Difference between revisions of "SU-76M"

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== Description ==
 
== Description ==
''In the description, the first part needs to be about the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the ground vehicle in the game. Insert the screenshot of the vehicle. If the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, they will immediately understand what kind of vehicle it is talking about.''
+
<!--''In the description, the first part needs to be about the history of the creation and combat usage of the vehicle, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the ground vehicle in the game. Insert the screenshot of the vehicle. If the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, they will immediately understand what kind of vehicle it is talking about.''-->
 +
[[File:GarageImage_SU-76M.jpg|420px|thumb|left]]
 +
{{break}}
 +
The '''{{specs|name}}''' is a rank {{specs|rank}} Soviet tank destroyer {{Battle-rating}}. It was introduced during the Closed Beta Test for Ground Forces before Update 1.41. It is based on the modified chassis of the obsolescent [[T-70|T-70M]] light tank, designed primarily as an infantry support weapon but with a secondary anti-tank role.
  
 
== General info ==
 
== General info ==
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
''Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpfull for survival in combat?''
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<!--''Describe armour protection. Note the most well protected and key weak areas. Appreciate the layout of modules as well as the number and location of crew members. Is the level of armour protection sufficient, is the placement of modules helpful for survival in combat?''
  
''If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.''
+
''If necessary use a visual template to indicate the most secure and weak zones of the armour.''-->
 +
The SU-76M shares a similar hull armour profile with the T-70 light tank on which it is based, but has a lightly armoured open-topped superstructure to accommodate the 76 mm gun. With a maximum thickness of only 25 mm, it will not stop much more than heavy machine gun fire. The open top also makes the SU-76M very vulnerable to aircraft strafing runs
 +
 
 +
'''Armour type:'''
 +
 
 +
* Rolled homogeneous armour
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! Armour !! Front !! Sides !! Rear !! Roof
 +
|-
 +
| Hull || 25 mm (60°) ''Front glacis'' <br> 30 mm (30°) ''Lower glacis'' <br> 25 mm (35-89°) ''Driver's hatch'' || 15 mm || 15 mm (1°) ''Top'' <br> 15 mm (32°) ''Lower'' || 7 mm
 +
|-
 +
| Superstructure || 25 mm (27°) || 10 mm (21-24°) ''Left'' <br> 10 mm (18-19°) ''Right'' || 15 mm (1°) || N/A
 +
|}
 +
'''Notes:'''
 +
 
 +
* Suspension wheels are 10 mm thick while tracks are 15 mm thick.
 +
* Belly armour is 7 mm thick.
 +
* The rear superstructure does not cover the entire crew compartment.
 +
* A 25 mm plate of armour separates the driver's and engine compartment to the rear fighting compartment.
  
 
=== Mobility ===
 
=== Mobility ===
''Write about the mobility of the ground vehicle. Estimate the specific power and maneuverability as well as the maximum speed forward and backward.''
+
<!-- ''Write about the mobility of the ground vehicle. Estimate the specific power and manoeuvrability, as well as the maximum speed forwards and backwards.'' -->
 +
 
 +
{{tankMobility|abMinHp= 199|rbMinHp= 124|<!--AoAweight=(optional) -->}}The SU-76M has a very low top speed of only about 30 km/h, considering how lightly armoured it is. It also has a poor reverse speed of only 5 km/h. It does have a good power/weight ratio, however, and accelerates and turns fairly quickly.
  
 
== Armaments ==
 
== Armaments ==
=== Main armament ===
+
<!--''Give the reader information about the characteristics of the main gun. Assess its effectiveness in a battle based on the reloading speed, ballistics and the power of shells. Do not forget about the flexibility of the fire, that is how quickly the cannon can be aimed at the target, open fire on it and aim at another enemy. Add a link to the main article on the gun: <code><nowiki>{{main|Name of the weapon}}</nowiki></code>. Describe in general terms the ammunition available for the main gun. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage.''-->
''Give the reader information about the characteristics of the main gun. Assess its effectiveness in a battle based on the reloading speed, ballistics and the power of shells. Do not forget about the flexibilty of the fire, that is how quickly the cannon can be aimed at the target, open fire on it and aim at another enemy. Add a link to the main article on the gun: <code><nowiki>{{main|Name of the weapon}}</nowiki></code>. Describe in general terms the ammunition available for the main gun. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage.''
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{{main|ZiS-3 (76 mm)}}The SU-76M is armed with the '''76 mm ZiS-3''' field gun, a versatile artillery piece that is also capable of performing in the anti-tank role. It has a decent rate-of-fire and a wide traverse arc, but the mounting has very poor gun depression due to the rearward placement of the superstructure.
 +
 
