Difference between revisions of "Type 65"

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== History ==
 
== History ==
''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too long, take it to a separate article, taking a link to the article about the vehicle and adding a block "/History" (example: <nowiki>https://wiki.warthunder.com/(Vehicle-name)/History</nowiki>) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to reference text and sources by using <code><nowiki><ref></ref></nowiki></code>, as well as adding them at the end of the article with <code><nowiki><references /></nowiki></code>. This section may also include the vehicle's dev blog entry (if applicable) and the in-game encyclopedia description (under <code><nowiki>=== In-game description ===</nowiki></code>, also if applicable).''
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<!-- ''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too long, take it to a separate article, taking a link to the article about the vehicle and adding a block "/History" (example: <nowiki>https://wiki.warthunder.com/(Vehicle-name)/History</nowiki>) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to reference text and sources by using <code><nowiki><ref></ref></nowiki></code>, as well as adding them at the end of the article with <code><nowiki><references /></nowiki></code>. This section may also include the vehicle's dev blog entry (if applicable) and the in-game encyclopedia description (under <code><nowiki>=== In-game description ===</nowiki></code>, also if applicable).'' -->
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The ''Type 65 Self Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun'' is a bit of an enigma, as no official documentation exists concerning its design or construction. Even today, almost half a century after the type first became known, little is known about it - so perhaps it is best to first focus on what little is known about this unique T-34-based SPAAG.
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During the 1972 Spring-Summer Offensive of the Vietnam War, a single example of a SPAAG was captured by the 4th Infantry Regiment of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on August 13th 1972. This vehicle was subsequently transferred to the United States military, who eventually shipped it to the Aberdeen Proving Ground for technical evaluation. After testing was concluded, the vehicle was put on display at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, where it stood until the early 2010s when it was transferred along with the rest of the collection to the Air Defence Artillery Museum in Fort Sill, Oklahoma.
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Evaluation of this single example showed that it consisted of a T-34-85 chassis which was made at UTZ 183 (Uralsky Tankovij Zavod) in the USSR sometime between 1944 and 1947, featuring a number of modifications. The most important one concerned the removal of the turret, with a solid reinforced steel slab being bolted onto the turret aperture on top of which a twin AA gun was mounted. Other modifications included the removal of the hull-mounted 7.62 mm machine gun, and the removal of part of the engine top deck to allow the gun turret to freely rotate.
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The most common designations applied to this vehicle refer to the gun used: a Chinese-built copy of the Soviet M1939 (61-K). NORINCO of China copied this design, originally building it as the Type 55 (most likely after the year it was first constructed); later on a twin mount was designed around the same gun, which was put into production as the Type 65. As mounted on the tank, the Type 65 gun mount was surrounded by a box-like open-topped structure composed of 16-mm thick armor plates, large enough to house both the gun and a crew of five. Similar in concept to the US-built [[M42|M42 Duster]], the vehicle lacked any advanced aiming system or power-assisted gun traverse or elevation, making it less efficient in use against low-flying high-speed jets, but still deadly to slower attackers and helicopters.
 +
 
 +
The lack of any official documentation, combined with the use of a Chinese-built AA gun, soon led to speculation in the US Military that this vehicle was a Chinese-built dedicated SPAAG. As such, the vehicle commonly became known as the ''Type 63 SPAAG'', this name first appearing in the 1987 publication ''A Compendium of Armaments and Military Hardware'' by Christopher Chant, after the assumption that the ''Type 63'' was a variant of the ''Type 65'' specifically built for use on this SPAAG. However, more recently the vehicle has become known as the Type 65 - or Type 63/65 - after the NORINCO-built gun.
 +
 
