M56

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RANK VI USSR
T-72AV (TURMS-T) PACK
M56
us_m56_scorpion.png
GarageImage M56.jpg
M56
AB RB SB
6.0 6.7 6.7
Research:63 000 Specs-Card-Exp.png
Purchase:210 000 Specs-Card-Lion.png
Show in game

Description

The 90-mm, Full Tracked Self-Propelled Gun M56 Scorpion is a rank IV American tank destroyer with a battle rating of 6.0 (AB) and 6.7 (RB/SB). It was introduced in Update 1.63 "Desert Hunters".

Though one of the lightest tank destroyers in the game, its 90 mm gun gives it a very powerful punch, especially when using the HEATFS round, which can penetrate up to 320 mm of armour.

General info

Survivability and armour

Armourfront / side / back
Hull0 / 0 / 0
Turret5 / 0 / 0
Crew3 people
Visibility68 %

Fitting the definition of a glass cannon, the M56 has virtually no armour to speak of, as the majority of the tank comprises structural steel not meant to protect the crew and has a weak armour modifier (x0.45 KE), which renders it near useless in protecting internal components from incoming fire of any calibre, with the exception of high-angle impacts from rifle-calibre rounds. This description also applies to the only armour plate found on the entire tank, the gun shield, as the 5 mm thick plate with 12 mm of bullet-proof glass will only be able to stop rifle-calibre bullets from mid to long ranges.

The crew consists of only 3 members: a driver on the left side of the gun breech, the gunner on the right side of the gun breech, and the commander sitting rather casually behind the driver. If the tank is spotted and takes fire, expect the commander to be the first crew member down, since he is the most exposed among the three, sitting far away and above the gun shield. This will also impact your reload rate.

Overall, survivability is very low and it is advised to take precautions not to take any fire from the opposition, making use of terrain and mobility when the battle gets heated. Any HE shell will destroy your vehicle, with the overpressure mechanics. This makes chemical energy and artillery shells as well as rockets deadly for your vehicle.

Armour type:

  • Structural steel
  • Rolled homogeneous armour (Gun shield)
  • Bulletproof glass
Armour Front Sides Rear Roof
Hull 15 mm (59-79°) Front glacis
15 + 10 mm (29-65°) Lower glacis
10 mm Engine cover
15 mm 15 mm (1-70°) 10 mm
Gun Shield 5 mm (17°) Shield
12 mm (17°) Bulletproof Glass
N/A N/A N/A

Notes:

  • Wheel thickness is 10 mm, sprocket and idler wheel are 20 mm thick, and tracks are 15 mm thick.

Mobility

Speedforward / back
AB49 / 21 km/h
RB and SB45 / 19 km/h
Number of gears4 forward
1 back
Weight7.0 t
Engine power
AB382 hp
RB and SB200 hp
Power-to-weight ratio
AB54.6 hp/t
RB and SB28.6 hp/t
Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Forward Reverse Stock Upgraded Stock Upgraded
Arcade 49 21 7 284 382 40.57 54.57
Realistic 45 19 177 200 25.29 28.57

Where the M56 lacks in armour, it easily makes up for in mobility. Its light weight and decently powered engine gives it a great power-to-weight ratio that lets it propel to top speed easily, even when stock. You'll want to use this to gain access to favourable positions at the beginning of each match. When your position is compromised, seek a retreat using its excellent reverse speed of -20 km/h and plan ahead your next route.

