- 1 Description
- 2 General info
- 3 Armaments
- 4 Usage in battles
- 5 History
- 6 Media
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
The CM11 is a rank VI Chinese medium tank with a battle rating of 9.3 (AB) and 9.0 (RB/SB). It was introduced in Update 1.91 "Night Vision".
A Taiwanese upgrade to the M60A3, the CM11, named "勇虎式" or "Brave Tiger", is currently the most modern tank in active service with the Republic of China Army. It is a mating of the M60 chassis with the turret from the M48 Patton, with a unique pagoda-like ERA array on the turret sides. Though its mobility and kinetic protection are poor, it has the same 105 mm gun as the M1 Abrams, so if used carefully, the CM11 can do some serious damage with its thermal sight and powerful DM63 APFSDS.
Survivability and armour
The CM11 combines the hull of an M60 Patton with the turret of an M48 Patton, and as such, the base turret and hull armour are mostly identical to these two tanks, respectively. The M48's bulbous cupola has been replaced with a low-profile version. The armour is quite resistant to APHE rounds and autocannons, but the vast majority of opponents at its rank use HEATFS and APFSDS rounds that can cut through steel like butter. To counter the former, the CM11 is slathered with ERA and can generally survive the first shot from most HEATFS rounds. However, the ERA offers close to no protection against APFSDS rounds, which are the round of choice in top rank battles.
Post-penetration survivability is also questionable. It lacks blowout racks and ammunition is scattered around the tank, so successful penetrations can reduce the CM11 to a fiery grave.
- Cast homogeneous armour
- Rolled homogeneous armour (Rear roof, Engine grille)
|Hull|| 108 mm (66°) Front Glacis
137 mm (54°) Lower Glacis
|36 - 70 mm|| 25 mm (1°) Engine Grille
40 mm (31°) Top
28 mm (61°) Bottom
| 36 mm Front |
20 mm Engine deck
|Turret|| 127 mm (12-76°) Turret front
152 + 82 mm (17-26°) Gun mantlet
|69-100 mm (12-36°)||51-55 mm (2-71°)||25-69 mm|
|Cupola||70 mm||70 mm||70 mm||70 mm|
- Tracks are 30 mm thick while suspension wheels are 20 mm thick.
- Belly armour is 19 mm in the front, 13 mm in the rear.
- 15 mm RHA plate between the engine and crew compartment.
|Game Mode||Max Speed (km/h)||Weight (tons)||Engine power (horsepower)||Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)|
The CM11's mobility is below average compared to its contemporaries. It weighs practically the same as the M1 Abrams while having less than half of the engine power. It is very slightly more mobile than the Chieftain Mk 10, but that is a very low bar, and unlike the Chieftain it does not have strong armour to make up for it. Expect to be among the last to arrive on the battlefield.
Modifications and economy
The M68A1 is the same gun used by the M1 Abrams. It enjoys a quicker reload that tops out at 5 seconds. The gun handling is otherwise identical to the M60A3 TTS, which is not great but still better than typical Soviet tanks.
|105 mm M68A1||Turret rotation speed (°/s)||Reloading rate (seconds)|
The stock M456 HEATFS is a standard 105 mm HEATFS round with 400 mm of penetration at any distance. At the CM11's battle rating, it is possible to face tanks with reactive or composite armour that can nullify the penetration. It will go clean through conventional armour and weaker implementations of spaced armour. While it becomes less useful for anti-tank duties after APFSDS is unlocked, it is worth keeping a few on hand for destroying light targets.
The M735 APFSDS round is a fairly good and reliable option. The high muzzle velocity makes it much easier to use than the HEATFS. The angled penetration of ~160 mm at 60 degrees leaves something to be desired, but most of the opponents that the CM11 will face are not heavily protected. M735 is sufficient against any enemy tank that does not have composite armour. MBTs with weaker composite armour like the XM-1 (GM) or M48 Super are still vulnerable. The MBT-70 and KPz-70 can resist M735 on the outer portions of their turret cheeks despite only having spaced armour.
The M393A2 HESH round is even more effective against light targets but has bad ballistics and low penetration. It can also be neutralized by spaced armour in addition to reactive and composite. The wide cone of damage may be helpful once in a while, so it does not hurt to take a handful, but it will generally not be useful.
