Difference between revisions of "P-36C"

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{{Specs-Card|code=p-36c}}
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{{Specs-Card
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|code=p-36c
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|cockpit=333691/1108066
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}}
 +
{{About
 +
| about = American fighter '''{{PAGENAME}}'''
 +
| usage = other versions
 +
| link = P-36 (Family)
 +
}}
  
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
''In the description, the first part needs to be about the history of and the creation and combat usage of the aircraft, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the aircraft in the game. Insert screenshot of the vehicle. If the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, he will immediately understand what kind of vehicle it is talking about.''
+
<!--In the description, the first part should be about the history of and the creation and combat usage of the aircraft, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the aircraft in the game. Insert a screenshot of the vehicle, so that if the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, he will immediately understand what kind of vehicle the article is talking about.-->
 +
[[File:GarageImage_P-36CHawk.jpg|420px|thumb|left]]
 +
{{break}}
 +
The '''{{Specs|name}}''' is a rank {{Specs|rank}} American fighter {{Battle-rating}}. It was introduced in [[Update 1.31]].
 +
 
 +
In the early 1930s, the Curtiss-Wright Corporation began a private venture to build a fighter aircraft which was a revolutionary departure from earlier cloth-covered biplanes of World War I. This project aircraft under development was named the Curtiss Hawk Model 75 (later it would be known by P-36 Hawk, Hawk-75 – or just H-75 and Mohawk. The P-36 was an all-metal monoplane (although the control surfaces were fabric-covered) with a 900 hp radial engine, enclosed cockpit and retractable landing gear.<ref name=MilFac></ref> Even though this aircraft touted some of the state-of-the-art development in aircraft design, several aspects remained lacking, such as the original two machine guns firing through the propeller arc, a 7.62 mm and 12.7 mm and other critical components such as the absence of armour in the cockpit and self-sealing fuel tanks.
 +
 +
By May 1935 the first prototype flew and attained speeds of 281 mph (452 km/h) and reaching an altitude of 10,000 ft (3,000 m). It wasn’t long before the original 900 hp Write XR-1670-5 radial engine was replaced with an upgrade Wright XR-1820-39 Cyclone at 950 hp and several modifications to the body of the aircraft was completed like the addition of scalloped rear windows which significantly improved the pilots rear view (although the hump on the back of the aircraft still blocked a significant portion of the view).<ref name=JoeB></ref><ref name=AviHis></ref> This version of the aircraft was designated as Model 75B while oddly enough the earlier version with the 1670-5 was listed as a Model 75D.
 +
 
 +
In early competitions against the [[User:U5724584#P-35A|Seversky P-35A]] saw the underpowered and more expensive P-35A as the winner in the U.S. government's eyes, however, the United States Army Air Command (USAAC) went ahead and placed an order for three Y1P-36 prototypes as a backup contingency fighter. When delivered, the Y1P-36 (Model 75E) had been outfitted with the 900 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-13 Twin Wasp engine. Due to this version of the aircraft performing so well, an order for 210 P-36-A fighters was placed.<ref name=JoeB></ref><ref name=MilFac></ref>
 +
 
 +
The P-36 was known as an outstanding turning aircraft due to its extremely low wing loading and had a beefy power-to-weight ratio of 0.186 hp/lb that placed this aircraft as one of the best climbing aircraft of the time.<ref name=AviHis></ref> One drawback noted was that the P-36 was not outfitted with a supercharger which hampered its ability to operate at high altitudes, requiring it to stay under 10,000 ft in altitude.<ref name=MilFac></ref> For all of this aircraft’s positive attributes and unfortunate shortcomings, it performed well mostly for other nations such as Finland where the Hawk was known as "Sussu" or Finnish for "Sweetheart" as between 58 Finnish pilots flying the Hawk, they scored 190.3 aerial victories. The P-36 was the proving ground and stepping stone to the later great fighter, the [[P-40 (Family)|P-40]].
  