 +
It has a very wide-selection of ammunition, though only a few are worth using regularly. The stock '''BR-350A''' APHEBC shell is adequate enough for most purposes, although it will struggle against heavy tanks like the [[Churchill (Family)|Churchill]] at long ranges. The '''BR-350B''' APHEBC shell is arguably the best all-round projectile available, combining decent penetration with excellent lethality. Against particularly heavy armour, the '''BR-350P''' APCR shot is available, though its poor lethality and performance against sloped armour will tend to disappoint. The BR-350SP APBC shot is a solid shot round with no filler, but it creates more spalling than the APCR and is somewhat more lethal. The '''BP-350A''' HEAT round is occasionally useful for long-range fighting since it does not lose penetration with distance, but the Soviet 76 mm guns generally do not perform very well at long range, and work better at medium to close range. It also has some utility for breaking the hulls of lightly armoured vehicles, while not being completely useless against heavier opposition like the HE round. The '''Sh-354T''' shrapnel round creates a lot of fragments when it penetrates, but is only effective against lighter vehicles.
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="6" | [[ZiS-3 (76 mm)|76 mm ZiS-3]]
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="3" rowspan="1" style="width:5em" |Capacity
 +
! rowspan="1" | Vertical <br> guidance
 +
! rowspan="1" | Horizontal <br> guidance
 +
! rowspan="1" | Stabilizer
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="3" | 60 || -3°/+25° || ±15° || N/A
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="6" | Turret rotation speed (°/s)
 +
|-
 +
! style="width:4em" |Mode
 +
! style="width:4em" |Stock
 +
! style="width:4em" |Upgraded
 +
! style="width:4em" |Prior + Full crew
 +
! style="width:4em" |Prior + Expert qualif.
 +
! style="width:4em" |Prior + Ace qualif.
 +
|-
 +
| ''Arcade'' ||6.16||8.53||10.36||11.46||12.19
 +
|-
 +
| ''Realistic'' ||4.17|| 4.90 ||5.95||6.58||7.00
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="4" | Reloading rate (seconds)
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="1" style="width:4em" |Stock
 +
! colspan="1" style="width:4em" |Prior + Full crew
 +
! colspan="1" style="width:4em" |Prior + Expert qualif.
 +
! colspan="1" style="width:4em" |Prior + Ace qualif.
 +
|-
 +
|8.97||8.35||7.31||6.9
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
=== Additional armament ===
+
===== Ammunition =====
''Some tanks are armed with several guns in one or more turrets. Evaluate the additional weaponry and give advice on its use. Describe the ammunition available for additional weaponry. Give advice on how to use them and how to fill the ammunition storage. If there is no additional weaponry remove this subsection.''
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{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center" width="100%"
 +
! colspan="8" | Penetration statistics
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="2" data-sort-type="text" | Ammunition
 +
! rowspan="2" class="unsortable" | Type of <br /> warhead
 +
! colspan="6" | '''Penetration''' '''''in mm''''' '''@ 90°'''
 +
|-
 +
! 10m
 +
! 100m
 +
! 500m
 +
! 1000m
 +
! 1500m
 +
! 2000m
 +
|-
 +
| BR-350A || APHEBC ||87||85||76||67||59||52
 +
|-
 +
| BR-350SP || APBC ||102||100||91||81||72||64
 +
|-
 +
| BR-350P || APCR || 125 || 119 || 92 || 68 ||50|| 36
 +
|-
 +
| BP-350A || HEAT || 80 || 80 || 80 || 80 || 80 || 80
 +
|-
 +
| BR-350B || APHEBC ||94||92||83||73||65||57
 +
|-
 +
| OF-350M || HE ||10||10||10||10||10||10
 +
|-
 +
| Sh-354T || Shrapnel || 37 || 35 || 29 || 25 || 20 || 17
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center" width="100%"
 +
! colspan="11" | Shell details
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="2" data-sort-type="text" | Ammunition
 +
! rowspan="2" class="unsortable" | Type of <br /> warhead
 +
! rowspan="2" |Velocity <br /> in m/s
 +
! rowspan="2" |Projectile<br />Mass in kg
 +
! rowspan="2" | ''Fuse delay''
 +
''in m:''
 +
! rowspan="2" | ''Fuse sensitivity''
 +
''in mm:''
 +
! rowspan="2" | ''Explosive Mass in g<br /> (TNT equivalent):''
 +
! rowspan="2" | ''Normalization At 30° <br> from horizontal:''
 +
! colspan="3" | ''Ricochet:''
 +
|-
 +
! 0%
 +
! 50%
 +
! 100%
 +
|-
 +
| BR-350A || APHEBC || 662 || 6.3 || 1.2 || 14 || 150 || +4° || 48° || 63° || 71°
 +
|-
 +
| BR-350SP || APBC ||655||6.78|| N/A || N/A || N/A || +4° || 48° || 63° || 71°
 +
|-
 +
| BR-350P || APCR || 950 ||3.02|| N/A || N/A || N/A || +1.5° || 66° || 70° || 72°
 +
|-
 +
| BP-350A || HEAT || 355 || 5.3 ||N/A|| 0.1 ||959.42|| +0° || 62° || 69° || 73°
 +
|-
 +
| BR-350B || APHEBC ||655|| 6.3 || 0.9 ||14||98.56|| +1.5° || 48° || 63° || 71°
 +
|-
 +
| OF-350M || HE || 680 || 6.2 || 0.05 || 0.1 || 621 || +0° || 79° || 80° || 81°
 +
|-
 +
| Sh-354T || Shrapnel || 680 || 6.2 || 0.5 ||8|| 85 || +0° || 62° || 69° || 73°
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center"
 +
! colspan="7" | Smoke characteristic
 +
|-
 +
! Ammunition
 +
! Velocity <br /> in m/s
 +
! Projectile<br />Mass in kg
 +
! ''Screen radius <br /> in m''
 +
! ''Screen time <br /> in s''
 +
! ''Screen hold time <br /> in s:''
 +
! ''Explosive Mass in g<br /> (TNT equivalent):''
 +
|-
 +
| D-350A || 680 ||6.45|| 13 || 5 || 20 || 50
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
=== Machine guns ===
+
===== [[Ammo racks|Ammo racks]] =====
''Offensive and anti-aircraft machine guns not only allow you to fight some aircraft, but also are effective against lightly armoured vehicles. Evaluate machine guns and give recommendations on its use.''
+
[[File:Ammoracks_SU-76M.png|thumbnail|right|x250px|Ammo rack layout of the SU-76M.]]
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |Full<br />ammo
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |1st<br />rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |2nd<br />rack empty
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! class="wikitable unsortable" |3rd<br />rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |4th<br />rack empty
 +
! class="wikitable unsortable" |Visual<br />discrepancy
 +
|-
 +
| '''60''' || 44&nbsp;''(+16)'' || 37&nbsp;''(+23)'' || 30&nbsp;''(+30)'' || 1&nbsp;''(+59)'' || style="text-align:left" | no
 +
|}
  