For tougher targets, the unlockable DM63 APFSDS round will rarely disappoint. It has the second-highest penetration of any 105 mm APFSDS round currently in the game, exceeding 430 mm of flat penetration. This is actually enough to penetrate some portions of the M1 Abrams's turret. However, it is overkill against most tanks the CM11 will encounter. Tanks to watch out for include the Chieftain Mk 10, Challenger Mk.2 and Challenger Mk.3. These all feature strong composite armour on their turret cheeks that DM63 will not be able to penetrate consistently, if at all. The DM63 will comfortably penetrate their hull armour, so shoot there instead.
|Ammunition|| Type of
|Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)|
|10 m||100 m||500 m||1,000 m||1,500 m||2,000 m|
|Ammunition|| Type of
| Fuse delay
| Fuse sensitivity
| Explosive mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
|Smoke shell characteristics|
| Screen radius
| Screen deploy time
| Screen hold time
| Explosive mass|
(TNT equivalent) (g)
|56||45 (+11)||34 (+22)||16 (+40)||10 (+46)||1 (+55)||No|
- Shells are modelled individually and disappear after having been shot or loaded.
- The 3rd, 4th and 5th Racks serve as First-Stage ammo stowage (33 shells total).
|12.7 mm M2HB|
|Mount||Capacity (Belt)||Fire rate||Vertical||Horizontal|
|Commander's cupola||1,000 (200)||577||-9°/+65°||±180°|
|7.62 mm M240|
|Mount||Capacity (Belt)||Fire rate||Vertical||Horizontal|
|Loader's cupola||3,000 (200)||941||-9°/+65°||-77°/+135°|
Usage in battles
Like most MBTs in the Chinese tech tree, the CM11 should be played in a laid back, cautious manner since its firepower is good but its speed is not nearly sufficient for flanking quickly and catching enemies by surprise. Unfortunately, its poor armour and large profile make hull-down sniping difficult, though it does enjoy better gun depression than most PRC/Soviet tanks. It is best to stay close to cover and observe the environment. When the enemies are spotted, pop out, shoot first, and try to at least cripple them. The DM63 APFSDS has very good penetration for a 105 mm round, easily penetrating almost all targets that the CM11 is likely to encounter. The fast reload time ensures rapid follow-up shots. If the teammates do a good job distracting the enemy team or the CM11 somehow manages to flank successfully, several targets can be knocked out in rapid succession. Make good use of the thermal optics, as not all tanks at its battle rating feature them and they are very advantageous for spotting enemies early.
As a whole, the CM11 is somewhat like a tank destroyer, having a powerful gun but not much else. In a meta favouring high speed and high protection, it is rather out of place, but it can still work in the hands of a skilled player with good aim and reflexes. Trust the DM63 APFSDS, stay alert, shoot first, and avoid getting shot in return.
Pros and cons
- Access to powerful DM63 APFSDS
- Fast reload, topping out at 5 seconds like the M1 Abrams
- Heavy ERA coverage, decent resistance to chemical rounds
- Has a thermal sight for the gunner
- Low-profile cupola
- Better gun-handling than contemporary PLA tanks - better gun depression and the gun is quicker to elevate and depress
- Large target
- Poor mobility
- ERA has negligible kinetic protection
- Vulnerable to APFSDS rounds
- At 9.0 and up the M60 chassis is starting to show its age - unremarkable armour and low reactive mobility
In 1980, the Republic of China (ROC), also known as Taiwan, created the Armoured Vehicle Development Center. It was created partially to develop the CM-11 tank. The Republic of China Army (ROCA) needed a 2nd generation main battle tank (MBT), and they wanted to acquire one without breaking any limitations placed on the ROC by the US-PRC Joint Communique. As such, they decided to create a hybrid design using the M48A3 turret and the M60A3 hull. In the ROC, it is known as the CM-11 Brave Tiger, whereas the United States designated it as the M48H for "M48 Hybrid". To create the tank, the ROC imported M60A3 hulls from the United States along with M68A1 105 mm cannons and M48A3 turrets, and commander cupolas from Israel. Two prototypes were finished in 1988 and the ROCA ordered 450 CM-11 tanks.