 
== General info ==
 
== General info ==
=== Flight Performance ===
+
=== Flight performance ===
''Describe how the aircraft behaves in the air. Maximum speed, maneuverability, speed and allowable loads - these are the most important characteristics of the vehicle.''
+
<!--''Describe how the aircraft behaves in the air. Speed, manoeuvrability, acceleration and allowable loads - these are the most important characteristics of the vehicle.''-->
 +
 
 +
The {{PAGENAME}} is a relatively easy fighter aircraft to fly and requires only a relatively short space to both take-off and land. During World War II the P-36 was ferried over to Pearl Harbor aboard an aircraft carrier from which they took off and then landed at the Army Air Corps base.<ref name=MilFac></ref> In the game, due to the very low stall speed, the P-36 can land on an aircraft carrier to a complete stop and take off again. Due to the fantastically low wing loading rate of 23.9 lb/ft<sup>2</sup><ref name=JoeB></ref>, this fighter is an excellent turning aircraft and accompanied by a strong rudder can spiral climb easily, especially during WEP cycles. This aircraft has the advantage of being both a turn fighter and a Boom & Zoom fighter, depending on the situation, type of aircraft which are flying against and mission type. The P-36 will out-turn many fighters of its rank and can prove difficult to follow if attempting to shoot it down. The [[P-36A]] and {{PAGENAME}} utilise the same engine, however with the extra two machine guns and associated ammunition, the C model lags slightly behind the A with flight characteristics, but not noticeable enough for the upgrading pilot to realize while manoeuvring the aircraft. The trade-off for more guns vs. slightly hampered flight model is well worth it.
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="8" | Characteristics
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="8" | ''Stock''
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" | Max Speed<br>(km/h at 3,048 m)
 +
! rowspan="2" | Max altitude<br>(meters)
 +
! colspan="2" | Turn time<br>(seconds)
 +
! colspan="2" | Rate of climb<br>(meters/second)
 +
! rowspan="2" | Take-off run<br>(meters)
 +
|-
 +
! AB
 +
! RB
 +
! AB
 +
! RB
 +
! AB
 +
! RB
 +
|-
 +
| 480 || 464 || {{Specs|ceiling}} || 17.7 || 18.1 || 7.1 || 7.1 || 183
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="8" | ''Upgraded''
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" | Max Speed<br>(km/h at 3,048 m)
 +
! rowspan="2" | Max altitude<br>(meters)
 +
! colspan="2" | Turn time<br>(seconds)
 +
! colspan="2" | Rate of climb<br>(meters/second)
 +
! rowspan="2" | Take-off run<br>(meters)
 +
|-
 +
! AB
 +
! RB
 +
! AB
 +
! RB
 +
! AB
 +
! RB
 +
|-
 +
| 524 || 501 || {{Specs|ceiling}} || 16.8 || 17.0 || 15.2 || 10.6 || 183
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==== Details ====
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="5" | Features
 +
|-
 +
! Combat flaps
 +
! Take-off flaps
 +
! Landing flaps
 +
! Air brakes
 +
! Arrestor gear
 +
|-
 +
| ✓ || ✓ || ✓ || X || X    <!-- ✓ -->
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="5" | Limits
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="2" | Wing-break speed<br>(km/h)
 +
! rowspan="2" | Gear limit<br>(km/h)
 +
! rowspan="2" | Combat flaps<br>(km/h)
 +
! colspan="2" | Max Static G
 +
|-
 +
! +
 +
! -
 +
|-
 +
| {{Specs|destruction|constructions}} || {{Specs|destruction|chassis}} || 520 || ~11 || ~6
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="4" | Optimal velocities
 +
|-
 +
! Ailerons<br>(km/h)
 +
! Rudder<br>(km/h)
 +
! Elevators<br>(km/h)
 +
! Radiator<br>(km/h)
 +
|-
 +
| < 290 || < 380 || < 420 || > 300
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="3" | Compressor (RB/SB)
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="3" | Setting 1
 +
|-
 +
! Optimal altitude
 +
! 100% Engine power
 +
! WEP Engine power
 +
|-
 +
| 1,981 m || 1,050 hp || 1,219 hp
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
 
