T-34-85

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T-34-85
ussr_t_34_85_zis_53.png
AB
RB
SB
General characteristics
Brief
Detailed
5.7/5.7/5.7BR
5 peopleCrew
100 %Visibility
front / side / backArmour
45 / 45 / 45Hull
90 / 75 / 52Turret
Mobility
32.2 tWeight
954 hp500 hpEngine power
30 hp/t16 hp/tSurface density
61 km/h forward
9 km/h back
54 km/h forward
8 km/h back
Speed
Armament
85 mm ZIS-S-53 cannonMain weapon
60 roundsAmmunition
7.4 / 9.6 sReload
-5° / 22°Vertical guidance
1 890 roundsAmmunition
8.0 / 10.4 sReload
63 roundsBelt capacity
600 shots/minFire rate
Economy
54 000 Rp icon.pngResearch
180 000 Sl icon.pngPurchase
Sl icon.png2 900 / 3 999/2 100 / 2 895/1 590 / 2 192Repair
52 000 Sl icon.pngCrew training
180 000 Sl icon.pngExperts
710 Ge icon.pngAces
× (166) % Rp icon.pngReward for battle
× 1.8 Sl icon.png× 1.5 Sl icon.png× 1.0 Sl icon.png

Description

GarageImage T-34-85.jpg


The T-34-85 is a Rank IV Soviet medium tank with a battle rating of 5.7. It was introduced in during the Closed Beta Test for Ground Forces before Update 1.41. Though similar to the T-34-85(D-5T), it has an improved gun and a full crew for combat efficiency.

The T-34-85 is an improvement over its predecessor, the T-34-85(D-5T) with a better armament, ammo, and an additional crew member. Aside from that, the two's technical specification are pretty much the same.

The front hull armour is only 45 mm thick, even when sloped this is a pitiful amount of armour to fight with against the other BR 5.3 vehicles as every other tank gun can penetrate that armour. Thus if possible, do not prolong the exposure of the hull armour towards the enemy.

General info

Survivability and armour

Armour type:

  • Rolled homogeneous armour (Hull, Turret roof)
  • Cast homogeneous armour (Turret, Cupola, Driver's hatch, Machine gun port)
Armour Front (Slope angle) Sides Rear Roof
Hull 45 mm (60°) Front glacis
45 mm (60°) Lower glacis
75 mm (60°) Driver's hatch
65 mm (30°) Machine gun port
45 mm (39-40°) Top
45 mm Bottom
45 mm (47-49°) Top
45 mm (46°) Bottom
20 mm
Turret 90 mm (1-69°) Turret front
90 + 40 mm (8-61°) Gun mantlet
75 mm (19-22°) Front 2/3rd
52 mm (13-19°) Rear 1/3rd
52 mm (9°) 20 mm
Armour Sides Roof
Cupola 90 mm 20 mm

Notes:

  • The gun mantlet has 90 mm in front with additional small and thin 40 mm plates on the sides of the gun. See here.
  • Suspensions wheels are 20 mm thick and tracks are 18 mm thick

Any enemy vehicle around the T-34-85's BR bracket can destroy it if it can get a solid shot on the hull armour. Beware when exposing hull when coming out to take a shot on an enemy, someone is bound to be watching for the T-34-85 and they won't be afraid to plant a shell into the 45 mm hull armour.

Mobility

Mobility characteristic
Weight (tons) Add-on Armor
weight (tons)
Max speed (km/h)
32.0 0.2 61 (AB)
55 (RB/SB)
Engine power (horsepower)
Mode Stock Upgraded
Arcade 775 954
Realistic/Simulator 442 500
Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Mode Stock Upgraded
Arcade 24.22 29.81
Realistic/Simulator 13.81 15.62