 
== Usage in the battles ==
 
== Usage in the battles ==
''Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).''
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<!--''Describe the tactics of playing in the vehicle, the features of using vehicles in the team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but give the reader food for thought. Describe the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).''-->
 +
 
 +
The SU-76M offers an interesting alternative to its predecessor, the [[ZiS-30]]. While the ZiS-30 is more mobile and has substantially higher penetration with its powerful 57 mm gun, the SU-76M trades some mobility and penetration for a much more lethal gun and somewhat better survivability for the crew.
 +
 
 +
Like most turretless tank destroyers, the SU-76M needs to be handled with care. Not only does it not have a rotating turret, it is also lightly armoured, has an open top, and practically no protection from behind. The crew is quite exposed to air, artillery, and rear attacks, which can disable them with even machine gun fire. The frontal glacis is capable of bouncing autocannons or small anti-tank guns, but the superstructure is still quite vulnerable. In a full uptier, the vehicle effectively has no armour. If forced to take a hit, the front-mounted engine and internal armour plate can absorb shots if angled correctly, thus buying some extra time to get another shot off at the risk of losing the engine.
 +
 
 +
The SU-76M lacks the speed to perform daring flanking maneuvers or quickly take control of key locations. Unlike the high penetration 57 mm ZiS-2 gun on the preceding [[ZiS-30]], the 76 mm ZiS-3 tends to struggle at long range against heavier armour such as that on the [[M4A1]] and the [[Churchill Mk I]].   
 +
 
 +
However, it far outclasses the 57 mm gun in terms of lethality when using the APHEBC rounds, often one-shotting opponents if it penetrates. Furthermore, the poor gun depression and rearward placement of the gun restricts hull down opportunities using terrain. This combination of characteristics tends to favour more close/medium range, ambush-oriented playstyles. The wide gun traverse arc and relatively small profile are also very useful for this. 
 +
 
 +
The SU-76M is particularly well-suited for setting up ambushes or flanking shots in urban combat, which tends to occur at short ranges and where the poor gun depression is less of an issue. The ready availability of hard cover also helps to offset the poor armour of the SU-76M, although its poor reverse speed is a distinct drawback. In more open maps, the SU-76M is very dependent on concealment using trees and bushes, as the armour is generally not reliable and the open crew compartment makes it a very common target for aircraft strafing runs if it is spotted.
 +
 
 +
Not only does it not have a rotating turret, it has an open top and practically no protection from behind. Therefore, when an engagement's complexity evolves and the Su-76 is surrounded, there is little that can be done to survive. One well placed hit to its rear will knock out a good part of the exposed crew, even machine guns can do the job of eliminating both loader and gunner. 
 +
 
 +
It is crucial to remain at a distance from the enemy, perhaps even seek the cover of trees for protection against low-level attack aircraft, and to only ever give the front side to an enemy. The fact that this vehicle does not have a turret not only means that it is not effective when fighting more mobile enemies attempting to flank, it also means that placing the armour at an angle is not a viable strategy to increase relative armour thickness and stay more protected, since the gun's limits for horizontal traverse mean that any significant angle of the hull towards an enemy will make make it harder to keep the enemy in sight. What can be done is to fire a shot and, immediately after, angle the hull ''whilst reloading'', to then return to facing the enemy to fire another shot. However, hiding whilst reloading is the most sensible choice.
 +
 
 +
Unfortunately, the SU-76 has low mobility, handling, and a vastly different gun when compared to its smaller and more mobile cousin, the ZiS-30. However, the gun on the SU-76 is definitely more powerful than the ZiS-30's 57 mm. The sheer force of the 76 mm shells will cause huge amounts of trauma to a target upon penetration. The SU-76 is also more well armoured than the ZiS-30 and provides much more protection to the gunner crew, especially from smaller caliber rounds (Unless fired from the rear). Given its poor gun depression and velocity, the SU-76 should be used as a mobile brawler and ambusher. It is well suited to performing ambushes in urban areas. The high HE filler of the 76mm shell makes it capable of OHK'ing nearly all enemy armour at its 2.3 BR. A minor issue with the SU-76 is that it has no defensive machine gun, meaning that responding quickly to SPAA is difficult.
 +
 
 +
The gun in itself is what makes the SU-76M a good vehicle, all its other characteristics are less than impressive. The variety of ammunition is a definite pro for this SPG, its APCR and HEAT shells being effective even at higher ranks, giving this humble tank destroyer the ability to down hightier tanks like the [[Tiger H1]]. Recently, the much more effective late-war BR-350B ammunition has been added to the SU-76M's ammunition options. It features noticeably more penetration and a better fuze in exchange for somewhat less explosive mass. Despite this, the SU-76M will often destroy most enemies in one shot when the shells penetrate. Once unlocked, the SU-76 is quite capable of dealing with any tank it is likely to see from the front, though there may be a need to swap ammunition often to deal with different targets.
 +
 +
=== Modules ===
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Tier
 +
! colspan="2" | Mobility
 +
! Protection
 +
! colspan="3" | Firepower
 +
|-
 +
| I
 +
| Tracks
 +
|
 +
| Parts
 +
| Horizontal Drive
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| II
 +
| Suspension
 +
| Brake System
 +
| FPE
 +
| Adjustment of fire
 +
| BR-350SP
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| III
 +
| Filters
 +
|
 +
| Crew Replenishment
 +
| Elevation Mechanism
 +
| BR-350P
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| IV
 +
| Transmission
 +
| Engine
 +
|
 +
| BP-350A
 +
| BR-350B (MD-8 fuze)
 +
| D-350A
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
 
