CM11

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This page is about the Chinese main battle tank CM11. For other vehicles of the family, see M48 Patton (Family) and M60 (Family).
cn_cm11.png
GarageImage CM11.jpg
CM11
AB RB SB
9.3 9.0 9.0
Class:
Research:270 000 Specs-Card-Exp.png
Purchase:740 000 Specs-Card-Lion.png
Show in game

Description

The CM11 is a rank VI Chinese medium tank with a battle rating of 9.3 (AB) and 9.0 (RB/SB). It was introduced in Update 1.91 "Night Vision".

A Taiwanese upgrade to the M60A3, the CM11 "Brave Tiger" is currently the most modern tank in active service with Republic of China Army. It retains the general appearance of the M60 aside from the smaller turret borrowed from the M48 Patton and the unique pagoda-like ERA arrays on the turret sides. Though its mobility and kinetic protection are poor, it has the same 105 mm gun as the M1 Abrams. If used carefully, the CM11 can do some serious damage with its thermal sight and powerful DM63 APFSDS.

General info

Survivability and armour

ERA
Effective action against the cumulative ammunition
Smoke grenades
Creation of a smoke screen in front of the vehicle
Armourfront / side / back
Hull108 / 70 / 25
Turret173 / 76 / 55
Crew4 people
Visibility152 %

The CM11 combines the hull of a M60 Patton with the turret of a M48 Patton, and as such the base turret and hull armour is mostly identical to these two tanks, respectively. The M48's bulbous cupola has been replaced with a low-profile version. The armour is quite resistant to APHE rounds and autocannons, but the vast majority of opponents at its rank use HEAT-FS and APFSDS rounds that can cut through steel like butter. To counter the former, the CM11 is slathered with ERA and can generally survive the first shot from most HEAT-FS rounds. However the ERA offers close to no protection against APFSDS rounds, which are the round of choice in top rank battles.

Post-penetration survivability is also questionable. It lacks blowout racks and ammunition is scattered around the tank, so successful penetrations can reduce the CM11 to a fiery grave.

Armour type:

  • Cast homogeneous armour
  • Rolled homogeneous armour (Rear roof, Engine grille)
Armour Front Sides Rear Roof
Hull 108 mm (66°) Front Glacis
137 mm (54°) Lower Glacis
36 - 70 mm 25 mm (1°) Engine Grille
40 mm (31°) Top
28 mm (61°) Bottom
36 mm Front
20 mm Engine deck
Turret 127 mm (12-76°) Turret front
152 + 82 mm (17-26°) Gun mantlet
69-100 mm (12-36°) 51-55 mm (2-71°) 25-69 mm
Armour Front Sides Rear Roof
Cupola 70 mm 70 mm 70 mm 70 mm

Notes:

  • Tracks are 30 mm thick while suspension wheels are 20 mm thick.
  • Belly armour is 19 mm in the front, 13 mm in the rear.
  • 15 mm RHA plate between the engine and crew compartment.

Mobility

Speedforward / back
AB53 / 13 km/h
RB and SB48 / 12 km/h
Number of gears5 forward
2 back
Weight54.0 t
Engine power
AB1 431 hp
RB and SB750 hp
Power-to-weight ratio
AB26.5 hp/t
RB and SB13.9 hp/t
Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Forward Reverse Stock Upgraded Stock Upgraded
Arcade 53 13 54 1,162 1431 21.52 26.5
Realistic 48 12 663 750 12.28 13.89

The CM11's mobility is below average compared to its contemporaries. It weighs practically the same as the M1 Abrams while having less than half of the engine power. It is very slightly more mobile than the Chieftain Mk 10, but that is a very low bar, and unlike the Chieftain it does not have strong armour to make up for it. Expect to be among the last to arrive on the battlefield.