Armaments

Main armament

Main article: ZiS-S-53 (85 mm)
85 mm ZiS-S-53
Capacity Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
60 -5°/+22° ±180°
Turret rotation speed (°/s)
Mode Stock Upgraded Prior + Full crew Prior + Expert qualif. Prior + Ace qualif.
Arcade 14.90 20.60 25.00 _.__ _.__
Realistic 14.90 17.50 _.__ _.__ 25.00
Reloading rate (seconds)
Stock Prior + Full crew Prior + Expert qualif. Prior + Ace qualif.
9.60 _.__ _.__ 7.40
Ammunition
Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration in mm @ 90°
10m 100m 500m 1000m 1500m 2000m
BR-365K APHE 145 142 125 107 92 78
BR-365A APHEBC 142 139 123 105 91 81
O-365K HE 9 9 9 9 9 9
BR-365P APCR 180 175 136 100 73 54
Shell details
Ammunition Velocity
in m/s
Projectile
Mass in kg
Fuse delay

in m:

Fuse sensitivity

in mm:

Explosive Mass in g
(TNT equivalent):
Normalization At 30°
from horizontal:
Ricochet:
0% 50% 100%
BR-365K 792 9.2 1.2 15 81.6 -1° 43° 30° 25°
BR-365A 792 9.2 1.2 15 164 +4° 42° 27° 19°
O-365K 780 9.5 0.1 0.3 646 +0° 11° 10°
BR-365P 1030 5.4 N/A N/A N/A +1.5° 24° 20° 18°
Ammo racks
Ammo racks of the T-34-85.
Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
4th
rack empty
5th
rack empty
6th
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
60 51 (+9) 41 (+19) 31 (+29) 21 (+39) 11 (+49) (+59) no

Turret empty: 24 (+12)

Machine guns

Main article: DT (7.62 mm)
7.62 mm DT
Coaxial mount
Capacity (Belt capacity) Fire rate
(shots/minute)
Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
1,890 (63) 600 N/A N/A

Usage in the battles

Pros:

  • Fast turret traverse.
  • Fast speed.
  • Excellent upward elevation on gun.
  • Fast rate of fire (aprox. 7+ seconds with good crew).
  • 85mm AP does respectable damage (semi-oneshot) upon penetration.
  • Has APCR as an upgrade.
  • Overall armour can bounce lower BR tanks quite reliably, and with a good MM, it clubs hard.
  • Benefits from a designated loader in the crew, a first for the T-34 series, resulting in faster reload. 5 crew-members also means survivability is significantly increased.

Cons:

  • Armour is useless in Rank 4+ matches.
  • Below average penetration with standard ammo.
  • Poor angling on the turret(makes bouncing shots unlikely in most situations).
  • High profile. Since the turret is so tall, it makes combat behind low obstacles difficult, as the turret segment above the main gun is visible.

History

Development

The T-34, in its introduction, was a huge shock to the German army when they invaded as they did not have the adequate anti-tank weaponry to defeat the T-34 and its heavier companion KV-1 tank. However, by 1943, the Germans began introducing newer tanks or upgrading their current tanks. They upgraded their Panzer IVs with the 75 mm KwK 40 gun, which could penetrate the T-34, and introduced the Tiger I and Panther tanks into their forces, which could not only destroy the T-34s easily, but can also take in the 76.2 mm shells the T-34 fires. The inferior firepower the T-34 forced the T-34 forces to close in to a very close distance during the Battle of Kursk with the Tigers and Panthers in order to get to the sides and fire at the weaker armour. While the Soviets were victorious against the German offensive, the T-34s suffered high losses with this strategy.

