M60A3 TTS

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RANK 6 BRITAIN
Rooikat 105 PACK
105 mm Gun Tank M60A3 TTS
us_m60a3_tts.png
AB
RB
SB
General characteristics
Brief
Detailed
9.0/9.0/9.0BR
4 peopleCrew
152 %Visibility
front / side / backArmour
108 / 70 / 25Hull
230 / 49 / 57Turret
Mobility
47.6 tWeight
1 431 hp750 hpEngine power
30 hp/t16 hp/tPower-to-weight ratio
52 km/h forward
9 km/h back
47 km/h forward
8 km/h back
Speed
Armament
105 mm M68 cannonMain weapon
63 roundsAmmunition
37 roundsFirst-order
6.7 / 8.7 sReload
-10° / 20°Vertical guidance
two-planeStabilizer
12.7 mm M85 machine gunMachinegun
900 roundsAmmunition
8.0 / 10.4 sReload
200 roundsBelt capacity
626 shots/minFire rate
-9° / 60°Vertical guidance
5 950 roundsAmmunition
8.0 / 10.4 sReload
200 roundsBelt capacity
750 shots/minFire rate
Economy
250 000 Rp icon.pngResearch
690 000 Sl icon.pngPurchase
Sl icon.png4 000 / 6 315/4 800 / 7 579/1 900 / 3 000Repair
200 000 Sl icon.pngCrew training
690 000 Sl icon.pngExperts
2 100 Ge icon.pngAces
226 % Rp icon.pngReward for battle
180 % Sl icon.png150 % Sl icon.png110 % Sl icon.png
This page is about the American main battle tank M60A3 TTS. For other vehicles of the family, see M60 (Family).

Description

GarageImage M60A3 TTS.jpg


The 105 mm Gun Tank M60A3 TTS is a rank VI American medium tank with a battle rating of 9.0 (AB/RB/SB). It was introduced in Update 1.95 "Northern Wind".

Very similar to the previous M60A1 RISE (P), the M60A3 TTS differs with the addition of a thermal sight for the gunner, a laser rangefinder replacing the original optical version, and access to better rounds. Weight, protection, mobility, and other characteristics are virtually the same as its predecessor - this tank holds no surprises. At its rank, the M60 platform begins to show its age, being much slower than a number of contemporary MBTs like the Leopard A1A1 while not having enough armour to resist APFSDS rounds. It is best used with caution as a support or backup tank, where its good gun and thermals are effective and its deficiencies are less apparent.

General info

Survivability and armour

The armour layout of the M60A3 TTS is the same as the M60A1 RISE (P). The ERA is very apparent, and each panel offers 370 mm of protection against chemical rounds and a measly 5 mm of protection against kinetic rounds. This is enough to stop the majority of HEAT-FS rounds that the M60A3 will encounter, but only for the first hit. Impacts from chemical rounds will destroy large swathes of panels, and follow up shots can be lethal. Many ATGMs, particularly those with tandem warheads, can overcome the ERA and damage the tank since the M60 does not have composite armour underneath, so incoming missiles should still be avoided or otherwise dealt with. It should also be noted that the ERA coverage has some gaps, particularly around the turret ring and the gunner's sight.

The underlying base armour is similar to the layout originally featured on the M60A1 (AOS). It consists entirely of cast and rolled homogeneous armour. The frontal hull armour and turret cheeks are fairly thick and can generally shrug off fire from Soviet APHE rounds and autocannons, but the gun mantlet is modeled as having only 127 mm of CHA (with some sloping) and is a major weak point. The turret ring is another weak zone, only 114 mm thick and fairly large in size. The commander's cupola bulges from the top of the turret and is lightly protected, making it an attractive target for APHE and high-calibre HE rounds.

With no specialized protection against APDS or APFSDS rounds, the M60A3's armour should not be trusted. Even weaker chemical rounds can slip between the gaps of the ERA panels with some luck. Considering the tank's unimpressive mobility, enemy flankers are a real concern as well, and nearly every weapon at the M60A3's rank can penetrate the hull sides. Surviving hits should be a pleasant surprise and not an expectation.