The hull of the CM-11 is from the M60A3 tank built in the US. As such, the CM-11 uses a torsion bar suspension system and is powered by a Continental AVDS-1790-2C diesel engine producing 750 hp. The turret is from the M48A3 tank, but with the Israeli Urdan style commander's cupola with a low profile. The armament consists of an M68A1 105 mm cannon, the commander's 12.7 mm (.50 in) M2 Browning machine gun, a coaxial 7.62 mm M240 machine gun, and the loader's 7.62 mm M240 machine gun. The fire control system is the same system as used by the M1 Abrams, and the M68A1 has a two-plane stabilizer. The optics and thermal imaging are also as modern as those on the M1 Abrams, giving the CM-11 night fighting and fire-on-the-move ability. The design has a number of drawbacks though, as the Patton design of the 1960s has become outdated. The main battle tanks of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) are the 2nd generation ZTZ96 and 3rd generation ZTZ99, which mount a 125 mm gun that can reliably penetrate the armour of the CM-11. To counter this, it was attempted to put explosive reactive armour (ERA) from the French company GIAT on the CM-11, but that would tax the suspension too much, so the idea was dropped. In 2012, a CM-11 was seen at an exercise mounting ERA designed by CSIST, which featured extreme angles to increase the chance of enemy shells deflecting off of the armour.
Production and Service
After the failed attempt by the ROC Army to purchase M48A5 and "Magach III" tanks from Spain, South Africa and Israel, the imitation and transformation project for a new tank was launched again in 1984. The ROC Army's tank research and development center and General Dynamics jointly designed a second-generation main battle tank "Brave Tiger", designated as M48H (or CM11 later).
The "Brave Tiger" MBT is a hybrid of an enhanced M48 turret and an M60 chassis, equipped with a cutting-edge FCS that comes from the M1 Abrams. Therefore, "Brave Tiger" was designated as M48H (H for Hybrid). The Army Fighting Vehicle R&D Center purchased 450 M60 tank chassis for modification before the M60 production line shut down. The "Brave Tiger" tank began testing in 1988. It officially entered service in the ROC Army on April 14th, 1990.
The Army Ordnance Industry Development Center transformed a total number of 550 turrets. After 450 M48H tanks were assembled on the CM11 "Brave Tiger", the remaining 100 turrets were assigned to the old M48A3 tanks. These upgraded M48A3 tanks are known as CM12 MBTs. The Army Ordnance Industry Development Center continued to carry out the transformation of the M48A3 tank, and a total of 250 CM12 tanks were produced.
After the Taiwan Strait Missile Crisis in 1996, in order to curb the CCP's attempt to invade Taiwan by force, the United States sold 450 M60A3 tanks to the Republic of China. At the present time, the armoured combat forces of the Republic of China Army are mainly equipped with CM11 "Brave Tiger" MBTs and M60A3 MBTs. Due to lack of reliability, most of the CM12 tanks are stored as reserve forces.
During the 1980s, armed forces in Taiwan were looking for more capable AFVs. However, as some existing agreements with the USA prevented the supply with more advanced US equipment, such as later versions of the M60 and the newer M1 Abrams tanks, military production was forced to develop an indigenous design.
While still retaining access to supplies of older US equipment and components, the decision was made to create a hybrid tank from the available components and outfit it with the latest electronics. As such, Taiwanese engineers took the hull and chassis of the M60A3 and combined it with the turret of the M48, while installing the M68A1 105 mm cannon and the latest US fire control systems available.
The result of this undertaking was the CM11. In the late 1980s, two prototypes were sent to the US for comparative tests against the M60A3, where the CM11 outperformed its counterpart in gunnery trials. Shortly after these successful tests, the CM11 officially entered service in 1990.
However, as the protection was seen to be somewhat lacking, the decision was made to upgrade the CM11 with ERA packages obtained from GIAT in the early '90s. Due to substantial weight increases and associated upgrade costs however, this modernization effort was only applied to about a dozen vehicles. In total, 450 CM11s were built for the armed forces, still representing the spearhead of the country's armoured units today.
- Related development
|Ordnance Research Development Center, ROCA (陸軍兵工整備發展中心)|
|Light tanks||M41D · M64|
|China medium tanks|
|Type 59 · ZTZ59A · ZTZ59D1|
|Type 69 · Type 69-IIa · T-69 II G|
|ZTZ88A · ZTZ96 · ZTZ96A · ZTZ96A (P)|
|ZTZ99-II · ZTZ99-III|
|ZTZ99A · WZ1001(E) LCT|
|Other||Т-34-85 Gai · Object 122MT "MC"|
|Japan||␗Chi-Ha · ␗Chi-Ha Kai|
|USA||␗M4A4 · ␗M4A4 (1st PTG) · ␗M4A1 (75) W · ␗M48A1 · ␗M60A3 TTS|
|USSR||␗T-34 (1943) · ␗Т-34-85 (S-53) · T-34-85 No.215 · Т-62 №545|