, and turret ring are vulnerable to APCBC shells, which can instantly destroy the tank upon detonation inside of the vehicle. The sloped turret roof is easily defeated by APFSDS and the vehicle's own M728 APDS, but with some luck, it can cause HEAT-FS and HESH shells to bounce harmlessly off.
The vehicle's armour is optimized for head-on protection. The turret's line-of-sight thickness quickly decreases as more of its side profile is exposed. Likewise, the thin side armour of the hull may be easily overmatched and is also insufficient to protect against most armour-piercing autocannon shells, such as 35 mm DM23 APDS. The roof is resistant to most types of armour-piercing bullets or shells fired by aircraft, but specialized munitions such as German MK103 30 mm HVAP, or 50 mm AP, will penetrate the M60A1's 20-30 mm thick roof.
When facing an M60A1 head-on, a shell penetrating the left side of the turret may incapacitate the gunner and commander. A follow-up shot to the right side of the turret may strike the loader and first-stage ammo stowage, while a shell to the middle of the hull may incapacitate the driver. Shells aimed at the right side of the vehicle, when being faced head-on, present the greatest chance of setting off ammunition.
When facing an M60A1 from the side, shells penetrating the turret bustle, or hull between the front and middle return rollers, may strike the vehicle's large supply of first-stage ammunition. Some M60A1 drivers may select a reduced ammunition load, so although shells which strike the driver's compartment may incapacitate the driver, they cannot be guaranteed to set off ammunition. Otherwise, shells aimed at the turret between the bulbous rangefinder housing, and before the area where the 25mm flat roof plate meets the sloped 48 mm roof plate, have the greatest chance of incapacitating the entire turret crew.
- Cast homogeneous armour (hull, turret, roof)
- Rolled homogeneous armour (hull roof - engine compartment, hul rear - engine grille)
|Hull|| 108 mm (65°) Front Glacis
137 mm (55°) Lower Glacis - Top
117 mm (55°) Lower Glacis - Bottom
| 50 mm Front
45 mm Top
50.8 mm (cylindrical) Turret base
36-70 mm (18-34°) Middle
36 mm (60°) Bottom
19 mm (66-82°) Belly - Front half
13 mm (66-82°) Belly - Rear half
36 mm Rear
| 25 mm (1°) Engine Grille
40 mm (26°) Lower plate
28 mm (59°) Lower glacis
36 mm Hull sides
| 108 mm (25°) Front Glacis |
36 mm (5°) Front
20 mm Engine compartment
76 mm Radiator cover
|Turret|| 215.9 mm (spherical) Turret front - Loader side
230.9 mm (spherical) Turret front - Gunner side
45 mm (58°) - 200 mm Gun mantlet
114 mm (cylindrical) Turret ring
| 52.3-142.2 mm (30-41°) Front half - Loader side
60.5-152.9 mm (18-33°) Front half - Gunner side
49.8 mm (19-29°) Rear half - Loader side
53.8 mm (18°) Rear half - Gunner side
|57 mm (11°)|| 48 mm (16°) Front |
25.4 mm Centre & Rear
|Cupola||35 mm (0-30°)||26 mm (34-44°)|| 26-35 mm (conical) Outer ring |
30 mm Centre
- Suspension wheels, tracks and torsion bars are 20 mm thick.
- Belly armour is 19 mm thick in the front, 13 in the rear.
- 15 mm RHA plate between the engine and crew compartment.
- Mudguards and storage boxes are 5 mm thick.
|Game Mode||Max Speed (km/h)||Weight (tons)||Engine power (horsepower)||Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)|
Modifications and economy
|105 mm M68||Turret rotation speed (°/s)||Reloading rate (seconds)|
|Ammunition|| Type of
|Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)|
|10 m||100 m||500 m||1,000 m||1,500 m||2,000 m|
|Ammunition|| Type of
| Fuse delay
| Fuse sensitivity
| Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
|Smoke shell characteristics|
| Screen radius
| Screen deploy time
| Screen hold time
| Explosive Mass|
(TNT equivalent) (g)
|63||49 (+14)||38 (+25)||17 (+46)||4 (+59)||1 (+60)||No|
- As they are modeled by sets of 2, shells disappear from the rack only after you fire both shells in the set.
- Racks 3*, 4* and 5* are first stage ammo racks. They total 37 shells and get filled first when loading up the tank.
- These racks are also emptied early: the rack depletion order at full capacity is: 3 - 4 - 5 - 1 - 2.
- If you pack 17 (+46) shells, it will keep the front hull and the turret rear empty of ammo.
- Simply not firing when the gun is loaded will move ammo from non-essential into ready racks. Firing will interrupt the restocking of the ready racks.