Armour type:

  • Cast homogeneous armour
  • Rolled homogeneous armour (Rear roof, Engine grille)
Armour Front Sides Rear Roof
Hull 108 mm (66°) Front Glacis
137 mm (54°) Lower Glacis
36 - 70 mm 25 mm (1°) Engine Grille
40 mm (31°) Top
28 mm (61°) Bottom
36 mm Front
20 mm Engine deck
Turret 215 + 50.8 mm (1-43°) Turret front left
230 + 50.8 mm (4-50°) Turret front right
127 mm (8-57°) Gun Mantlet
215 - 49 mm 57 mm 48 mm Front
25.4 mm Center
Armour Front Sides Rear Roof
Cupola 127 mm 70 mm 50 mm 101.6 mm

Notes:

  • Tracks are 30 mm thick while suspension wheels are 20 mm thick.
  • Belly armour is 19 mm in the front, 13 mm in the rear.
  • 15 mm RHA plate between the engine and crew compartment.

Mobility

Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Forward Reverse Stock Upgraded Stock Upgraded
Arcade 52 9 47.6 1,162 1,431 24.41 30.06
Realistic 47 8 663 750 13.93 15.76

Armaments

Main armament

Main article: M68 (105 mm)
105 mm M68 Turret rotation speed (°/s) Reloading rate (seconds)
Mode Capacity Vertical Horizontal Stabilizer Stock Upgraded Full Expert Aced Stock Full Expert Aced
Arcade 63 -10°/+20° ±180° Two-plane 21.40 29.65 36.00 39.81 42.35 8.70 7.71 7.11 6.70
Realistic 13.40 15.75 19.13 21.15 22.50

Ammunition

The M60A3 TTS has the same ammunition selection as the M1 Abrams. The M735 APFSDS and M456A2 HEAT-FS rounds come as stock choices, which is refreshing compared to the stock APDS on the M60A1 RISE. Of these two, M735 is better against most tank targets since it has much higher velocity, will not prematurely detonate on trees and fences, and will cut straight through opponents without decent composite armour. The HEAT-FS is useful for hull-breaking light targets like IFVs and SPAAs but is more difficult to aim and will struggle against opponents with any ERA and composite armour. The post-penetration damage is not any better, so only a few HEAT-FS rounds should be kept in reserve for use against light targets.

The unlockable M393A2 HESH round has potentially more post-penetration damage than the other options, however it has the worst ballistics, the lowest penetration, and is the most difficult to use as a result. For best results, it should be aimed at hull or turret sides and roofs, taking care not to hit ERA, composite armour, or spaced armour. Still, the HEAT-FS is much more user-friendly for taking out light targets. HESH might be helpful in the occasional unusual situation where a small portion of an enemy tank is exposed, but its crew members are not close enough to the line of fire to be damaged by the APFSDS or HEAT-FS. The final unlockable ammunition choice is the M774 APFSDS round, which costs 600 SL per shot and has all-round improved statistics from the M735 round. In particular, it enjoys significantly better angled penetration. If financial cost is not a factor, it should be the M60A3's ammo type of choice.

The M416 smoke shell is available too. Obviously, it is not good at damaging enemies, but it can be used to cover advances and blind entrenched targets.

Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)
10 m 100 m 500 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m
M735 APFSDS 353 350 342 333 322 312
M393A2 HESH 127 127 127 127 127 127
M456A2 HEATFS 400 400 400 400 400 400
M774 APFSDS 357 355 347 338 328 319
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Fuse delay
(m)
Fuse sensitivity
(mm)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
Ricochet
0% 50% 100%
M735 APFSDS 1,501 3.7 N/A N/A N/A 76° 77° 80°
M393A2 HESH 732 14.85 0.4 0.1 4,306 73° 77° 80°
M456A2 HEATFS 1,173 10.5 N/A 0.1 1,270 65° 72° 77°
M774 APFSDS 1,509 3.4 N/A N/A N/A 78° 80° 81°
Smoke shell characteristics
Ammunition Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Screen radius
(m)
Screen deploy time
(s)
Screen hold time
(s)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
M416 730 11.4 20 5 25 50

Ammo racks

Ammo racks of the M60A3 TTS
Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
4th
rack empty
5th
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
63 50 (+13) 48 (+15) 27 (+36) 13 (+50) (+62) No

Ammo racks litter the interior of the M60A3 TTS. Avoid taking enough ammunition to fill the turret bustle ammo rack, this way penetrating shots to the turret are less likely to destroy the tank instantly. There is a considerable amount of ammunition in the turret basket, and there will always be ammunition stored on the sides of the driver since those are the first ammo racks to be filled. Emptying the turret and turret basket will increase survivability by a fair amount.