The T-34's slow improvement from the 1941 model was due to the decision to keep changes to the model low to keep costs low and productivity high. This worked well in the first two years against the Germans, but the Battle of Kursk showed that the newer German tanks now outgun the T-34s. Soviet High Command, once conservative on the T-34's upgrades, now opted for an increase in the T-34 armament to be able to counter the German tanks. During the development, an interim solution for the problem was the equipping of the 57 mm ZiS-4M gun onto the T-34, which has better penetration capabilities compared to the 76.2 F-34 gun. This tank, the T-34-57, performed as an adequate "tank-hunter", but the small HE shell on the 57 mm gun made it a poor tank armament so this was only an interim solution until a better design is made.[1]

Testings with various of guns in Soviet inventory against captured German tanks showed that the most capable gun was the 85 mm 52-K anti-aircraft gun. With this discovery, the 52-K underwent development to make derivatives able to be mounted onto a tank. The cannon was able to penetrate the front of the Tiger from 500 meters out, the turret side from 600 meters away, and the hull side from 800 meters away. The 85 mm was first mounted onto the SU-85s, but the need for an upgraded tank had the Soviets find a way to fit the gun in the T-34. The cannon was much larger than the F-34 gun and so a much larger turret was necessary to house the gun. The solution to this was to transfer the turret from the cancelled T-43 tank program onto the T-34, this increased the turret ring diameter from the original 1,425 mm into 1,600 mm, which required a retooling in the manufacturing plants. While this delayed T-34 production, the 85 mm was finally able to be mounted onto the T-34 as the T-34-85.[1]

Design

The T-34-85, aside from the enlarged turret ring for the new turret, uses the same T-34 hull design. Armour was still about 45 mm thick, sloped at 60 degrees for a 90 mm effective thickness. The Christie suspension was retained, as well as the diesel engine. However, the biggest difference in the tank design is the three-man turret, though a turret basket is still exempt from the design. Before, the two-man turret on the older T-34 had the commander forced to do his job and the gunner's, the three-man turret on the T-34-85 separated the commander's duty by having a separate gunner to fire the gun, leaving the commander to do his job commanding the tank as a whole. The larger turret also has space for a radio (previously in the hull by the assistant driver), allowing the commander to effectively communicate between tank units. Aside from the enlarged turret ring, new turret, and the 85 mm gun, the internal specifications of the T-34 and its pros and cons were nearly identical to the older variants.

The 85 mm gun on the T-34-85 was able to penetrate 125 mm of armour at 500 meters away at a 90 degree meet angle with normal AP rounds. The 85 mm gun was derived from the 52-K anti-aircraft gun, which was developed from Vasilliy Grabin and Fyodor Petrov's design bureaus. Petrov's bureaus produced the 85 mm D-5T gun while Grabin's design, after being taken over by A. Savin, produced the 85 mm ZiS-53 gun. During trials in the Gorokhoviesky Proving Grounds, it was found that the ZiS-53 gun was much better than the D-5T and was much simpler, which was redesignated as the ZiS-S-53 after Savin's initials. However, as the new turret was optimized with the D-5T gun, the T-34-85 started with the D-5T as the T-34-85 Model 1943, which ran on from February to March 1944. After March 1944, the 85 mm ZiS-5 were used as the armament of the T-34-85 Model 1944. During its production life from 1943 to 1958, up to 48,950 T-34-85s were created (22,559 of which during World War II), consisting of more than half of the total 84,070 T-34 units created in its entire production life since 1940.

Combat usage

From its introduction in March 1944 and onwards, the T-34-85s were the main tank in Soviet service.[1] The older T-34s were still being used in the theater as they are lost from combat and retribution and replaced. The T-34-85's 85 mm gun armour penetration and front turret armour nearly doubled compared to the older T-34, yet retain the same speed, mobility, and hull armour. The T-34-85 was vastly superior the German's Panzer IVs and StuG IIIs, and though it was still inferior against the Panther and the Tiger I, it had better chance than the older T-34 models. The T-34-85s maintain numerical superiority throughout the entire war due to the Soviet's industrial base and design concept of mass producing single designs, while the Germans focus on newer, better tanks such as the heavier Tiger II, which restricted productivity and made logistics a hard job to maintain. The T-34-85s were the main Soviet spearhead weapon during Operation Bagration and its future offensives up until the Battle of Berlin. After the fall of Nazi Germany, the Soviets use the T-34-85s again in their invasion of Manchuria to fulfill their promise to invade Japan after the fall of Germany. The combined-arms forces of their armoured units overran the Japanese positions in Manchuria and were pushed all the way to a distance from the Yalu River. The Japanese surrender order was given out by the emperor on August 14, which was not carried out as a cease fire until August 17.

