M41D

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This page is about the Chinese light tank M41D. For other versions, see M41 Walker Bulldog (Family).
cn_m_41d.png
GarageImage M41D.jpg
M41D
AB RB SB
8.0 8.0 8.0
Class:
Research:180 000 Specs-Card-Exp.png
Purchase:500 000 Specs-Card-Lion.png
Show in game

Description

The M41D is a rank VI Chinese light tank with a battle rating of 8.0 (AB/RB/SB). It was introduced in Update "Winged Lions".

The most modern variant of the M41 in-game, this Taiwanese upgrade features APFSDS, thermals, a laser rangefinder, and a more powerful engine. The high gun depression and laser rangefinder, combined with its poor armour and lack of stabilizer, make this tank well-suited for hull-down sniping, and its good reverse speed allows it to quickly retreat if spotted. Compared to its PLA light tank counterpart, the PTL02, the M41D trades a stabilizer and some firepower for superior reverse mobility, a slightly smaller profile, and increased gun depression.

General info

Survivability and armour

Smoke grenades
Creation of a smoke screen in front of the vehicle
Armourfront / side / back
Hull31 / 25 / 19
Turret25 / 25 / 25
Crew4 people
Visibility88 %

Although the M41D underwent an overhaul from the original Walker Bulldog, protection wasn't part of the upgrade. The M41D retains the very same protection like any other member of the M41 family of tanks, other than the addition of side skirts. The protection all-round is not enough to protect the tank from any shells found at the rank, autocannons are also a deadly foe for the M41D as they can penetrate it with ease. Since it is a light tank in nature, the crew is also cramped into a confined space, any penetration from shells with explosive filler or large-calibre HE shells means a very quick demise for the crew.

Armour type:

  • Rolled homogeneous armour
Armour Front (Slope angle) Sides Rear Roof
Hull 25.4 mm (60°) Upper
31.7 mm (45°) Lower
25.4 mm Front
19 mm Back
12.7 mm (58°) Top
19 mm (32 - 37°) Bottom
10 - 19 mm
Turret 25.4 mm Turret front
31.7 mm Gun mantlet
25.4 mm 25.4 mm 19 mm
Cupola 31.7 mm 31.7 mm 31.7 mm 5 mm

Notes:

  • Tracks and suspension wheels are 15 mm thick

Mobility

Speedforward / back
AB80 / 21 km/h
RB and SB72 / 19 km/h
Number of gears6 forward
2 back
Weight25.0 t
Engine power
AB773 hp
RB and SB405 hp
Power-to-weight ratio
AB30.9 hp/t
RB and SB16.2 hp/t

For upgrades in terms of mobility, most vehicles would go for higher power output from the engine or replacing the transmission system.

The upgrade for M41D did neither. ROCA decided to downgrade the original 500 hp Continental AOS 895-3 petrol engine to a Detroit Diesel 8V-71T engine for better fuel economy and torque. The statistic that matters the most is the engine output, and after downgrading the engine, the M41D can barely reach 50 km/h on road, let alone reached the claimed 72 km/h top speed. Handling is still identical, oddly, to the original M41.

Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Forward Reverse Stock Upgraded Stock Upgraded
Arcade 80 21 25 628 773 25.12 30.92
Realistic 72 19 358 405 14.32 16.2