Machine guns

12.7 mm M85
Mount Capacity
(Belt capacity)
Rate of fire
(shots/minute)
Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
Pintle 900 (200) 625 -9°/+60° ±180°
7.62 mm M240
Mount Capacity
(Belt capacity)
Rate of fire
(shots/minute)
Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
Coaxial 5,950 (200) 750 N/A N/A

Usage in battles

The M60A3 TTS lacks the mobility to arrive first on the front lines or easily flank, but the unimpressive protection means that advancing steadily in the open is not a safe proposition either. It is best to follow teammates, stay close to cover, and take advantage of the thermal sight to scan for opponents. A quick glance through the gunner's scope can reveal hidden enemies from afar. The armour and mobility issues are less important if one can consistently catch targets off guard and shoot first, and if the rest of the team is causing a ruckus, all the better. Keep an eye out for flankers and avoid staying out of cover for long.

Thermal sights are very helpful and not quite ubiquitous at the M60A3's rank, but they are not uncommon either. IFVs like the Begleitpanzer 57, BMP-3, and Type 89 have them and can spot the M60A3 easily. Thankfully, these targets are more reliant on ATGMs for long distance combat, which are easier to avoid than APFSDS rounds. They will still pack a huge punch upon a successful hit, so do not stand still. The premium AMX-30 Super, Leopard A1A1 (L/44), and Type 74G all boast thermal sights and superior mobility, making them difficult targets indeed. The only real way to deal with them is to shoot first. It is also possible for the M60A3 TTS to encounter its cousins in the China tree, the M60A3 TTS (China) and CM11. The former does not have ERA and is even more vulnerable while the latter has even worse mobility in exchange for superior firepower; these three tanks all make easy targets for one another.

The MBT-70 currently shares a battle rating with the M60A3 TTS. They are very different tanks and can cover each other's weaknesses to some extent when used as a lineup; when high mobility and aggressive pushes are needed, the MBT-70 (or its devolved sibling, the XM-803) can be used, and when thermal sights and firepower are needed the M60A3 can pick up the slack. None of these options have very good armour, but few opponents at their rank do.

Modules

Tier Mobility Protection Firepower
I Tracks Parts Horizontal Drive M393A2
II Suspension Brake System FPE Adjustment of Fire M416 NVD
III Filters Crew Replenishment Elevation Mechanism Smoke grenade
IV Transmission Engine ESS Artillery Support M774 Laser rangefinder

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Same ammo selection as the M1 Abrams
  • Stock M735 APFSDS round
  • Good quality thermal sight
  • ERA offers decent chemical protection
  • Has a laser rangefinder

Cons:

  • Not very mobile
  • Large target
  • Armour is virtually useless against APFSDS
  • ERA coverage has significant gaps
  • Turret ring, gun mantlet, and cupola are all notable weak spots

History

The M60

The M60 tank, a descendant of the Patton series of tanks, was the mainstay of US armoured forces for much of the Cold War. It saw much combat in various conflicts like the Yom Kippur War, Iran-Iraq War, and the Gulf War, performing well against Soviet contemporaries like the T-62. Several versions of the M60 were used by the US military, and the last of them was the M60A3.

M60A3

Development

During the 1970's there was a rapid advancement in anti-tank technology, and with the failure of the M60A2 program to produce a sufficient fighting vehicle an upgrade of the M60A1 series was necessary. In 1976, a program to do just that was initiated; the intention was to increase the turret armor and to modernize and improve the technological systems in the tank. The product of the program was the M60A3 tank, a significant improvement over the M60A1 series. Despite the improvement over the earlier M60 models, the M60A3 was viewed as a stop-gap measure, as the M1 Abrams was already being developed and was planned to enter service in 1981.

M60A3 Passive

This was the first model of the M60A3 series; it was known simply as the M60A3, but was also known as the M60A3 Passive in order to better distinguish it from the later M60A3 TTS. The M60A3 was based on the M60A1 RISE Passive tank, but with a number of upgrades for the turret - most notably changes to the armor and fire control system. The armor on the turret face was increased to 276 mm and the armor on the gun mantlet was changed to 330 mm. The M60A1 RISE Passive tanks uses a coincidence rangefinder and the mechanical M19 ballistic computer. The M60A3 received the M21 fire control system which includes an AN/VVS2 flash-lamp pumped ruby-laser rangefinder for the commander and gunner, solid-state M21E1 gun data computer, improved stabilization mechanism, improved electrical system, and an improved solid-state analog data card bus. The M10A2E3 ballistic drive is an electro-mechanical unit.The commander received an M36E1 passive periscope and the gunner received an M32E1 passive sight. The hydraulic fluid in the turret was changed to a type that was non-flammable. The M60A3 turret was mounted on the chassis of the M60A1 RISE Passive hull, with the same AVDS-1790-2D RISE engine and CD-850-6A transmission, with a Halon fire-suppression system. A total of 748 M60A3 Passive tanks were built, and all were later upgraded to the M60A3 TTS standard.