After the end of World War II, the T-34-85s were given out in massive quantities to Soviet occupied territories and their allies. The next action the T-34-85s faced was in the Korean War, in the hands of the North Koreans. The North Korean armoured forces are able to assault deep into South Korea with these tanks as South Koreans were severely under-equipped in anti-tank weaponry, only armed with US-supplied M24 Chaffees and regular bazookas, which were useless against the T-34s. It wasn't until the deployment of US troops into the Korean peninsula that the tide turned against the North Koreans and their tanks. The US sent their M4A3E8 Shermans, M26 Pershings, and "Super Bazookas" to arm the troops there. All these weapons are able to destroy the T-34-85s, with the M26 Pershing being able to penetrate straight through the front and back of the T-34-85 armour with HVAP rounds. The Shermans are nearly equal to the T-34-85s, but the better optic quality and crew training gave them an edge against the T-34-85s. These anti-tank weapons supplied by the coalition caused the North Koreans to suffer major tank losses and after their supply lines were cut by the US landings at Inchon, the armoured vehicles were abandoned as the North Koreans retreated. Pure tank-to-tank battles between the two sides were scarce after 1950 due to a heavy decline in armoured forces in the North Korean side.[1]

Past the Korean War, the T-34-85s were clearly obsolete with development of newer tanks being developed world wide. Despite that, many countries still use T-34-85s as their main tank or as reserves, even the Soviets and Finnish continue using them until the late 1960s. Warsaw Pact countries used them in large quantities and were involved in many conflicts within these countries, such as the East German uprising in June 1953, Hungarian revolution in 1956, Coup by Greek junta in July 1974, and the Turkish invasion in July-August 1974. The T-34-85s also saw conflicts in the Middle East in the hands of Syrians, Egyptians, Jordanians, and Iraq; Vietnam with the North Vietnamese, and in the Bosnian War in the Bosnian Serb Army. African countries such as Somalia and Angola still use T-34-85s in their armies, and they could even be seen in the recent conflicts in Yemen and in Ukraine. Despite their age, it seems that the T-34-85 was to become a tank that will persist in the hands of smaller countries for years to come.

During late 1944, the Soviets were already searching for a successor to the T-34s that use most of the newest tank technology found in recent years. The result was the T-44 medium tank, which did not enter service in time to see widespread usage and even combat during World War II. The T-44 underwent further development and redesigning to become a tank that would surpass the T-34 in the most produced tank in existence, the T-54 tank.

Media

An excellent addition to the article will be video guides, as well as screenshots from the game and photos.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Zaloga Steven. T-34-85 vs M26 Pershing: Korea 1950 Great Britain: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2010

Read also

Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example,

  • reference to the series of the vehicles;
  • links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.

ETC.

Sources

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  • topic on the official game forum;
  • other literature.


USSR medium tanks
T-28  T-28 · T-28E
T-34-76  T-34 (Prototype) · T-34 (1940) · T-34 (1941) · T-34 1941 (1st Gv.T.Br.) · T-34 (1942) · T-34E STZ · T-34E
T-34-57  T-34-57 · T-34-57 (1943)
T-34-85  T-34-85 (D-5T) · T-34-85 · T-34-85E
T-34-100  T-34-100
T-44  T-44 · T-44-100 · T-44-122
T-54  T-54 (1947) · T-54 (1949) · T-54 (1951)
T-55  T-55A · T-55AM-1
T-62  T-62 · T-62M-1 · IT-1
T-64  T-64A (1971) · T-64B
T-72  T-72A
T-80  T-80B · T-80U
Others  Shturm-S
Trophies/Lend-Lease  ▂T-III · ▂T-V · ▂M3 Medium · ▂M4A2