Modifications and economy

Repair costBasic → Reference
AB2 900 → 4 854 Sl icon.png
RB3 500 → 5 859 Sl icon.png
SB4 600 → 7 700 Sl icon.png
Total cost of modifications151 700 Rp icon.png
258 600 Sl icon.png
Talisman cost2 400 Ge icon.png
Crew training140 000 Sl icon.png
Experts500 000 Sl icon.png
Aces2 000 Ge icon.png
Research Aces890 000 Rp icon.png
Reward for battleAB / RB / SB
110 / 200 / 250 % Sl icon.png
214 / 214 / 214 % Rp icon.png
Modifications
Mobility Protection Firepower
Mods new tank traks.png
Tracks
Research:
8 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
390 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank suspension.png
Suspension
Research:
6 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 600 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank break.png
Brake System
Research:
6 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 600 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank filter.png
Filters
Research:
8 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
390 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank transmission.png
Transmission
Research:
8 700 Rp icon.png
Cost:
14 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank engine.png
Engine
Research:
8 700 Rp icon.png
Cost:
14 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods tank tool kit.png
Parts
Research:
2 400 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
390 Ge icon.png
Mods extinguisher.png
FPE
Research:
1 800 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 600 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods tank reinforcement cn.png
Crew Replenishment
Research:
8 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
390 Ge icon.png
Mods smoke screen.png
Smoke grenade
Research:
8 700 Rp icon.png
Cost:
14 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank horizontal aiming.png
Horizontal Drive
Research:
8 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
390 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
76mm_us_M361_Smoke_ammo_pack
Research:
8 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
390 Ge icon.png
Mods tank cannon.png
Adjustment of Fire
Research:
6 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 600 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods airstrike.png
Airstrike
Research:
6 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 600 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods scout streak.png
Scout UAV
Research:
6 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
9 600 Sl icon.png
290 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank vertical aiming.png
Elevation Mechanism
Research:
8 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
390 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
76mm_us_M464_APFSDS_ammo_pack
Research:
8 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
390 Ge icon.png
Mods thermal sight.png
NVD
Research:
8 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
13 000 Sl icon.png
390 Ge icon.png
Mods art support.png
Artillery Support
Research:
8 700 Rp icon.png
Cost:
14 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods tank laser rangefinder.png
Laser rangefinder
Research:
8 700 Rp icon.png
Cost:
14 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png
Mods scouting.png
Improved optics
Research:
8 700 Rp icon.png
Cost:
14 000 Sl icon.png
420 Ge icon.png

Armaments

Laser rangefinder
Reduces the error and increases the maximum measurable distance of the rangefinder
Night vision device
Improves visibility by enhancing natural light or active illumination.

Main armament

76 mm M32K1 cannon
Ammunition65 rounds
First-order11 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
7.6 → 5.9 s
Vertical guidance-10° / 20°
Main article: M32K1 (76 mm)

The M32K1 cannon on M41D, to a certain extent, is the very first tank cannon made in Republic of China. Based on the original M32 76 mm gun found on other M41s, it can fire HEATFS, HE, APFSDS and smoke shells. It comes with a 2nd generation Texas Instruments TVD and a laser rangefinder which boosts the tank's search-and-destroy capabilities, though it has no stabilizer of any form, so firing accurately on the move is virtually impossible.

76 mm M32K1 Turret rotation speed (°/s) Reloading rate (seconds)
Mode Capacity Vertical Horizontal Stabilizer Stock Upgraded Full Expert Aced Stock Full Expert Aced
Arcade 65 -10°/+20° ±180° N/A 34.3 47.4 57.6 63.7 67.8 7.67 6.79 6.25 5.90
Realistic 21.4 25.2 30.6 33.8 36.0

Ammunition

The stock shell is M496 HEATFS, which is the top shell for the German M41 and US T92; at its tier, it can handle medium tanks it might face, such as M48 Pattons or Soviet T-54/T-62 series. It might still need careful shots when facing any Cold War heavy tanks like T-10M; some other heavies can be penetrated up front, but the damage might be minimal.

The other stock shell, M352 HE, can be neglected as a means to knock out any tanks at all, it doesn't have enough explosive mass to even trigger overpressure against most targets. It might be sufficient for vehicles with open combat compartment, but anything that is thicker than a sheet of steel or aluminium more than half an inch (12.7 mm) can stop this shell with ease.

The M464 APFSDS serving as the M41D's top shell is another story. It is still the go-to ammunition for M41Ds in service, this dart imported from Israel can penetrate 280 mm of armour at point blank range, which does fit ROCA's requirement to penetrate PLAGF's masses of ZTZ59s; and many tanks at the same BR don't even come with any darts; which means M41D can finally handle most tanks it might face at similar BR.