M60A3 TTS

The M60A3 TTS was an improved model of the earlier M60A3. The gunner received an AN/VSG2 Tank Thermal Sight (TTS), which was the only major improvement over the M60A3 Passive. 304 M60A3 TTS tanks were built (with production ending in 1983), 1,391 of the US Army M60A1 RISE tanks were converted to the M60A3 TTS standard by the Anniston Army Depot and Mainz Army Depot by 1990, and all 748 US Army M60A3 tanks were also upgraded to the TTS standard by 1984.

Production

In February of 1978, the first M60A3 tanks were finished at the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant. The low-rate initial production run was completed at the DATP in October, which consisted of 296 M60A3 tanks; the tanks were first fielded by the US Army in May of 1979. Chrysler Defense was purchased by General Dynamics Land Division in 1982. In May 1983, production of the M60A3 ended with a total of 1,052 M60A3 and M60A3 TTS tanks built; 748 of the tanks were of the Passive version, and 304 were of the TTS version. At this time, the Detroit Tank Plant closed, and production of the M1 Abrams was at the Lima Tank Plant in Ohio. Despite this, the conversion of earlier M60 tanks to the M60A3/E60B standard was still occurring, specifically for other nations through the Foreign Military Sales program. The last M60A3 tanks were delivered through the FMS in May of 1986 to Israel, with a total of 3,268 tanks converted. The tanks upgraded for Israel were surplus US Army M60A1 RISE tanks. Earlier M60 tanks were also converted to the M60A3 TTS standard for the US Army. 1,391 of the US Army M60A1 RISE tanks were converted to the M60A3 TTS standard by the Anniston Army Depot and Mainz Army Depot by 1990, and all 748 US Army M60A3 tanks were also upgraded to the TTS standard by 1984.

Service and Export

The M60A3 eventually replaced all US Army M60A1 and M48A5 tanks (used by the National Guard until 1987) in service. But, the Marine Corps still used the M60A1 RISE tanks until the M60 was retired from front line service in 1991. The official full name of the M60A3 was Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105-mm Gun, M60A3. It was also known as the 105mm Gun Tank M60A3.

The M60 was designated as the E60 for export by the US Foreign Military Sales (FMS); the original M60 was designated as the E60, the M60A1 series was designated as the E60A, and the M60A3 series was designated as the E60B. The last M60A3 tanks were delivered through the FMS in May of 1986 to Israel, with a total of 3,268 tanks converted. Other nations including Italy, Austria, Greece, Morocco, and Taiwan upgraded their M60s to the M60A3 standard through FMS contracts with Raytheon and General Dynamics in the 1980's. In 1990, surplus M60A3/E60B tanks were sold to Oman, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia.

Several companies offer or have offered upgrade packages for the M60A3, such as the Leonardo M60A3 (from Italy), the Raytheon M60A3 SLEP (from the US), the Magach series (from Israel), and the M60T Sabra series (developed by an Israeli company but used by Turkey). These attempt to increase the firepower and protection of the M60 to modern levels, often featuring 120 mm guns, add-on composite armour, and active protection systems. While the M60 is an old design, its cheap cost and room for upgrades will likely keep it in service for years to come, not unlike the Soviet T-54/55 series.

Media

Excellent additions to the article would be video guides, screenshots from the game, and photos.

See also

  • M60 (Family) - The family/history page for the M60.
  • M60 - The first version of the M60.
  • M60A1 RISE (P) - The version of the M60 directly preceding the M60A3 TTS in the US tech tree.
  • M60A3 TTS (Taiwan) - An M60A3 TTS in service with Taiwan, found in the Chinese tech tree.

External links

Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:

  • topic on the official game forum;
  • encyclopedia page on the tank;
  • other literature.


USA medium tanks
Early projects  M2
M3  M3 Lee · Grant I
M4  M4 · Calliope · M4A1 · M4A1 (76) W · M4A2 · M4A2 (76) W · M4A3 (76) W · M4A3 (105) · M4A5
M26  T20 · T25 · M26 · M26 T99 · M26E1
Post-war  M46 · M46 "Tiger" · M47 · M48A1 · T54E1 · T95E1
MBT  M60 · M60A1 (AOS) · M60A1 RISE (P) · M60A2 · M60A3 TTS · MBT-70 · XM-803
  XM-1 (Chrysler) · XM-1 (GM) · M1 Abrams · IPM1 · M1A1 Abrams · M1A2 Abrams
Israeli  Magach 3 · Merkava Mk.1 · Merkava Mk.2B