=== Pros and cons ===
 
=== Pros and cons ===
''Summarize and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in a bulleted list. Do not use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - they have a substitution in the form of softer "inadequate", "effective".''
+
<!--''Summarize and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in a bulleted list. Do not use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - they have a substitution in the form of softer "inadequate", "effective".''-->'''Pros:'''
  
'''Pros:'''
+
* Decent horizontal gun traverse of 30 degrees.
*
+
* Great cannon, its deadly APHEBC packs a heavy blow for common opponents like the Pz.IIIs, Crusaders and Stuarts
 +
* Offers a wide range of ammo to deal with various opponents: APHEBC for normal targets, HE / shrapnel for soft targets and APCR for the hard ones.
 +
* Small profile makes it easy to hide and set up ambushes.
 +
* Adequate acceleration and hull traverse
 +
* Carries up to 60 rounds of ammo which is plenty even for a long battle.
  
 
'''Cons:'''
 
'''Cons:'''
*
+
 
 +
* Open topped, very vulnerable to strafing aircraft
 +
* Thin armor struggles to protect the crew from even .50 cal.
 +
* -3 degrees of gun depression isn't enough for hill combat, and this flaw is sometimes fatal.
 +
* No MG, so killing vehicles with light armor / exposed crew is rather ineffective, for example SPAAs.
 +
* Poor reverse speed of only 5 km/h might get the player killed.
 +
* Cannon penetrates poorly at more than 700m. Will struggle to pen hard targets like the Matildas, Churchill mk I or even the early Shermans
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the ground vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too big, take it to a separate article, taking a link to an article about the vehicle and adding a block "/historical reference" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/Name-vehicles/historical reference) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to include links to sources at the end of the article.''
+
<!--''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the ground vehicle in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too big, take it to a separate article, taking a link to an article about the vehicle and adding a block "/historical reference" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/Name-vehicles/historical reference) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to include links to sources at the end of the article.''-->
 +
===Development===
 +
During the interwar years, the development of self-propelled artillery was practically nonexistent in the Soviet Union. Those few projects, based on the chassis of [[T-26|T-26 light tank]], such as SU-1, AT-1 or SU-26, were eventually cancelled, and the Red Army entered the Second World War entirely without a dedicated self-propelled gun.
 +
 
 +
The situation changed after the German invasion in 1941, and vehicles such as the [[SU-152]] or [[SU-122]], based on the [[KV-1 (ZiS-5)|KV-1]] and [[T-34 (1941)|T-34]] tanks respectively, were developed. In November 1942, the State Defense Committee then ordered the production of a light self-propelled gun, built on the chassis of a light tank and armed with a 76.2 mm gun. The [[T-70|T-70 light tank]] chassis was chosen, as the other light tanks, the [[T-50]] and [[T-60]], was already out of production. The chassis had to be modified for this role, so it was lengthened and had one additional pair of road wheels added to the design. The armament, the 76.2 mm divisional M1942 gun (also designated ZiS-3), was mounted in a fully enclosed casemate. The gun was positioned at the rear, with the transmission being mounted frontally. The vehicle was designated '''SU-76''' (Samokhodnaya Ustanovka, “Self-Propelled Gun“), and the production was issued to the No.38 Factory in Kirov and started in December 1942. However, after only a couple of hundred vehicles were produced, the production was halted due to serious mechanical problems and other issues. The power train consisted of two GAZ-202 automobile engines, with each powering one track. However, there was no synchronization gear, so the driver has to control both engines simultaneously, which was an extremely difficult task. This arrangement also caused strong vibrations, which were the cause of frequent engine and transmission failures. The second biggest issue was the enclosed crew compartment, as it was very cramped and offered only a little space for crew members to work properly. The vehicle thus had to be modified, firstly the roof of the crew compartment was removed, improving the access to the gun. The power train was also changed, receiving the more powerful GAZ-203 engines, each producing 85 horsepower, which was now mounted in tandem on the right side of the vehicle, propelling a single drive-shaft. The modified vehicle was designated '''SU-76M''', and its production was resumed in early 1943. More than 14,000 SU-76M’s were produced between 1942-1945, making it the second most produced armoured vehicle in the Soviet Union after the T-34 tank.
 +
 
 +
===Combat usage===
 +
In its intended role, the SU-76M replaced earlier infantry support tanks and was very welcome to Soviet infantry units as it provided them with a light and mobile universal support weapon. The vehicle was meant to be part of three battlefield roles - a light assault gun, a mobile tank destroyer, or a mobile artillery gun as the weapon could be fired indirectly at a range of 17 km. The vehicle was fairly lightweight and produced low ground pressure, enabling it to pass through terrain unsuitable for heavier vehicles. Its gun could utilize a multitude of ammunition types, aside from standard high explosive ammunition, it could use fragmentation, shrapnel, incendiary and smoke rounds. As a tank destroyer, the gun was sufficient against German light and medium tanks such as [[Pz.III F|Panzer III]] or [[Pz.IV F1|Panzer IV]]. The introduction of the APCR and HEAT rounds then enabled SU-76M units to engage even heavier [[Panther D|Panther]] and [[Tiger H1|Tiger tanks]] with some success, though crew manuals instructed the gunner to try to hit the tracks or gun barrels before these rounds were made.
 +
 