Modifications and economy

Repair costBasic → Reference
AB2 640 → 3 455 Sl icon.png
RB3 500 → 4 581 Sl icon.png
SB4 060 → 5 314 Sl icon.png
Total cost of modifications52 800 Rp icon.png
90 800 Sl icon.png
Talisman cost1 700 Ge icon.png
Crew training61 000 Sl icon.png
Experts210 000 Sl icon.png
Aces800 Ge icon.png
Research Aces520 000 Rp icon.png
Reward for battleAB / RB / SB
110 / 150 / 250 % Sl icon.png
172 / 172 / 172 % Rp icon.png
Modifications
Mobility Protection Firepower
Mods new tank traks.png
Tracks
Research:
2 600 Rp icon.png
Cost:
4 500 Sl icon.png
160 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank suspension.png
Suspension
Research:
2 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
3 400 Sl icon.png
130 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank break.png
Brake System
Research:
2 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
3 400 Sl icon.png
130 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank filter.png
Filters
Research:
3 300 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 700 Sl icon.png
210 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank transmission.png
Transmission
Research:
4 300 Rp icon.png
Cost:
7 400 Sl icon.png
270 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank engine.png
Engine
Research:
4 300 Rp icon.png
Cost:
7 400 Sl icon.png
270 Ge icon.png
Mods tank tool kit.png
Parts
Research:
2 600 Rp icon.png
Cost:
4 500 Sl icon.png
160 Ge icon.png
Mods extinguisher.png
FPE
Research:
2 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
3 400 Sl icon.png
130 Ge icon.png
Mods tank reinforcement us.png
Crew Replenishment
Research:
3 300 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 700 Sl icon.png
210 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank horizontal aiming.png
Horizontal Drive
Research:
2 600 Rp icon.png
Cost:
4 500 Sl icon.png
160 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
90mm_us_M82_m48_ammo_pack
Research:
2 600 Rp icon.png
Cost:
4 500 Sl icon.png
160 Ge icon.png
Mods tank cannon.png
Adjustment of Fire
Research:
2 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
3 400 Sl icon.png
130 Ge icon.png
Mods airstrike.png
Airstrike
Research:
2 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
3 400 Sl icon.png
130 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
90mm_us_T142E3_HESH_ammo_pack
Research:
2 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
3 400 Sl icon.png
130 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank vertical aiming.png
Elevation Mechanism
Research:
3 300 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 700 Sl icon.png
210 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
90mm_us_M431_HEAT_ammo_pack
Research:
3 300 Rp icon.png
Cost:
5 700 Sl icon.png
210 Ge icon.png
Mods scouting.png
Improved optics
Research:
4 300 Rp icon.png
Cost:
7 400 Sl icon.png
270 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
90mm_us_M313_Smoke_ammo_pack
Research:
4 300 Rp icon.png
Cost:
7 400 Sl icon.png
270 Ge icon.png

Armaments

Main armament

Ammunition29 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
9.8 → 7.5 s
Vertical guidance-10° / 15°
Horizontal guidance-30° / 15°
Main article: M54 (90 mm)
90 mm M54 Turret rotation speed (°/s) Reloading rate (seconds)
Mode Capacity Vertical Horizontal Stabilizer Stock Upgraded Full Expert Aced Stock Full Expert Aced
Arcade 29 -10°/+15° -30°/+15° N/A 5.3 7.3 8.9 9.8 10.5 9.75 8.63 7.95 7.50
Realistic 3.6 4.2 5.1 5.6 6.0
Gun horizontal displacement of the M56

The 90 mm M54 is the M41 gun available on the M48A1 but equipped with a recoil system, which is why they have the same available ammunition choice. The cannon's accuracy drop is noticeable as soon as 800 m distance and a handicap over 1,000 m unless you fire at huge targets (Ferdinand, Jadgtiger, Tiger II, etc.). Some stabilized ammunition, such as HEAT-FS, do not suffer as much from the accuracy drop over distance.

The rotation speed of the gun is very slow compared to other tanks at the same rank or battle rating who can aim their gun in average 2 to 3 times faster than you do. Which means your targeting process will be long if you aim to be accurate. Also, any movement of your hull will make you restart your targeting process from scratch, which limits greatly your possibility to overextend, even after a successful first disabling shot.

Additionally to having a limited gun rotation on the horizontal axis, that displacement is asymmetrical due to the driver position limiting movement to the right side. This can make the tracking of a target difficult as the gun quickly reaches a stop. Take that constraint into account when positioning your hull at a firing spot.

Your hull being very light, it can not absorb all of the recoil power (even with the huge damping cylinders on the gun). Every shot taken throws your gun off target after firing, forcing to restart your targeting process or even reposition your hull. Using the "sight distance control" feature can help mitigate that aspect but any movement of the mouse during the recoil phase will nullify the sight setting.

Ammunition

The M54 cannon offers 5 types of ammunition to choose from: APCR shots, APCBC rounds, HEAT-FS rounds, HESH shells, and HE shells.

The M332 APCR shells are the basic rounds that you'll utilize when you first play your tank. Like any other APCR shell, with knowledge of the opposition's internal components such as gunner/driver locations and ammo racks, it is very useful against heavy foes with low-angle slopes in their armour profile. But, it is very lacking in post-penetration damage. Though they are free to use, players may find the lack of post-penetration damage unfavourable, especially for a glass cannon who can't risk staying exposed for very long trying to pick apart an armoured foe.