 +
With the lifting of the US embargo on North Vietnam in 1994, new information about the Vietnam War from (formerly North) Vietnamese sources finally became available, and visitors to the Vietnam People's Air Force Museum in Hanoi noticed a photograph on display which gives an entirely different turn to the Type 65's story. This singular photograph, ''three SPAAG's moving to the front'', shows three tank-mounted anti aircraft guns, one mounted on a T-34-85, the two others on the chassis of an SU-76. The nature of their construction seems to indicate that they - and the captured Type 65 - were in fact locally-built improvised vehicles, combining the hulls of discarded or damaged tanks with AA guns to increase the number of available anti-aircraft guns for use against US forces, the Hanoi-displayed picture showing a T-34-85 hull with a 57mm S-60 AA gun rather than the Type 65 used on the captured vehicle.
 +
 
 +
As such, it can be concluded that the Type 65 was in fact an improvised locally-built SPAAG, possibly an attempt at creating a cheap alternative to the more advanced [[ZSU-57-2|Soviet ZSU-57-2]], using the hulls of T-34-85s that had been delivered to North Vietnam in 1965.
  
 
== Media ==
 
== Media ==

Revision as of 12:48, 18 October 2019

Type 65
cn_type_65_aa.png
AB
RB
SB
General characteristics
Brief
Detailed
5.3/5.3/5.3BR
SPAAClass
5 peopleCrew
front / side / backArmour
45 / 45 / 45Hull
0 / 15 / 0Turret
Mobility
25.0 tWeight
59 km/h forward
9 km/h back
54 km/h forward
8 km/h back
Speed
Armament
2 x 37 mm Type 65 cannonMain weapon
390 roundsAmmunition
5 roundsBelt capacity
160 shots/minFire rate
-5° / 85°Vertical guidance
Economy
54 000 Rp icon.pngResearch
180 000 Sl icon.pngPurchase
Sl icon.png2 900 / 3 761/1 800 / 2 334/4 700 / 6 095Repair
52 000 Sl icon.pngCrew training
180 000 Sl icon.pngExperts
710 Ge icon.pngAces
× (166) % Rp icon.pngReward for battle
This page is about the Chinese SPAA Type 65. For gift vehicle in the Russian tree, see Type 65 (USSR). For vehicles using the T-34 chassis, see T-34 (Family).

Description

The Type 65 is a rank III Chinese SPAA with a battle rating of 5.3 (AB/RB/SB). It was introduced in Update 1.91 "Night Vision".

General info

Survivability and armour

Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpful for survival in combat? If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.

Mobility

Write about the mobility of the ground vehicle. Estimate the specific power and manoeuvrability, as well as the maximum speed forward and backwards.

Armaments

Main armament

Main article: Type 65 (37 mm)
37 mm Type 65
Capacity Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
Stabilizer
390 -5°/+85° ±180° N/A
Turret rotation speed (°/s)
Mode Stock Upgraded Prior +
Full crew
Prior +
Expert qualif.
Prior +
Ace qualif.
Arcade 52.8  ??.??  ??.??  ??.??  ??.??
Realistic 35.7  ??.??  ??.??  ??.??  ??.??
Reloading rate (seconds)
Stock Prior +
Full crew
Prior +
Expert qualif.
Prior +
Ace qualif.
1.3  ??.??  ??.??  ??.??

Ammunition

Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration @ 90° (mm)
10 m 100 m 500 m 1,000 m 1,500 m 2,000 m
BR-167 AP-T 71 68 57 46 37 30
BR-167P HVAP-T 102 95 80 59 35 28
UO-167 HEFI-T 3 3 3 3 3 3
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
(m/s)
Projectile
Mass (kg)
Fuse delay
(m)
Fuse sensitivity
(mm)
Explosive Mass
(TNT equivalent) (g)
Normalisation at 30°
from horizontal
Ricochet
0% 50% 100%
BR-167 AP-T 880 0.76 N/A N/A N/A -1.0° 47° 60° 65°
BR-167P HVAP-T 960 0.62 N/A N/A N/A +1.5° 66° 70° 72°
UO-167 HEFI-T 866 0.735 0.2 0.1 34 +0.0° 79° 80° 81°

Ammo racks

Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
4th
rack empty
5th
rack empty
6th
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
390  ?? (+??)  ?? (+??)  ?? (+??)  ?? (+??)  ?? (+??)  ?? (+??)  ??