 +
The vehicle also proved itself effective in an urban environment, where it was used as an assault gun for direct fire against enemy strong points and fortifications. The open-topped casemate made the crew vulnerable to snipers and hand grenades, but it also made the communication between vehicle commander and any accompanying infantry easier. Plus, it was found that the open compartment actually helps against the German infantry anti-tank weapon Panzerfaust, where a closed space would ensure the death of the crew members from the blast concussion amplified in the closed space. The SU-76M's low ground pressure from its weight made it one of the only Soviet vehicles able to operate in swampy terrain, which was extremely helpful during the Belarus Campaign in 1944, allowing the vehicle to attack through swamps in raids. This allowed the Soviets to bypass German defensive areas on more suitable terrain with support of an assault gun accompanying the light infantry. One famous SU-76M user was Rem Nikolaevich Ulanov, who was famous World War II veteran and his crew called their SU-76 the "Columbina".
 +
 
 +
After the end of World War II, the SU-76M was phased out of production, but many of them were exported to other countries, such as China, Cuba, North Korea, North Vietnam or Czechoslovakia, where they would be used in conflicts such as the Korean and Vietnam War against the US and their allies.
 +
 
 +
=== In-game description ===
 +
"The SU-76M was created based on the T-70M light tank as a mobile infantry escort. In the front of the vehicle, the driver was seated on the left and the engine compartment was on the right. The fighting compartment was in the rear of the vehicle, in a cabin open at the top and partially open at the rear. The vehicle's crew consisted of 4 people. The vehicle's commander and loader sat on the right of the armoured cabin, and the gunner sat to the left of the cannon.
 +
 
 +
The SPG was armed with a 76.2 mm ZiS-3 cannon. Placing the cannon in an armoured cabin simplified the production of these SPGs in comparison to manufacturing tanks, and allowed for them to be produced in a higher overall quantity. In 1944, when armoured vehicle production in the Soviet Union reached its height, around 25% of the overall number of full-track combat vehicles manufactured were SU-76Ms.
 +
 
 +
The No. 38, No. 40 and GAZ factories mass-produced these vehicles. By 1945, these factories had produced 13,932 SU-76Ms in total. Consequently, the SU-76M became the most prolific Soviet SPG in World War II.
 +
 
 +
Vehicles of this type were widely used in combat operations both as infantry support vehicles and as tank destroyers against enemy light tanks, medium tanks and SPGs. With different types of ammunition at hand, they were able to overwhelm infantry, artillery and armoured targets alike. A subcalibre round from the vehicle could penetrate 100 mm armour from a distance of 500 metres.
 +
 
 +
These SPGs gained an excellent reputation in battle. As a vehicle of its class, the SU-76M was practically equal in all regards to its foreign counterparts.
 +
After the war, the vehicles served in the Soviet Army until the beginning of the 50s, and in the DPRK army throughout the 50s."
 +
 
 +
===Survivors===
 +
Due to the large quantity produced and usage after World War II, many are found in intact conditions today in various locations around the world. Some could even be found as war monuments for the Soviet and German memorials.
  
 
== Media ==
 
== Media ==
''An excellent addition to the article will be video guides, as well as screenshots from the game and photos.''
+
[http://live.warthunder.com/feed/camouflages/?q=%23su76 '''Skins''' and '''camouflages''' for the SU-76M from live.warthunder.com.]
  
 
== Read also ==
 
== Read also ==
''Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example,''
+
 
* ''reference to the series of the vehicles;''
+
* [https://warthunder.com/en/news/3291/current/ Official War Thunder forum article: [Vehicle Profile<nowiki>]</nowiki> SU-76]
* ''links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.''
 
''ETC.''
 
  
 
== Sources ==
 
== Sources ==
 
''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
 
''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
 +
 
* ''topic on the official game forum;''
 
* ''topic on the official game forum;''
* ''page on the Wikipedia;''
 
 
* ''other literature.''
 
* ''other literature.''
 +
 +
{{USSR tank destroyers}}

Latest revision as of 23:10, 25 May 2020

RANK 6 SWEDEN
CV 90105 TML PACK
SU-76M
ussr_su_76m_1943.png
AB
RB
SB
General characteristics
Brief
Detailed
2.3/2.3/2.7BR
4 peopleCrew
75 %Visibility
front / side / backArmour
25 / 15 / 15Hull
25 / 10 / 15Turret
Mobility
10.5 tWeight
267 hp140 hpEngine power
25 hp/t13 hp/tPower-to-weight ratio
33 km/h forward
5 km/h back
30 km/h forward
5 km/h back
Speed
Armament
76 mm ZIS-3 cannonMain weapon
60 roundsAmmunition
6.9 / 9.0 sReload
-5° / 15°Vertical guidance
-15° / 15°Horizontal guidance
Economy
7 900 Rp icon.pngResearch
10 000 Sl icon.pngPurchase
Sl icon.png490 / 606/400 / 494/470 / 581Repair
3 000 Sl icon.pngCrew training
10 000 Sl icon.pngExperts
110 Ge icon.pngAces
112 % Rp icon.pngReward for battle
90 % Sl icon.png80 % Sl icon.png60 % Sl icon.png

Description

GarageImage SU-76M.jpg


The SU-76M is a rank II Soviet tank destroyer with a battle rating of 2.7 (AB) and 2.3 (RB/SB). It was introduced during the Closed Beta Test for Ground Forces before Update 1.41. It is based on the modified chassis of the obsolescent T-70M light tank, designed primarily as an infantry support weapon but with a secondary anti-tank role.

General info

Survivability and armour

The SU-76M shares a similar hull armour profile with the T-70 light tank on which it is based, but has a lightly armoured open-topped superstructure to accommodate the 76 mm gun. With a maximum thickness of only 25 mm, it will not stop much more than heavy machine gun fire. The open top also makes the SU-76M very vulnerable to aircraft strafing runs

Armour type:

  • Rolled homogeneous armour
Armour Front Sides Rear Roof
Hull 25 mm (60°) Front glacis
30 mm (30°) Lower glacis
25 mm (35-89°) Driver's hatch
15 mm 15 mm (1°) Top
15 mm (32°) Lower
7 mm
Superstructure 25 mm (27°) 10 mm (21-24°) Left
10 mm (18-19°) Right
15 mm (1°) N/A

Notes:

  • Suspension wheels are 10 mm thick while tracks are 15 mm thick.
  • Belly armour is 7 mm thick.
  • The rear superstructure does not cover the entire crew compartment.
  • A 25 mm plate of armour separates the driver's and engine compartment to the rear fighting compartment.