=== Survivability and armour ===
''Examine the survivability of the aircraft. Note how vulnerable the structure is and how secure the pilot is, whether the fuel tanks are armoured. Describe the armour, if there is any, also mention the vulnerability of other critical aircraft systems.''
+
<!-- ''Examine the survivability of the aircraft. Note how vulnerable the structure is and how secure the pilot is, whether the fuel tanks are armoured, etc. Describe the armour, if there is any, and also mention the vulnerability of other critical aircraft systems.'' -->
 +
* 9.5 mm armoured pilot seat
 +
* Self-sealing fuel tanks
 +
 
 +
As with many early pre-war fighters, not much emphasis was put on the survivability of the aircraft. The best course of action was for the pilot to not let anyone get behind them. The {{PAGENAME}}’s only sources of protection for the pilot is the engine block and the 9.5 mm (angled at 24° for effective thickness of 13 mm), that being said, depending on the engine block to save the pilot may do so at the expense of the engine, thus requiring the pilot to glide back to base if possible or bailout. There are also two unprotected oil coolers if which are punctured, the aircraft will leak oil until depleted eventually causing the engine to seize up.
  
== Weaponry ==
+
== Armaments ==
=== Offensive weaponry ===
+
=== Offensive armament ===
''Describe the offensive weaponry of the aircraft, if any. Describe how effective the cannons and machine guns are in a battle, and also what belts or drums are better to use. If there is no offensive weaponry, delete this subsection.''
+
<!-- ''Describe the offensive armament of the aircraft, if any. Describe how effective the cannons and machine guns are in a battle, and also what belts or drums are better to use. If there is no offensive weaponry, delete this subsection.'' -->
 +
{{main|Browning M2 (12.7 mm)|Browning (7.62 mm)}}
  
=== Suspended weaponry ===
+
The '''''{{PAGENAME}}''''' is armed with:
''Describe the aircraft's suspended weapons: additional cannons under the wings, bombs, rockets and torpedoes. This section is especially important for bombers and attackers. If there is no suspended weaponry remove this subsection.''
+
* 1 x 12.7 mm Browning M2 machine gun, nose-mounted (200 rpg)
 +
* 1 x 7.62 mm Browning machine gun, nose-mounted (500 rpg)
 +
* 2 x 7.62 mm Browning machine guns, wing-mounted (500 rpg = 1,000 total)
  
=== Defensive weaponry ===
+
Armament weaknesses found in the [[P-36A]] were addressed when outfitting the {{PAGENAME}} fighter, as the armament of a single 12.7 mm and 7.62 mm machine gun was found lacking. While the engine cowling was already crowded and no more machine guns could be centrally mounted which required wing modifications to install two more 7.62 machine guns, one in each wing. For this aircraft, two machine guns are mounted in the engine cowl and fire through the propeller arc while the other two are mounted one in each wing. Due to the wing-mounted machine guns, convergence is a factor to deal with with the optimal range being 100 - 200 m, anything beyond this will still work, however, the bullets significantly start losing their punch. The increase in armament increased the damage output ability of the fighter, however, the next generation P-36, the [[P-36G]] increased the deadliness of the fighter by adding two more wing-mounted machine guns for a total of six guns. Options in ammunition will allow the pilot to select the type best suited for their mission whether it be as an interceptor, ground target hunter or a stealthy pouncer.
''Defensive weaponry with turret machine guns or cannons, crewed by gunners. Examine the number of gunners and what belts or drums are better to use. If defensive weaponry is not available remove this subsection.''
 
  
== Usage in the battles ==
+
;Option 1 Configuration (optimal 200 - 400 m convergence)
''Describe the tactics of playing in an aircraft, the features of using vehicles in a team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but give the reader food for thought. Examine the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).''
+
*12.7 mm = Ground target rounds
 +
*7.62 mm = Stealth round
 +
* The use of ground target rounds gives you access to hard-hitting ammunition rounds with tracers to help guide in the rounds, however, the 7.62 mm should be set up with stealth rounds as providing a good mix of armour-piercing and incendiary rounds without the tell-tale tracers. Without the tell-tale show of tracers flying by, the pilot of the aircraft may assume a weakly armed aircraft is on their tail with intermittent tracers from the 12.7 mm machine gun. This can be a huge advantage for the attacking aircraft by sneaking in a large amount of lead and incendiaries while still having the ability to walk in the shots with the tracers (especially helpful in realistic and simulator battles where the aiming helper is not available for use).
 +
 