M361 smoke shell also comes available to M41D, serving as a long-range option to blind enemies or cover your team's movement.

Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)
10 m 100 m 500 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m
M496 shell HEATFS 254 254 254 254 254 254
M352 shell HE 12 12 12 12 12 12
M464 APFSDS 280 276 265 251 236 222
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Fuse delay
(m)
Fuse sensitivity
(mm)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
Ricochet
0% 50% 100%
M496 shell HEATFS 1,082 3.2 0.05 0.1 653.69 65° 72° 77°
M352 shell HE 732 6.8 0 0.1 867.22 79° 80° 81°
M464 APFSDS 1,480 1.63 N/A N/A N/A 78° 80° 81°
Smoke shell characteristics
Ammunition Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Screen radius
(m)
Screen deploy time
(s)
Screen hold time
(s)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
M361 713 7.1 13 5 20 50

Ammo racks

Ammo racks of the M41D
Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
65 33 (+32) 12 (+53) (+64) No

Notes:

  • Shells are modeled individually and disappear after having been shot or loaded.
  • Rack 3 is a first stage ammo rack. It totals 11 shells and gets filled first when loading up the tank.
  • This rack is also emptied early: the rack depletion order at full capacity is: 3 - 1 - 2.
  • Simply not firing when the gun is loaded will move ammo from racks 1 and 2 into rack 3. Firing will interrupt the restocking of the ready rack.
  • Although having the minimal survivability of a light tank, it is still suggested to bring only 12 rounds as the standby ammo; in case of concerns over missed shots or non-lethal shots on enemies, bring 32 shells at most, which will be located in the lower hull by the center mass.

Machine guns

Ammunition2 200 rounds
Belt capacity200 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
10.4 → 8.0 s
Fire rate577 shots/min
Vertical guidance-10° / 70°
Horizontal guidance-60° / 60°
Ammunition5 000 rounds
Belt capacity250 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
10.4 → 8.0 s
Fire rate500 shots/min

The M41D retains the same M2HB as its anti-air machine gun; all the characteristics for the machine gun itself are identical to any other M2HB as well. It can be good for handling lightly armoured APCs, IFVs or SPAAGs; it is also a good for gunning down early helicopters with very limited protection in this BR range.

12.7 mm M2HB
Mount Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal
Pintle 2,200 (200) 577 -10°/+70° ±60°

The M1919A4 coaxial machine gun is only good for gunning down exposed crew of vehicles and marking enemies, alternatively as a makeshift rangefinder before the laser rangefinder becomes available.

7.62 mm M1919A4
Mount Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal
Coaxial 5,000 (250) 500 N/A N/A

Usage in battles

The M41D may be one of the most challenging light tanks at this tier, perhaps even among other non-stabilized light tanks in-game; however, taking a less aggressive approach can ensure that it can at least contribute to the team by harassing or crippling enemies, helping the team to advance.

Harassing enemies

Players should remember one thing for the M41D in general: it is a light tank and never designed for head-on assaults against masses of enemies. Some inferior features of the M41D also make it a struggle to grind through the basic equipment for survivability, notably the underpowered engine and rather wobbly main cannon; players who are already used to the PLAGF's Type 69 or PTL02 with stabilizers will have to adapt a completely new doctrine. The M41D has neither the armour of the former or the crisp clear TVD of the latter, but it does have the best gun depression of any Chinese gun-equipped vehicle at -10° and a rather fast gun traverse speed for its tier (around 24°/s even when stock). So for any chance to utilize the M41D, remember to never be the first one on the frontline; it's better off staying behind the lines or taking cover near the frontline for the early grind - taking enemies from the sides is much less risky as the stock M496 HEATFS is nowhere close to reliable due to its lesser penetration and calibre to most HEATFS of the tier. Be sure to aim for their gunnery crews or ammunition; although it has a sufficiently fast reload time (7.7 second stock) for a second chance, if it happens that the shell didn't do lethal damage, the M41D is very unlikely survive the retaliatory shot from enemies. And make sure to hide from any aircraft - you could fight back with the pintle-mounted M2HB, but this is more likely to draw their attention to you and they will make sure you will have a bad day from either their cannons or any other explosive ordnances.