- When refilling from racks 1 and 2, the refill order of ready racks is 5 - 4 - 3.
|12.7 mm M85|
|Mount||Capacity (Belt)||Fire rate||Vertical||Horizontal|
|7.62 mm M73|
|Mount||Capacity (Belt)||Fire rate||Vertical||Horizontal|
Usage in battles
The M60A1 (AOS) performs similarly to the earlier M60, but with a number of differences. With the add-on stabilizer (AOS), the M60A1 is capable of firing on the move, allowing it to engage enemies much quicker and without having to stop the vehicle first. Overall, the gun handling of the M60A1 (AOS) is quite respectable. The turret traverse is good (although not outstanding) and the stabilizer allows firing on the move and much greater reactionary ability. The only letdown in this regard is the gun's elevation speed, which is slow but not exceptionally so. Just be aware that elevating or depressing the gun to get it on target may take more time than expected.
The M60A1 (AOS) cannot rely upon its armour as much as the previous M60 could, since the armour is negated by HEAT-FS ammunition that is common at the rank. It should be noted that it will stop most full-caliber rounds, meaning the commander must know which tanks use full-caliber rounds (mostly T-54/55, all French tanks with exception of the AMX-30). Additionally, the armour is still relatively thick and is able to bounce and absorb even APDS depending on where it hits. Still, the armour should not be relied upon. A hull down position is highly recommended, due to the turret armor of the M60 being very tricky to penetrate without HEAT-FS, and even with it sometimes.
The mobility of the M60A1 (AOS) is surprisingly good, but not overwhelmingly so. It's turning ability is decent enough to allow quick enough reaction times, and the acceleration is quite good. The speed, on the other hand, is not great when compared to tanks it will face, such as the Leopard 1. Overall, the mobility is workable but not exceptional.
These characteristics allow the M60A1 (AOS) to utilize a number of tactics and strategies for success on the battlefield.
Long Range Combat (a.k.a. Sniping)
Due to the high accuracy of the M68 gun and the decent and high penetration of the APDS and HEAT-FS rounds respectively, the M60A1 (AOS) can be used effectively in a long range "sniping" role. The APDS will be viable against many, if not most, targets that will be seen. But, there are certain tanks, especially heavy tanks, that will require the HEAT-FS round to dispatch with ease. As such, a mix of both types of ammunition should be carried to be loaded at the commander's discretion. At long range, the M60A1 (AOS) can be a hard target to destroy, especially when hull-down. A hull-down ability should always be a priority when looking for a position to take. Access to a rangefinder allows decently quick and accurate measurement of range to the target, allowing the M60A1 (AOS) a higher chance of hitting the target with the first shot.
The M60A1 (AOS) can be used very successfully in the supporting role as well, thanks to the stabilizer, good acceleration, and powerful armament. Staying behind the first line of friendly tanks prevents the enemy from firing upon it, while allowing the ability to support allied tankers where they need it. Staying back allows better situational awareness and reactionary ability. If an enemy tank begins a maneuver, the supporting tank can take action to destroy it while the frontline tanks are engaged in the brawling. Playing the supporting role allows the M60A1 (AOS) to avoid taking as much damage from enemies, whilst also supporting allies in the advance or defense. Additionally, the supporting role allows more time to retreat in the event of a strong enemy push, since the M60's reverse speed is not the greatest (although it's also not the worst). This strategy effectively limits the risks and maintains similar rewards.
Flanking is a viable tactic, but due to the mediocre speed of the M60A1 (AOS) it may not be the most efficient tactic to take. The speed limits the ability of the M60A1 (AOS) to flank in a quick and efficient manner, but once a flanking position has been attained the M60A1 (AOS) can do a lot of damage. Because the speed is not the greatest, the commander will have to beware of any enemy flankers, since they are likely to get to flanking positions before the M60.
Brawling or Assaulting
Brawling is a tactic that can work out, but it is generally not advised. Due to the stabilizer and tricky armor profile, in a snapshot situation an enemy may not penetrate the M60's armor and the M60 may hit its target. On the other hand, brawling is just as risky as it is rewarding.
The M60A1 (AOS) can lead the charge towards the enemy as well, but this means that it will be the first tank to draw the enemy's fire. It can absolutely work, but it can just as easily end up in the M60's destruction and an enemy victory.
The M60A1 (AOS) can perform many battlefield roles, but it is best as a sniper or supporting tank as these tactics play the most to the strengths of the M60A1 and reduce the weaknesses as much as possible. A hull-down position is the best kind of position for it, as it increases the chances of surviving enemy shots by a significant margin. Overall, the M60A1 (AOS) is a very usable tank that, when played well, can decimate an enemy team.