Mobility

Game Mode Max Speed (km/h) Weight (tons) Engine power (horsepower) Power-to-weight ratio (hp/ton)
Forward Reverse Stock Upgraded Stock Upgraded
Arcade 33 5 10.5 199 267 18.95 25.43
Realistic 30 5 124 140 11.81 13.33
The SU-76M has a very low top speed of only about 30 km/h, considering how lightly armoured it is. It also has a poor reverse speed of only 5 km/h. It does have a good power/weight ratio, however, and accelerates and turns fairly quickly.

Armaments

Main article: ZiS-3 (76 mm)
The SU-76M is armed with the 76 mm ZiS-3 field gun, a versatile artillery piece that is also capable of performing in the anti-tank role. It has a decent rate-of-fire and a wide traverse arc, but the mounting has very poor gun depression due to the rearward placement of the superstructure.

It has a very wide-selection of ammunition, though only a few are worth using regularly. The stock BR-350A APHEBC shell is adequate enough for most purposes, although it will struggle against heavy tanks like the Churchill at long ranges. The BR-350B APHEBC shell is arguably the best all-round projectile available, combining decent penetration with excellent lethality. Against particularly heavy armour, the BR-350P APCR shot is available, though its poor lethality and performance against sloped armour will tend to disappoint. The BR-350SP APBC shot is a solid shot round with no filler, but it creates more spalling than the APCR and is somewhat more lethal. The BP-350A HEAT round is occasionally useful for long-range fighting since it does not lose penetration with distance, but the Soviet 76 mm guns generally do not perform very well at long range, and work better at medium to close range. It also has some utility for breaking the hulls of lightly armoured vehicles, while not being completely useless against heavier opposition like the HE round. The Sh-354T shrapnel round creates a lot of fragments when it penetrates, but is only effective against lighter vehicles.

76 mm ZiS-3
Capacity Vertical
guidance
Horizontal
guidance
Stabilizer
60 -3°/+25° ±15° N/A
Turret rotation speed (°/s)
Mode Stock Upgraded Prior + Full crew Prior + Expert qualif. Prior + Ace qualif.
Arcade 6.16 8.53 10.36 11.46 12.19
Realistic 4.17 4.90 5.95 6.58 7.00
Reloading rate (seconds)
Stock Prior + Full crew Prior + Expert qualif. Prior + Ace qualif.
8.97 8.35 7.31 6.9
Ammunition
Penetration statistics
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Penetration in mm @ 90°
10m 100m 500m 1000m 1500m 2000m
BR-350A APHEBC 87 85 76 67 59 52
BR-350SP APBC 102 100 91 81 72 64
BR-350P APCR 125 119 92 68 50 36
BP-350A HEAT 80 80 80 80 80 80
BR-350B APHEBC 94 92 83 73 65 57
OF-350M HE 10 10 10 10 10 10
Sh-354T Shrapnel 37 35 29 25 20 17
Shell details
Ammunition Type of
warhead
Velocity
in m/s
Projectile
Mass in kg
Fuse delay

in m:

Fuse sensitivity

in mm:

Explosive Mass in g
(TNT equivalent):
Normalization At 30°
from horizontal:
Ricochet:
0% 50% 100%
BR-350A APHEBC 662 6.3 1.2 14 150 +4° 48° 63° 71°
BR-350SP APBC 655 6.78 N/A N/A N/A +4° 48° 63° 71°
BR-350P APCR 950 3.02 N/A N/A N/A +1.5° 66° 70° 72°
BP-350A HEAT 355 5.3 N/A 0.1 959.42 +0° 62° 69° 73°
BR-350B APHEBC 655 6.3 0.9 14 98.56 +1.5° 48° 63° 71°
OF-350M HE 680 6.2 0.05 0.1 621 +0° 79° 80° 81°
Sh-354T Shrapnel 680 6.2 0.5 8 85 +0° 62° 69° 73°
Smoke characteristic
Ammunition Velocity
in m/s
Projectile
Mass in kg
Screen radius
in m
Screen time
in s
Screen hold time
in s:
Explosive Mass in g
(TNT equivalent):
D-350A 680 6.45 13 5 20 50
Ammo racks
Ammo rack layout of the SU-76M.
Full
ammo
1st
rack empty
2nd
rack empty
3rd
rack empty
4th
rack empty
Visual
discrepancy
60 44 (+16) 37 (+23) 30 (+30) (+59) no

Usage in the battles

The SU-76M offers an interesting alternative to its predecessor, the ZiS-30. While the ZiS-30 is more mobile and has substantially higher penetration with its powerful 57 mm gun, the SU-76M trades some mobility and penetration for a much more lethal gun and somewhat better survivability for the crew.

Like most turretless tank destroyers, the SU-76M needs to be handled with care. Not only does it not have a rotating turret, it is also lightly armoured, has an open top, and practically no protection from behind. The crew is quite exposed to air, artillery, and rear attacks, which can disable them with even machine gun fire. The frontal glacis is capable of bouncing autocannons or small anti-tank guns, but the superstructure is still quite vulnerable. In a full uptier, the vehicle effectively has no armour. If forced to take a hit, the front-mounted engine and internal armour plate can absorb shots if angled correctly, thus buying some extra time to get another shot off at the risk of losing the engine.