Optics

Type 65 Optics
Default magnification Maximum magnification
Main Gun optics X3.8 X4.0
Comparable optics  ???


Usage in battles

Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but instead give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).

Pros and cons

Summarise and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in a bulleted list. Try not to use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - use substitutions with softer forms such as "inadequate" and "effective".

Pros:

Cons:

History

The Type 65 Self Propelled Anti Aircraft Gun is a bit of an enigma, as no official documentation exists concerning its design or construction. Even today, almost half a century after the type first became known, little is known about it - so perhaps it is best to first focus on what little is known about this unique T-34-based SPAAG.

During the 1972 Spring-Summer Offensive of the Vietnam War, a single example of a SPAAG was captured by the 4th Infantry Regiment of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on August 13th 1972. This vehicle was subsequently transferred to the United States military, who eventually shipped it to the Aberdeen Proving Ground for technical evaluation. After testing was concluded, the vehicle was put on display at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, where it stood until the early 2010s when it was transferred along with the rest of the collection to the Air Defence Artillery Museum in Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

Evaluation of this single example showed that it consisted of a T-34-85 chassis which was made at UTZ 183 (Uralsky Tankovij Zavod) in the USSR sometime between 1944 and 1947, featuring a number of modifications. The most important one concerned the removal of the turret, with a solid reinforced steel slab being bolted onto the turret aperture on top of which a twin AA gun was mounted. Other modifications included the removal of the hull-mounted 7.62 mm machine gun, and the removal of part of the engine top deck to allow the gun turret to freely rotate.

The most common designations applied to this vehicle refer to the gun used: a Chinese-built copy of the Soviet M1939 (61-K). NORINCO of China copied this design, originally building it as the Type 55 (most likely after the year it was first constructed); later on a twin mount was designed around the same gun, which was put into production as the Type 65. As mounted on the tank, the Type 65 gun mount was surrounded by a box-like open-topped structure composed of 16-mm thick armor plates, large enough to house both the gun and a crew of five. Similar in concept to the US-built M42 Duster, the vehicle lacked any advanced aiming system or power-assisted gun traverse or elevation, making it less efficient in use against low-flying high-speed jets, but still deadly to slower attackers and helicopters.

The lack of any official documentation, combined with the use of a Chinese-built AA gun, soon led to speculation in the US Military that this vehicle was a Chinese-built dedicated SPAAG. As such, the vehicle commonly became known as the Type 63 SPAAG, this name first appearing in the 1987 publication A Compendium of Armaments and Military Hardware by Christopher Chant, after the assumption that the Type 63 was a variant of the Type 65 specifically built for use on this SPAAG. However, more recently the vehicle has become known as the Type 65 - or Type 63/65 - after the NORINCO-built gun.

With the lifting of the US embargo on North Vietnam in 1994, new information about the Vietnam War from (formerly North) Vietnamese sources finally became available, and visitors to the Vietnam People's Air Force Museum in Hanoi noticed a photograph on display which gives an entirely different turn to the Type 65's story. This singular photograph, three SPAAG's moving to the front, shows three tank-mounted anti aircraft guns, one mounted on a T-34-85, the two others on the chassis of an SU-76. The nature of their construction seems to indicate that they - and the captured Type 65 - were in fact locally-built improvised vehicles, combining the hulls of discarded or damaged tanks with AA guns to increase the number of available anti-aircraft guns for use against US forces, the Hanoi-displayed picture showing a T-34-85 hull with a 57mm S-60 AA gun rather than the Type 65 used on the captured vehicle.

As such, it can be concluded that the Type 65 was in fact an improvised locally-built SPAAG, possibly an attempt at creating a cheap alternative to the more advanced Soviet ZSU-57-2, using the hulls of T-34-85s that had been delivered to North Vietnam in 1965.

Media

Excellent additions to the article would be video guides, screenshots from the game, and photos.

See also

Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example:

  • reference to the series of the vehicles;
  • links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.

External links

Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:

  • topic on the official game forum;
  • encyclopedia page on the tank;
  • other literature.


China anti-aircraft vehicles
Type 65