The M82 APCBC shells are probably the first shells you'll unlock and will provide some relief if you've grown tired of the APCR's low post-pen damage. Like any other APHE, they possess good penetration at close to mid range with exceptional post-penetration damage for dealing with moderately armoured targets like many of the medium tanks you'll encounter at your battle rating. As soon as you unlock these, start carrying these as your standard round against most tanks while carrying a few of the above APCR for heavier foes, at least until you unlock the HEAT-FS round.

The M431 HEAT-FS should be the round you want to rely on to take care of most armoured foes you come across. Combining the best muzzle velocity, the greatest penetration, especially at long range, and decent post-penetration damage makes this the superior round to use in any mid-to-long range engagement. At close range or in ambush situations, with this shell being your loaded round, you will most likely cripple any target you may encounter. It may then be best to switch to APCBC or HESH (depending on the vehicle type) as a follow up to finish off the surviving target, unless the target still presents itself to be very armoured from your angle of fire (like the Maus or most heavies from the front). Especially so if you're conscious about your ammo bill after the battle as HEAT-FS are not the cheapest option.

The T142E3 HESH are an advanced high-explosive round that's capable of penetrating thick armour, even when it is highly-sloped. If you know your target possesses not a single plate of armour greater than 100mm, then these are the rounds to use to wreck them at any range, as these are equally effective against a valid target, including many medium tanks, any light tank and SPAA, and even some heavy tanks that rely on angles rather then raw thickness like an IS-3 or AMX-50 Surbaisse. Just be sure to aim away from the tracks and suspension, as these modules can easily absorb any damage caused by HESH.

The M71 HE are just like your typical medium-calibre HE round, good against unarmoured targets like exposed crew members, hull-breakable vehicles, and air targets (should you be able to hit them), but not very useful outside of that. Though this is a free round with slightly better velocity (making it easier to use at long range), favour HESH instead when you can as it carries nearly as much of a payload and has increased versatility against more targets.

One last ammo type to mention are the M313 Smoke shells. While not particularly useful for the role the M56 typically fills, they can still have good effect in long-range conflicts where a smoke to the face of an experienced enemy sniper can buy you or your allies time to bypass them in favour of a retreat or advancement towards the objective.

Overall, with all shells unlocked where you'll be employing mid to close range tactics, the typical recommended ammo composition can look something like this: 12 HEAT-FS, 4 APCBC, 5 HESH. For long-range engagements where you'll be playing more of a sniper role, it's best to forgo the APCBC in favour of bringing as much HEAT-FS as you can while throwing in a couple of smokes, though the smokes are optional. With this the recommended ammo composition for long-range engagements will look more like this: 20 HEAT-FS, 7 HESH, 2 Smokes.

Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)
10 m 100 m 500 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m
M332 shot APCR 291 286 264 240 217 197
T142E3 HESH 102 102 102 102 102 102
M82 shot APCBC 185 182 170 155 142 130
M431 shell HEATFS 320 320 320 320 320 320
M71 shell HE 13 13 13 13 13 13
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Fuse delay
(m)
Fuse sensitivity
(mm)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
Ricochet
0% 50% 100%
M332 shot APCR 1,165 5.7 N/A N/A N/A 66° 70° 72°
T142E3 HESH 792 10.6 0.05 0.1 3,050 73° 77° 80°
M82 shot APCBC 853 10.94 1.2 14 137.2 48° 63° 71°
M431 shell HEATFS 1,216 5.8 0.05 0.1 712.64 65° 72° 77°
M71 shell HE 823 10.55 0 0.1 925 79° 80° 81°
Smoke shell characteristics
Ammunition Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Screen radius
(m)
Screen deploy time
(s)
Screen hold time
(s)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
M313 821 10.7 13 5 20 50

Ammo racks

Ammo racks of the M56
Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
29 20 (+9) 11 (+18) (+28) No

Notes:

  • The ammo racks on the M56 are 3 staggered rows of 10 (top), 9 (middle) and 10 (bottom) totaling 29 shells.
  • The first rack to be depleted is the top row, then the middle row and finally the bottom row.
  • To go into battle at full capacity, pack 29 shells (bottom row: 10 + middle row: 9 + top row: 10, with 1 shell in the breech taken from the top row).
  • To go into battle with the first rack depleted, pack 20 shells (bottom row: 10 + middle row: 9 + 1 shell in the breech).
  • To go into battle with the first and second racks depleted, pack 11 shells (bottom row: 10 + 1 shell in the breech).
  • To go into battle with the 3 racks depleted, pack 1 shell (1 shell in the breech).
  • Recommended ammo load is 20. Carry a full load of 29 rounds only for large open maps like Kursk, Fulda Gap and Maginot Line.