The SU-76M lacks the speed to perform daring flanking maneuvers or quickly take control of key locations. Unlike the high penetration 57 mm ZiS-2 gun on the preceding ZiS-30, the 76 mm ZiS-3 tends to struggle at long range against heavier armour such as that on the M4A1 and the Churchill Mk I.

However, it far outclasses the 57 mm gun in terms of lethality when using the APHEBC rounds, often one-shotting opponents if it penetrates. Furthermore, the poor gun depression and rearward placement of the gun restricts hull down opportunities using terrain. This combination of characteristics tends to favour more close/medium range, ambush-oriented playstyles. The wide gun traverse arc and relatively small profile are also very useful for this.

The SU-76M is particularly well-suited for setting up ambushes or flanking shots in urban combat, which tends to occur at short ranges and where the poor gun depression is less of an issue. The ready availability of hard cover also helps to offset the poor armour of the SU-76M, although its poor reverse speed is a distinct drawback. In more open maps, the SU-76M is very dependent on concealment using trees and bushes, as the armour is generally not reliable and the open crew compartment makes it a very common target for aircraft strafing runs if it is spotted.

Not only does it not have a rotating turret, it has an open top and practically no protection from behind. Therefore, when an engagement's complexity evolves and the Su-76 is surrounded, there is little that can be done to survive. One well placed hit to its rear will knock out a good part of the exposed crew, even machine guns can do the job of eliminating both loader and gunner.

It is crucial to remain at a distance from the enemy, perhaps even seek the cover of trees for protection against low-level attack aircraft, and to only ever give the front side to an enemy. The fact that this vehicle does not have a turret not only means that it is not effective when fighting more mobile enemies attempting to flank, it also means that placing the armour at an angle is not a viable strategy to increase relative armour thickness and stay more protected, since the gun's limits for horizontal traverse mean that any significant angle of the hull towards an enemy will make make it harder to keep the enemy in sight. What can be done is to fire a shot and, immediately after, angle the hull whilst reloading, to then return to facing the enemy to fire another shot. However, hiding whilst reloading is the most sensible choice.

Unfortunately, the SU-76 has low mobility, handling, and a vastly different gun when compared to its smaller and more mobile cousin, the ZiS-30. However, the gun on the SU-76 is definitely more powerful than the ZiS-30's 57 mm. The sheer force of the 76 mm shells will cause huge amounts of trauma to a target upon penetration. The SU-76 is also more well armoured than the ZiS-30 and provides much more protection to the gunner crew, especially from smaller caliber rounds (Unless fired from the rear). Given its poor gun depression and velocity, the SU-76 should be used as a mobile brawler and ambusher. It is well suited to performing ambushes in urban areas. The high HE filler of the 76mm shell makes it capable of OHK'ing nearly all enemy armour at its 2.3 BR. A minor issue with the SU-76 is that it has no defensive machine gun, meaning that responding quickly to SPAA is difficult.

The gun in itself is what makes the SU-76M a good vehicle, all its other characteristics are less than impressive. The variety of ammunition is a definite pro for this SPG, its APCR and HEAT shells being effective even at higher ranks, giving this humble tank destroyer the ability to down hightier tanks like the Tiger H1. Recently, the much more effective late-war BR-350B ammunition has been added to the SU-76M's ammunition options. It features noticeably more penetration and a better fuze in exchange for somewhat less explosive mass. Despite this, the SU-76M will often destroy most enemies in one shot when the shells penetrate. Once unlocked, the SU-76 is quite capable of dealing with any tank it is likely to see from the front, though there may be a need to swap ammunition often to deal with different targets.

Modules

Tier Mobility Protection Firepower
I Tracks Parts Horizontal Drive
II Suspension Brake System FPE Adjustment of fire BR-350SP
III Filters Crew Replenishment Elevation Mechanism BR-350P
IV Transmission Engine BP-350A BR-350B (MD-8 fuze) D-350A

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Decent horizontal gun traverse of 30 degrees.
  • Great cannon, its deadly APHEBC packs a heavy blow for common opponents like the Pz.IIIs, Crusaders and Stuarts
  • Offers a wide range of ammo to deal with various opponents: APHEBC for normal targets, HE / shrapnel for soft targets and APCR for the hard ones.
  • Small profile makes it easy to hide and set up ambushes.
  • Adequate acceleration and hull traverse
  • Carries up to 60 rounds of ammo which is plenty even for a long battle.

Cons:

  • Open topped, very vulnerable to strafing aircraft
  • Thin armor struggles to protect the crew from even .50 cal.
  • -3 degrees of gun depression isn't enough for hill combat, and this flaw is sometimes fatal.
  • No MG, so killing vehicles with light armor / exposed crew is rather ineffective, for example SPAAs.
  • Poor reverse speed of only 5 km/h might get the player killed.
  • Cannon penetrates poorly at more than 700m. Will struggle to pen hard targets like the Matildas, Churchill mk I or even the early Shermans

History

Development

During the interwar years, the development of self-propelled artillery was practically nonexistent in the Soviet Union. Those few projects, based on the chassis of T-26 light tank, such as SU-1, AT-1 or SU-26, were eventually cancelled, and the Red Army entered the Second World War entirely without a dedicated self-propelled gun.