Once the thermal sight and laser rangefinder modifications are installed, your life will much be easier as they mean you can finally stay way behind the lines for scouting or harassing enemies thanks to the automatic ballistic solution; only fire once the gun has stabilized since the ballistic solution will still make the gun vibrate. Both the stock M496 and the researchable M464 dart are nowhere near the best shells for quick kills; but careless players or those who showed their sides will be likely to have some trouble finding the flanker. Another note is to pick your targets carefully, "doomsday" heavy tanks and those of the early Cold War will occasionally absorb the damage from the shells, this is especially true for long-range engagements when the shell happens to land on different weld joints on the tank.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • The APFSDS round can penetrate most common tanks it will face, like the Leopard 1, T-55, or M60
  • Gunner thermals allows efficient target searching especially at night, as most other counterparts only have NVD
  • Laser rangefinder can quickly target distant foes and provide an automatic ballistic solution
  • -10° gun depression means good hull-down and hilly terrain performance
  • -18 km/h reverse allows it to retreat from danger quickly
  • Smoke grenades and smoke shells allow it to protect itself or blind enemies

Cons:

  • Cannon is not stabilised, significantly reducing its ability to fire on the move or to shoot first during an encounter against stabilised guns
  • APFSDS is not strong enough to penetrate certain well-protected tanks, e.g. M48 Super, T-55AM-1
  • The small calibre of the main gun results in frustratingly little spalling/post penetration damage
  • Mobility can become rather sluggish on soft surfaces like mud
  • Somewhat tall profile, worsening its concealment
  • Poor survivability. Can be easily penetrated by autocannons, or destroyed by cannons and missiles with overpressure

History

The ROCA, after their retreat to the island of Taiwan, used various imported tanks from different military aids, mostly US-built tanks such as earlier M24 Chaffee and some M18 GMC. Since 1958, during the heat of 1st Taiwan Strait Crisis, ROCA purchased 700 M41A1/A2 Walker Bulldogs and 300 M48A1s to strengthen their defences in case the turmoil intensified into all-out warfare; these tanks replaced the older tanks in different armoured units. In 1975 (ROC Year 64,民國64年), ROCA started to reproduce a complete hull of M41, with some efforts made to reproduce the gun as well, the reverse-engineered light tank was first named Type 64 Light Tank (國造64式輕戰車) then renamed Type 65 Light tank (國造65式輕戰車) to avoid confusion with the other Type 64 (M64). While the tank didn't go into mass production, it gave ROCA the chance to build a domestic tank and some designs were retained for further use.

Later, in the 1980s and 1990s, ROCA decided to opt for a NATO retrofit of their M41s, after a long shot plan to buy the new M8 AGS to replace the fleet was scrapped due to budget issues.

The idea for M41D started during the 2nd Taiwan Strait Crisis. In view of aggressive PLA exercises aimed to protest against the talks given by the new ROC government, ROCA was in dire need for an overhaul upgrade of the M41 against possible landing operations from PLANMC, along with the insufficient amount of CM11 and M60A3 TTS on hand.

The M41"D" upgrade

The M41 light tank improvement project mainly focused on night vision/fire control system and the adaptation of the diesel engine. Two corporations participated in the M41 tank improvement project and 2 prototype vehicles were built and tested. The prototype No. 1 was equipped with a Texas Instruments (TI) CVTTS night vision FCS and a 4-stroke VTA-903TR diesel engine produced by Cummins company, No. 2 vehicle is equipped with the 'M41 tank night vision fire control system' of the domestic Kunyi company and a two-stroke 8V-71T diesel engine produced by Napco company (the letter D of M41D stands for diesel engine modification).

After the bids for the improvements were determined, the first M41D prototype was composed of the chassis of the No. 2 prototype and the turret of the No. 1. The assembly took about a week and cost about NT$20 million to transform a regular M41 into M41D. Only 50 M41D were modified as the first batch due to insufficient funding, but the budget was expected to increase in the future.