Pros and cons
- Powerful gun
- Very accurate gun at long ranges when upgraded
- Good stock shell (APDS)
- HEATFS and HESH shells available
- Decent turning capability
- Very good stock turret traverse speed
- Great off-road speed (but not as great as Leopards and T-10Ms)
- Sloped armour can be quite bouncy at range
- Once fully upgraded it offers very sharp handling and manoeuvrability
- Excellent acceleration when fully upgraded
- Gun comes with AOS (Add-On-Stabilizer)
- Very high profile, made worse by the M19 commander's cupola
- Commander's cupola armour is very large and very thin, can be penetrated easily by APCBC and HEAT rounds
- Enemy shells can bounce off the turret roof (due to the angle) and could enter the cupola
- Commander's .50 cal HMG is slower in manoeuvrability and not as effective compared to earlier vehicles due to the cupola
- .50 cal coverage is limited due to commander's cupola
- Sides are at most 70 mm thick, they can be penetrated easily
- Turret ring can be penetrated by even autocannons
- Front is vulnerable to HEAT and the more powerful APHE (T-10M, Maus) at close range
- No armour-piercing shells with explosive filler
In 1960, work was started to upgrade the M60 main battle tank, as the T95 project and the project to create composite armor ended. The prototypes fitted the T95E7 turret on the hull of the M60. In order to increase the room in the turret for the crew the gun used the M140 mount, which moved the gun forward 5 inches. The first two prototypes (Pilot 1 and 2) were ready in May 1961, and the third prototype (Pilot 3) was ready in June 1961. The prototypes were designated as the M60E1, and they were all built by Chrysler Defense. Pilot 1 was tested at Eglin Air Force Base, Pilot 2 was tested at Yuma Test Station, and Pilot 3 was tested at Fort Knox. The M60E1 was accepted for American service on 22 October 1962. The designation for production M60E1 tanks was Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-mm Gun, M60A1. Production began on 13 October 1962, with an order of 720 units by the Army.
The upper glacis armor of the hull was upgraded from 3.67 inches to 4.29 inches at 65°. The steering wheel was replaced with a T-bar control, and the break and accelerator pedals were rearranged for easier usage by the driver. The tank was upgraded to the Continental AVDS-1790-2A engine and the CD-850-5 cross drive transmission, and it used the T97 track assembly. The first return roller was moved slightly, and shock absorbers were added to the second road wheel pair. The addition of the shock absorbers was due to the increased weight of the armor and new M60A1 turret.
The main feature of the M60A1 was a new turret, which was the turret of the T95E7 medium tank prototype. The new turret had more armor protection, and it also could had more room for the crew, because of the new M140 gun mount. A fume extractor was added to the rear of the turret bustle, on the left side; this would prevent fumes and smoke from accumulating inside the vehicle when the weapons were fired. The loader and gunner received padded seats, replacing the wire mesh seats which were uncomfortable. Ammunition for the main gun was increased to 63 rounds, with 15 rounds in the turret bustle, several rounds in the turret ring, and the rest stored in the hull. The turret was equipped with a new traversing mechanism, and an AN/VSS-1(V)1 IR searchlight was fitted above the gun mantlet. It received the M19 FCS, which consisted of the M17A1 coincidence rangefinder, M10A1 ballistic drive, and the mechanical M19E1 ballistic computer for the gunner. The M60A1 tank uses the M68E1 105 mm gun. The M68E1 gun shared the same firing characteristics as the M68, but had several design improvements including an updated gun hydraulic configuration, a stabilization upgrade for the gun (but not a full stabilizer), a gun elevation kill switch for the loader, an improved ballistic drive, and other component refinements.
In 1972, the M60A1 (AOS) was introduced, which gave the tank an add-on stabilization (AOS) system. It was a kit that could be applied to M60A1 tanks with very little modification to the hydraulic gun control system. The AOS allows for stabilization of the gun vertically and of the turret horizontally. This allowed the gunner to track targets and control the gun and turret while the vehicle was moving; this increased the hit-on-the-move capability significantly. Before the AOS upgrade the fire-on-the-move accuracy at 2000 meters was practically 0%, whereas with the upgrade 70% accuracy was achieved. The AOS had three modes: power-with-stabilization-on, power-with-stabilization-off, and manual. Power-with-stabilization-on was the mode which stabilized the gun, power-with-stabilization-off allowed the turret to be controlled electrically when the stabilizer was not necessary, and the manual mode allowed the crew to still traverse the turret and elevate the gun if the electrical or hydraulic systems were inoperable.
- Vehicles equipped with the same chassis
- Vehicles equipped with the same gun
|MBTs||M48 Patton · M60 · M60A1 (AOS) · M60A2 · M60A1 RISE (P) · M60A3 TTS · XM-1 (Chrysler) · M1 Abrams|
|Note||Chrysler Defense was purchased by General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS) in 1982.|
|USA medium tanks|
|M3||M3 Lee · Grant I|
|M4||M4 · Calliope · M4A1 · M4A1 (76) W · M4A2 · M4A2 (76) W · M4A3 (76) W · M4A3 (105) · M4A5|
|M26||T20 · T25 · M26 · M26 T99 · M26E1|
|Post-war||M46 · M46 "Tiger" · M47 · M48A1 · T54E1 · T95E1|
|MBT||M60 · M60A1 (AOS) · M60A1 RISE (P) · M60A2 · M60A3 TTS · MBT-70 · XM-803|
|XM-1 (Chrysler) · XM-1 (GM) · M1 Abrams · IPM1 · M1A1 Abrams · M1A2 Abrams|
|Israeli||Magach 3 · Merkava Mk.1 · Merkava Mk.2B · Merkava Mk.3D|