The situation changed after the German invasion in 1941, and vehicles such as the SU-152 or SU-122, based on the KV-1 and T-34 tanks respectively, were developed. In November 1942, the State Defense Committee then ordered the production of a light self-propelled gun, built on the chassis of a light tank and armed with a 76.2 mm gun. The T-70 light tank chassis was chosen, as the other light tanks, the T-50 and T-60, was already out of production. The chassis had to be modified for this role, so it was lengthened and had one additional pair of road wheels added to the design. The armament, the 76.2 mm divisional M1942 gun (also designated ZiS-3), was mounted in a fully enclosed casemate. The gun was positioned at the rear, with the transmission being mounted frontally. The vehicle was designated SU-76 (Samokhodnaya Ustanovka, “Self-Propelled Gun“), and the production was issued to the No.38 Factory in Kirov and started in December 1942. However, after only a couple of hundred vehicles were produced, the production was halted due to serious mechanical problems and other issues. The power train consisted of two GAZ-202 automobile engines, with each powering one track. However, there was no synchronization gear, so the driver has to control both engines simultaneously, which was an extremely difficult task. This arrangement also caused strong vibrations, which were the cause of frequent engine and transmission failures. The second biggest issue was the enclosed crew compartment, as it was very cramped and offered only a little space for crew members to work properly. The vehicle thus had to be modified, firstly the roof of the crew compartment was removed, improving the access to the gun. The power train was also changed, receiving the more powerful GAZ-203 engines, each producing 85 horsepower, which was now mounted in tandem on the right side of the vehicle, propelling a single drive-shaft. The modified vehicle was designated SU-76M, and its production was resumed in early 1943. More than 14,000 SU-76M’s were produced between 1942-1945, making it the second most produced armoured vehicle in the Soviet Union after the T-34 tank.

Combat usage

In its intended role, the SU-76M replaced earlier infantry support tanks and was very welcome to Soviet infantry units as it provided them with a light and mobile universal support weapon. The vehicle was meant to be part of three battlefield roles - a light assault gun, a mobile tank destroyer, or a mobile artillery gun as the weapon could be fired indirectly at a range of 17 km. The vehicle was fairly lightweight and produced low ground pressure, enabling it to pass through terrain unsuitable for heavier vehicles. Its gun could utilize a multitude of ammunition types, aside from standard high explosive ammunition, it could use fragmentation, shrapnel, incendiary and smoke rounds. As a tank destroyer, the gun was sufficient against German light and medium tanks such as Panzer III or Panzer IV. The introduction of the APCR and HEAT rounds then enabled SU-76M units to engage even heavier Panther and Tiger tanks with some success, though crew manuals instructed the gunner to try to hit the tracks or gun barrels before these rounds were made.

The vehicle also proved itself effective in an urban environment, where it was used as an assault gun for direct fire against enemy strong points and fortifications. The open-topped casemate made the crew vulnerable to snipers and hand grenades, but it also made the communication between vehicle commander and any accompanying infantry easier. Plus, it was found that the open compartment actually helps against the German infantry anti-tank weapon Panzerfaust, where a closed space would ensure the death of the crew members from the blast concussion amplified in the closed space. The SU-76M's low ground pressure from its weight made it one of the only Soviet vehicles able to operate in swampy terrain, which was extremely helpful during the Belarus Campaign in 1944, allowing the vehicle to attack through swamps in raids. This allowed the Soviets to bypass German defensive areas on more suitable terrain with support of an assault gun accompanying the light infantry. One famous SU-76M user was Rem Nikolaevich Ulanov, who was famous World War II veteran and his crew called their SU-76 the "Columbina".

After the end of World War II, the SU-76M was phased out of production, but many of them were exported to other countries, such as China, Cuba, North Korea, North Vietnam or Czechoslovakia, where they would be used in conflicts such as the Korean and Vietnam War against the US and their allies.

In-game description

"The SU-76M was created based on the T-70M light tank as a mobile infantry escort. In the front of the vehicle, the driver was seated on the left and the engine compartment was on the right. The fighting compartment was in the rear of the vehicle, in a cabin open at the top and partially open at the rear. The vehicle's crew consisted of 4 people. The vehicle's commander and loader sat on the right of the armoured cabin, and the gunner sat to the left of the cannon.

The SPG was armed with a 76.2 mm ZiS-3 cannon. Placing the cannon in an armoured cabin simplified the production of these SPGs in comparison to manufacturing tanks, and allowed for them to be produced in a higher overall quantity. In 1944, when armoured vehicle production in the Soviet Union reached its height, around 25% of the overall number of full-track combat vehicles manufactured were SU-76Ms.

The No. 38, No. 40 and GAZ factories mass-produced these vehicles. By 1945, these factories had produced 13,932 SU-76Ms in total. Consequently, the SU-76M became the most prolific Soviet SPG in World War II.

Vehicles of this type were widely used in combat operations both as infantry support vehicles and as tank destroyers against enemy light tanks, medium tanks and SPGs. With different types of ammunition at hand, they were able to overwhelm infantry, artillery and armoured targets alike. A subcalibre round from the vehicle could penetrate 100 mm armour from a distance of 500 metres.

These SPGs gained an excellent reputation in battle. As a vehicle of its class, the SU-76M was practically equal in all regards to its foreign counterparts. After the war, the vehicles served in the Soviet Army until the beginning of the 50s, and in the DPRK army throughout the 50s."

Survivors

Due to the large quantity produced and usage after World War II, many are found in intact conditions today in various locations around the world. Some could even be found as war monuments for the Soviet and German memorials.

Media

Skins and camouflages for the SU-76M from live.warthunder.com.

Read also

Sources

Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:

  • topic on the official game forum;
  • other literature.


USSR tank destroyers
Light  SU-5-1 · ZiS-30 · SU-57 · SU-57B · SU-76M · SU-76M (5th Gv.Kav.Corps) · YaG-10 (29-K) · SU-85A · Khrizantema-S
Medium  SU-122 · SU-85 · SU-85M · SU-100 · SU-100P · SU-122P · SU-122-54 · IT-1 · Shturm-S
Heavy  SU-100Y · ISU-122 · ISU-122S · SU-152 · ISU-152 · Object 268 · Object 120
Rocket  BM-8-24 · BM-13N
Airborne  ASU-57 · ASU-85