The original M32A1 cannon was replaced with a M32K1 gun produced by Joint Logistics Command. The new cannon slightly enlarged the original cylindrical smoke evacuator and moved it backward 44 cm, while the original T-shaped muzzle brake was removed, and a pepper-pot type depressor was installed.

Although the calibre of the M32K1 cannon remained 76 mm, it could fire the high-pressure M464 APFSDS due to the self-tightening design of the cannon, and the muzzle velocity of the projectile could reach 1,400 m/s. The new ammunition could penetrate the frontal armour of Type 59 and Type 69 MBTs that the Communist forces equipped at that time. The M41D light tank was planned to be assigned to the armoured cavalry, the main task of which was to perform search, alert, and cover tasks on the battlefield, or to sweep the beach and annihilate the enemy's lightly armed forces during the initial stage of the enemy's landing, instead of engaging the heavy armour face-to-face. So the new main gun of the M41D tank should be sufficient for future missions.

The CVTTS (Combat Vehicle Thermal Targeting System) night vision FCS equipped by the M41D light tank could identify the enemy and aim at a target from 1,000 m away at night. In addition, a periscope in front of the driver's seat was modified with Starlight night vision goggles to facilitate night driving. The original mechanical ballistic compensator was converted to a digital ballistic computer; the optical rangefinder was also replaced with a laser rangefinder.

M41D employed a two-stroke DDC 8V-71T diesel engine, the maximum net output of which was 405 hp and the maximum net torque was 806 ft/lb. As the new diesel engine was more fuel-efficient than the original gasoline one, while the fuel capacity was increased from the original 530L to 760L, the maximum cruising range was greatly increased from the original 160 km to 450 km. The 8V-71T diesel engine of the M41D can also be found in the M108, M109, M110, and other self-propelled artillery vehicles in the ROCA, which helped to reduce pressure on logistics.

The original Allison CD500 gearbox of M41 was retained, and the improvement in the suspension system lay in the replacement of a new torsion bar produced by Joint Logistics Command. Thus, the general manoeuvrability of the M41D tank was greatly improved compared with the original M41A series.

M41D in ROCA service

The Ministry of National Defence passed a 20 billion NTD budget for emergency upgrades of existing equipment, where 400 M41A1/A2s with better hull condition would undergo the new M41D upgrade program; after more M60A3 TTS were delivered to ROCA, the whole program shrunk to a 1.2 billion NTD budget and only 50 of these Walker Bulldogs were upgraded into M41D. 6 out of the 50 upgraded tanks were retained at military academies, the remaining ones were deployed on Kinmen Island just off the coast of Xiamen, Fujian; the closest Nationalist-controlled area to Mainland China. Later military reforms decided to have them return to the main island and serve in different units. A recent fatal incident at Kinmen raised concerns as to whether the remaining few M41A2s were safe enough for training, let alone fighting the now-modernized PLA with masses of MBTs; around 20 M41Ds returned to Kinmen and replaced these old tanks, after the decommission ceremony of the remaining M41A in ROCA on 2022/2/25, the remaining M41Ds have to struggle until the new CM34 "Project Leopard (獵豹專案)" and M1A2T could eventually replace them.

Media

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See also

Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example:

  • reference to the series of the vehicles;
  • links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.

External links

Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:

  • topic on the official game forum;
  • other literature.


Ordnance Research Development Center, ROCA (陸軍兵工整備發展中心)
Light tanks  M41D · M64
Medium tanks  CM11
Tank destroyers  CM25

China light tanks
Type 63  Type 63-I
Type 62  Type 62
WZ551  PTL02 · WMA301
ZBL08  ZLT11
IFV  ZBD86
ROC  M41D · M64
USA  ␗M8 LAC · ␗M3A3 Stuart · ␗M3A3 (1st PTG) · ␗M5A1 · ␗M24 · ␗M18 GMC
USSR  ␗T-26 · T-26 No.531 · ␗PT-76