Usage in battles

The M56 Scorpion is a fast, light tank destroyer with very little armour to speak of.

A rapid volley from an enemy machine gun will knockout the three crew members with ease, if not carefully concealed. Its 90 mm M54 cannon is very able to disable enemy tanks at Rank IV. It is able to perform various destruction missions utilising various tactics. An M56 Scorpion is a dedicated airborne tank destroyer with airborne vehicle-based performance. The scorpion has a very stable and fast rate of acceleration on any terrain with a top speed of up to 28 MPH (45 km/h). With its high speed, it is very tempting to charge towards the capture point. When in a situation where a single enemy tank is present, unprotected, uncovered and separated from the opposing team. A rampaging Scorpion will be able to close in, then blow it up to kingdom come. However, caution must be undertaken throughout.

Be wary that any tank, even if only armed with a machine gun, is capable of knocking out the M56 due to the exposed crew. One particular enemy to keep an eye out for is the ASU-85. It's a complete Soviet equivalent of the Scorpion. Its stock BR-372 APCBC-HE is hopeless against a Scorpion since it will always overpenetrate it & be unable to explode inside its engine or gun breech. Meanwhile the M82 APCBC-HE has the opposite effect against it, as the ASU-85 has 45 mm armour just like the T-34-85, which was a big mistake. Even with inferior penetration, an M82 still has 1.5x more explosive warhead. Given enough penetration, it will always be able to cause it to explode frontally without much effort. Take a grain of salt when firing at the ASU-85 from its flank, since the M82 will also overpenetrate away. Loading the M71 HE is much better, since the explosion will spam the ASU-85's interior all over the place. Or if already loaded with M82 & an ASU-85 is approaching while showing its flank, aim for the engine to prevent it from recovering & escaping. Then blast it away.

Game modes

While the Arcade Battle environment is not favourable due to the marker system easily spotting the M56, it can still perform in flank and surprise attacks if employed properly. It still can snipe from far away & make score against some targets when the M431 HEATFS is unlocked. Be aware that many light tanks can hunt it down if caught in firing range, particularly the M41A1 Bulldog and T92.

Flanking/Sniper

The battle environment is more favourable in Realistic and Simulator Battles. It can completely perform full flanking manoeuvres even when stock, it can also snipe from far-distance without getting spotted easily. Using both tactics will guarantee a complete concealment from the enemy, while being able to fire M82 APCBC shells at them. Closing in to the enemy is only viable if the enemy number has been completely depleted and/or are unable to insert reinforcements to cover their team.

Closing in, the Scorpion can out manoeuvre and outflank most, if not all enemy vehicles at its BR. When it is unable to flank due to tight enemy formation across the map, sniping is the best option.

It is recommended to Load: M431 HEATFS or M82 APCBC if the enemy armour is insufficient to withstand such rounds. I.e. T-34-100). The reload time can help it to outgun any opposition, to withstand its sustained rate of fire. Especially if it is equipped with an Ace crew, which can reload around of 7 seconds. Also, try to use an ambush tactic. It can annihilate a whole team if used by a skilled player.

Ambush

In Realistic, the great speed, manoeuvrability, and minuscule size of the M56 is nearly perfect for the role of an ambush predator. The M56 is capable of driving stealthily behind enemy lines completely undetected. However, in city environments, the M56 must practice stealth much more, as to not alert any enemy.

Once in position, hopefully within a circle of bushes or rubble, the small tank destroyer can capitalize on its scouting ability, revealing most of its enemies' positions. The use of the main cannon will also thin out the enemy defense for the M56's team's main force.