Modifications and economy

Repair costBasic → Reference
AB3 330 → 4 955 Sl icon.png
RB3 960 → 5 892 Sl icon.png
SB4 100 → 6 100 Sl icon.png
Total cost of modifications399 800 Rp icon.png
400 000 Sl icon.png
Talisman cost2 700 Ge icon.png
Crew training210 000 Sl icon.png
Experts740 000 Sl icon.png
Aces2 100 Ge icon.png
Research Aces1 010 000 Rp icon.png
Reward for battleAB / RB / SB
100 / 170 / 250 % Sl icon.png
226 / 226 / 226 % Rp icon.png
Modifications
Mobility Protection Firepower
Mods new tank traks.png
Tracks
Research:
17 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
300 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank suspension.png
Suspension
Research:
19 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
18 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank break.png
Brake System
Research:
19 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
18 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank filter.png
Filters
Research:
21 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
20 000 Sl icon.png
370 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank transmission.png
Transmission
Research:
28 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
26 000 Sl icon.png
490 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank engine.png
Engine
Research:
28 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
26 000 Sl icon.png
490 Ge icon.png
Mods tank tool kit.png
Parts
Research:
5 100 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
300 Ge icon.png
Mods extinguisher.png
FPE
Research:
5 700 Rp icon.png
Cost:
18 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods tank reinforcement cn.png
Crew Replenishment
Research:
21 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
20 000 Sl icon.png
370 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank horizontal aiming.png
Horizontal Drive
Research:
17 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
300 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
105mm_usa_HESH_ammo_pack
Research:
17 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
300 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
105mm_NATO_APDS_FS_ammo_pack
Research:
17 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
16 000 Sl icon.png
300 Ge icon.png
Mods tank cannon.png
Adjustment of Fire
Research:
19 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
18 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
105mm_us_M416_Smoke_ammo_pack
Research:
19 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
18 000 Sl icon.png
330 Ge icon.png
Mods new tank vertical aiming.png
Elevation Mechanism
Research:
21 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
20 000 Sl icon.png
370 Ge icon.png
Mods smoke screen.png
Smoke grenade
Research:
21 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
20 000 Sl icon.png
370 Ge icon.png
Mods thermal sight.png
NVD
Research:
21 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
20 000 Sl icon.png
370 Ge icon.png
Mods art support.png
Artillery Support
Research:
28 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
26 000 Sl icon.png
490 Ge icon.png
Mods tank ammo.png
105mm_DM63_APDS_FS_ammo_pack
Research:
28 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
26 000 Sl icon.png
490 Ge icon.png
Mods tank laser rangefinder.png
Laser rangefinder
Research:
28 000 Rp icon.png
Cost:
26 000 Sl icon.png
490 Ge icon.png

Armaments

Laser rangefinder
Reduces the error and increases the maximum measurable distance of the rangefinder
Night vision device
Improves visibility by enhancing natural light or active illumination.
Thermal imager
Allows to see thermal radiation in the infrared range day and night

Main armament

Two-plane stabilizer
Reduces the swing of the gun in two planes while moving
Ammunition56 rounds
First-order33 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
6.5 → 5.0 s
Vertical guidance-9° / 19°
Main article: M68A1 (105 mm)

The M68A1 is the same gun used by the M1 Abrams. It enjoys a quicker reload that tops out at 5 seconds. The gun handling is otherwise identical to the M60A3 TTS, which is not great but still better than typical Soviet tanks.

105 mm M68A1 Turret rotation speed (°/s) Reloading rate (seconds)
Mode Capacity Vertical Horizontal Stabilizer Stock Upgraded Full Expert Aced Stock Full Expert Aced
Arcade 56 -9°/+19° ±180° Two-plane 21.42 29.65 36.00 39.81 42.35 6.50 5.75 5.30 5.00
Realistic 13.40 15.75 19.13 21.15 22.50

Ammunition

The stock M456 HEAT-FS is a standard 105 mm HEAT-FS round with 400 mm of penetration at any distance. At the CM11's battle rating, it is possible to face tanks with reactive or composite armour that can nullify the penetration. It will go clean through conventional armour and weaker implementations of spaced armour. While it becomes less useful for anti-tank duties after APFSDS is unlocked, it is worth keeping a few on hand for hull-breaking light targets.

The M735 APFSDS round is a fairly good and reliable option. The high muzzle velocity makes it much easier to use than the HEAT-FS. The angled penetration of ~160 mm at 60 degrees leaves something to be desired, but most of the opponents that the CM11 will face are not heavily protected. M735 is sufficient against any enemy tank that does not have composite armour. MBTs with weaker composite armour like the XM-1 (GM) or M48 Super are still vulnerable. The MBT-70 and KPz-70 can resist M735 on the outer portions of their turret cheeks despite only having spaced armour.

The M393A2 HESH round is even more effective against light targets but has bad ballistics and low penetration. It can also be neutralized by spaced armour in addition to reactive and composite. The wide cone of damage may be helpful once in a while, so it does not hurt to take a handful, but it will generally not be useful.

For tougher targets, the unlockable DM63 APFSDS round will rarely disappoint. It has the second highest penetration of any 105 mm APFSDS round currently in the game, exceeding 430 mm of flat penetration. This is actually enough to penetrate some portions of the M1 Abrams's turret. However, it is overkill against most tanks that the CM11 will encounter and costs twice as much SL per shot as M735. Tanks to watch out for include the Chieftain Mk 10, Challenger Mk.2 and Challenger Mk.3. These all feature strong composite armour on their turret cheeks that DM63 will not be able to penetrate consistently, if at all. DM63 will comfortably penetrate their hull armor, so shoot there instead.

Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration @ 0° Angle of Attack (mm)
10 m 100 m 500 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m
M456A2 HEATFS 400 400 400 400 400 400
M393A2 HESH 127 127 127 127 127 127
M735 APFSDS 353 350 342 333 322 312
DM63 APFSDS 436 434 426 416 406 396
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Fuse delay
(m)
Fuse sensitivity
(mm)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
Ricochet
0% 50% 100%
M456A2 HEATFS 1,173 10.5 0.05 0.1 1,270 65° 72° 77°
M393A2 HESH 732 14.85 0.05 0.1 4,310 73° 77° 80°
M735 APFSDS 1,501 3.7 N/A N/A N/A 76° 77° 80°
DM63 APFSDS 1,455 4.3 N/A N/A N/A 78° 80° 81°
Smoke shell characteristics
Ammunition Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Screen radius
(m)
Screen deploy time
(s)
Screen hold time
(s)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
M416 730 11.4 20 5 25 50

Ammo racks

Ammo racks of the CM11
Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty*
4th
rack empty*
5th
rack empty*
Visual
discrepancy
56 45 (+11) 34 (+22) 16 (+40) 10 (+46) (+55) No

Notes:

  • Shells are modeled individually and disappear after having been shot or loaded.
  • The 3rd, 4th and 5th Racks serve as First-Stage ammo stowage (33 shells total).

Machine guns

Ammunition900 rounds
Belt capacity200 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
10.4 → 8.0 s
Fire rate577 shots/min
Vertical guidance-9° / 65°
Ammunition3 000 rounds
Belt capacity200 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
10.4 → 8.0 s
Fire rate941 shots/min
Ammunition3 000 rounds
Belt capacity200 rounds
Reloadbasic crew → aces
10.4 → 8.0 s
Fire rate941 shots/min
12.7 mm M2HB
Mount Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal
Commander's cupola 900 (200) 576 -9°/+65° ±180°
7.62 mm M240
Mount Capacity (Belt) Fire rate Vertical Horizontal
Loader's cupola 3,000 (200) 941 -9°/+65° -77°/+135°
Coaxial 3,000 (200) 941 N/A N/A

Usage in battles

Like most MBTs in the Chinese tech tree, the CM11 should be played in a laid back, cautious manner since its firepower is good but its speed is not nearly sufficient for flanking quickly and catching enemies by surprise. Unfortunately its poor armour and large profile make hull-down sniping difficult, though it does enjoy better gun depression than most PRC/Soviet tanks. It is best to stay close to cover and observe the environment. When the enemies are spotted, pop out, shoot first, and try to at least cripple them. The DM63 APFSDS has very good penetration for a 105 mm round, easily penetrating almost all targets that the CM11 is likely to encounter. The fast reload time ensures rapid follow-up shots. If the teammates do a good job distracting the enemy team or the CM11 somehow manages to flank successfully, several targets can be knocked out in rapid succession. Make good use of the thermal optics, as not all tanks at its battle rating feature them and they are very advantageous for spotting enemies early.

As a whole, the CM11 is somewhat like a tank destroyer, having a powerful gun but not much else. In a meta favouring high speed and high protection, it is rather out of place, but it can still work in the hands of a skilled player with good aim and reflexes. Trust the DM63 APFSDS, stay alert, shoot first, and avoid getting shot in return.

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Access to powerful DM63 APFSDS
  • Fast reload, topping out at 5 seconds like the M1 Abrams
  • Heavy ERA coverage, decent resistance to chemical rounds
  • Has a thermal sight for the gunner
  • Low-profile cupola
  • Better gun-handling than contemporary PLA tanks - better gun depression and the gun is quicker to elevate and depress

Cons:

  • Large target
  • Poor mobility
  • ERA has negligible kinetic protection
  • Vulnerable to APFSDS rounds
  • At 9.0 and up the M60 chassis is starting to show its age - unremarkable armour and low reactive mobility

History

Development

In 1980, the Republic of China (ROC), also known as Taiwan, created the Armored Vehicle Development Center. It was created partially to develop the CM-11 tank. The Republic of China Army (ROCA) needed a 2nd generation main battle tank (MBT), and they wanted to acquire one without breaking any limitations placed on the ROC by the US-PRC Joint Communique. As such, they decided to create a hybrid design using the M48A3 turret and the M60A3 hull. In the ROC, it is known as the CM-11 Brave Tiger, whereas the United States designated it as the M48H for M48 hybrid. To create the tank, the ROC imported M60A3 hulls from the United States along with M68 105 mm cannons and M48A3 turrets. They imported the commanders cupola from Israel. Two prototypes were finished in 1988 and the ROCA ordered 450 CM-11 tanks.