However, firing the main cannon more than thrice before moving locations will most likely alert the enemy. Therefore, when the M56's position eventually does get compromised, its cannon and excellent acceleration can both take out any unwanted investigators, and carry itself nimbly into another hiding spot. It is recommended to load mainly on M82 APCBC shells for attacking the unsuspecting sides of the enemy and a few M431 HEATFS rounds for any sticky situation that the M56 might get into whilst getting to or from a hiding spot.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Very small profile (68% visibility)
  • Excellent mobility & manoeuvrability on all terrain (45 km/h top speed & great acceleration, 20 km/h reverse speed)
  • A practically airworthy vehicle- very, very light (7 tons)
  • The same 90 mm gun and ammunition selection as the M48A1 Patton
  • Quick reload time
  • 3 varieties of very capable shells
    • Stock APCR shell has a big penetration power
    • Destructive APCBC with explosive filler can take out enemies with a single shot
    • HEATFS can punch through 320 mm of armour

Cons:

  • No armour
    • A shot through the bulletproof glass will knock-out 2 crew members and instantly disable the vehicle
    • High chance to catch fire when shot in the frontal hull
    • Affected by the overpressure mechanic (large HE shells will outright destroy the M56)
    • Hopeless if it is immobilised
  • Open-topped vehicle with all crew members exposed
    • vulnerable to strafing attacks from planes
  • Easily tipped over because of its light weight
  • Top speed is limited at 45 km/h. While boasting excellent acceleration, it will be outrun by other light vehicles on open field
  • Does not climb hills well unless approached with good speed
  • APCR as stock shell; unable to cripple a tank even from flank with only a shot
  • Gun has very slow traverse and elevation, meaning that it takes a while to readjust after taking a shot

History

Development

During World War II, the constant problem for the US Airborne divisions is that their anti-tank power was very minimal in the front lines. Though there were attempts to improve their firepower with towed anti-tank guns or airborne tanks like the M22 Locust, the former proved too cumbersome and heavy while the latter proved too under-powered and weak. Thus, development began in April 1949 for a very lightly armoured vehicle to mount a hard-hitting gun with heavy emphasis on firepower, speed, and with as little weight as possible. This evolved into the development of a self-propelled 90 mm gun and the project was taken up by the Cadillac Motor Division of General Motors. The pilot vehicle developed were designated T101.[1]

The first models were completed in 1953 and were tested in 1955. It was approved for service in 1958 and designated as the M56 90mm self-propelled gun, or by its nickname "Scorpion" and its acronym SPAT (Self-Propelled Anti-Tank). It's main selling point was being light enough at only 7 tons to be lifted by helicopter or carried onto aircraft, allowing for parachute drops. As a rather specialized vehicle, it wasn't produced in large numbers, with only 150 units built from the Cadillac production line from 1953 to 1959.[1]

Usage

The M56 Scorpion was issued out to airborne and anti-tank units from 1958 to the early 1960s. As a defensive weapon, the M56 Scorpion was never meant to venture out to seek and destroy enemy tanks, but its lack of armour was still criticized by its crew, what with only a simple gun shield blocking the crew from getting shot by even small arms. The lightness of the vehicle was also bad for the extreme recoil of the 90 mm M54 gun, which would lift the entire vehicle off its front wheels.[1] An informal manual even recommends that when firing, the commander and loader should step off the vehicle to avoid being harmed by the lurching vehicle. The M56 Scorpion served America in combat during the Vietnam War in the 173rd Airborne Brigade, with 17 vehicles organized into three platoons. It served as a defensive role in most of American foreign bases until the advent of the anti-tank missile launchers such as the TOW, which proved more potent than the Scorpion, and was replaced in the late 1960s and early 70s.[1]

The M56 Scorpions were also given out in limited numbers, with Morocco given 87 vehicles and Spain obtaining 5 in the Military Aid Program. Morocco used the Scorpions in the Western Sahara War, being the only foreign user of the M56 Scorpions.

Survivors

At least 18 intact M56 Scorpions survive in the United States today, mainly in museums and in private collections.

Media

Skins
Videos

See also

Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example:

  • reference to the series of the vehicles;
  • links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Zaloga Steven. M551 Sheridan: US Airmobile Tanks 1941-2001 Great Britain: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2009


USA tank destroyers
Early projects  M3 GMC · M8 HMC
Based on M4  M10 GMC · M36 GMC
T95  T28 · T95
  T55E1
China  ▃LVT(A)(4) ZIS-2
Post-war  M50 · M56 · M901 · ADATS