Design

The hull of the CM-11 is from the M60A3 tank built in the US. As such, the CM-11 uses a torsion bar suspension system, and is powered by a Continental AVDS-1790-2C diesel engine producing 750 hp. The turret is from the M48A3 tank, but with the Israeli Urdan style commander's cupola with a low profile. Armament consists of an M68 105 mm cannon, the commander's 12.7 mm (.50 in) M2 Browning machine gun, a co-axial 7.62 mm M240 machine gun, and the loader's 7.62 mm M240 machine gun. The fire control system is the same system as used by the M1 Abrams, and the M68 105 mm gun has a two-plane stabilizer. The optics and thermal imaging are also as modern as those on the M1 Abrams, giving the CM-11 night fighting and fire-on-the-move ability. The design has a number of drawbacks though. The main battle tanks of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) are the 2nd generation ZTZ/Type 96 and 3rd generation ZTZ/Type 99, which mount a 125 mm gun which can reliably penetrate the armour of the CM-11. This is because the CM-11 is a design that has become outdated in terms of combat capability, as its parts were designed in the 1960's. To counter this, it was attempted to put explosive reactive armour (ERA) from the French company GIAT on the CM-11, but that would tax the suspension too much, so the idea was dropped. In 2012, a CM-11 was seen at an exercise mounting ERA designed by CSIST, which featured extreme angles to increase the chance of enemy shells deflecting off of the armour.

Production and Service

After the failed attempt by the ROC Army to purchase M48A5 and "Magach III" tanks from Spain, South Africa and Israel, the imitation and transformation project for a new tank was launched again in 1984. The ROC Army's tank research and development center and General Dynamics jointly designed a second-generation main battle tank "Brave Tiger", designated as M48H (or CM11 later).

The "Brave Tiger" MBT is a hybrid of an enhanced M48 turret and a M60 chassis, equipped with a cutting-edge FCS that comes from the M1 Abrams. Therefore, "Brave Tiger" was designated as M48H (H for Hybrid). The Army Fighting Vehicle R&D Center purchased 450 M60 tank chassis for modification before the M60 production line shut down. The "Brave Tiger" tank began testing in 1988. It officially entered service in the ROC Army on April 14th, 1990.

The Army Ordnance Industry Development Center transformed a total number of 550 turrets. After 450 M48H tanks were assembled on the CM11 "Brave Tiger", the remaining 100 turrets were assigned to the old M48A3 tanks. These upgraded M48A3 tanks are known as CM12 MBTs. The Army Ordnance Industry Development Center continued to carry out the transformation of the M48A3 tank, and a total of 250 CM12 tanks were produced.

After the Taiwan Strait Missile Crisis in 1996, in order to curb the CCP's attempt to invade Taiwan by force, the United States sold 450 M60A3 tanks to Republic of China. At the present time, the armoured combat forces of the Republic of China Army are mainly equipped with CM11 "Brave Tiger" MBTs and M60A3 MBTs. Due to lack of reliability, most of the CM12 tanks are stored as reserve forces.

Devblog

During the 1980s, armed forces in Taiwan were looking for more capable AFVs. However, as some existing agreements with the USA prevented the supply with more advanced US equipment, such as later versions of the M60 and the newer M1 Abrams tanks, military production was forced to develop an indigenous design.

While still retaining access to supplies of older US equipment and components, the decision was made to create a hybrid tank from the available components and outfit it with the latest electronics. As such, Taiwanese engineers took the hull and chassis of the M60A3 and combined it with the turret of the M48, while installing the M68A1 105mm cannon and the latest US fire control systems available.

The result of this undertaking was the CM11. In the late 1980s, two prototypes were sent to the US for comparative tests against the M60A3, where the CM11 outperformed its counterpart in gunnery trials. Shortly after these successful tests, the CM11 officially entered service in 1990.

However, as the protection was seen to be somewhat lacking, the decision was made to upgrade the CM11 with ERA packages obtained from GIAT in the early '90s. Due to substantial weight increases and associated upgrade costs however, this modernization effort was only applied to about a dozen vehicles. In total, 450 CM11s were built for the armed forces, still representing the spearhead of the country's armored units today.

Media

Skins
Videos

See also

Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example:

  • reference to the series of the vehicles;
  • links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.

External links


China medium tanks
Type 59/69  Type 59 · ZTZ59D1 · Type 69 · T-69 II G
ZTZ96  ZTZ96 · ZTZ96A
ZTZ99  ZTZ99-II · ZTZ99-III
ROC  CM11
Other  Т-34-85 Gai
Japan  ␗Chi-Ha · ␗Chi-Ha Kai
USA  ␗M4A4 · M4A4 (1st PTG) · ␗M4A1 (75) W · ␗M48A1 · ␗M60A3 TTS
USSR  ␗T-34 (1943) · ␗Т-34-85 (S-53) · T-34-85 No.215 · Т-62 №545