 +
==== 12.7 mm ammunition ====
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! colspan="1" | Belt Type
 +
! colspan="1" | 1st Round
 +
! colspan="1" | 2nd Round
 +
! colspan="1" | 3rd Round
 +
! colspan="1" | 4th Round
 +
! colspan="1" | 5th Round
 +
|-
 +
| Default
 +
| T
 +
| Ball
 +
| I
 +
| AP
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| Universal
 +
| AP
 +
| AP
 +
| AP
 +
| T
 +
| I
 +
|-
 +
| Ground targets
 +
| T
 +
| AP
 +
| AP
 +
| AP
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| Tracers
 +
| T
 +
| T
 +
| T
 +
| AP
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|Stealth
 +
| AP
 +
| I
 +
| AP
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="6"|<small><small>T = M1 ''Tracer bullet''; Ball = M2 ''Omni purpose bullet''; I = M1 ''Incendary bullet''; AP = M2 ''Armor piercing bullet''</small></small>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==== 7.62 mm ammunition ====
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! colspan="1" | Belt Type
 +
! colspan="1" | 1<sup>st</sup> Round
 +
! colspan="1" | 2<sup>nd</sup> Round
 +
! colspan="1" | 3<sup>rd</sup> Round
 +
! colspan="1" | 4<sup>th</sup> Round
 +
! colspan="1" | 5<sup>th</sup> Round
 +
! colspan="1" | 6<small>th</small> Round
 +
|-
 +
| Default
 +
| T
 +
| Ball
 +
| Ball
 +
| Ball
 +
| AP
 +
| I
 +
|-
 +
| Universal
 +
| T
 +
| AP
 +
| I
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| Tracers
 +
| AP
 +
| T
 +
| T
 +
| T
 +
| T
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|Stealth
 +
| AP
 +
| AP
 +
| AP
 +
| I
 +
| I
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="7"|<small><small>T = ''Tracer bullet''; Ball = ''Omni purpose bullet''; I = ''Incendary bullet''; AP = ''Armor piercing bullet''</small></small>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
This aircraft does not have the option to select any additional suspended armaments nor does it have any defensive weapons to counter any attackers.
 +
 
 +
== Usage in battles ==
 +
<!-- ''Describe the tactics of playing in an aircraft, the features of using aircraft in a team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view, but instead, give the reader food for thought. Examine the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).'' -->
 +
Energy retention lends this fighter to be a great zoomer, dropping in for a shot and then speeding back up to regain the energy advantage. With this aircraft having such a low stall speed; it makes a great fighter to practice Rope-a-dope energy depletion manoeuvres. This requires the P-36 pilot to bait another fighter into following them in a climb, as the attacker attempts to get guns on, the P-36 pilot can start to spiral climb which will cause the attacking aircraft to pull a tighter circle haemorrhaging their energy. If done correctly, the attacking fighter will stall out and be completely helpless as they begin to fall back to the ground allowing the P-36 to roll over or Split-S and take out the stalled fighter below.
 +
 
 +
Most fighters are typically only good at one thing whether its turning, speed or weapon systems, however, the P-36 is good at two, speeding and turning. This fighter has the ability to not only zoom attack but can also turn fight competitively with most other aircraft. There are few aircraft (notably the A6M Zero fighters of the Imperial Japanese Navy) which may outshine while turning, however, when utilizing flaps and rudder while turning, the P-36 can manoeuvre into some tight turns and allow guns to get on target.
 +
 
 +
Even with all of its power and mobility, the P-36 is a relatively fragile aircraft. Without much armour on the aircraft, many of its critical systems are exposed and it will not take much even from lower calibre machine guns to cause fuel fires, oil leaks and the engine shutdowns, not to mention a knocked out pilot. Situational awareness is critical to potentially know not only where the targets are, but also the enemy aircraft which are manoeuvring into position and ready to pounce. The weakness of only having four machine guns will require the pilot to get in close (50 – 200 m) to make the most of their shots as anywhere past 150 m, bullet penetration drops off considerably.
 +
 
 +
=== Manual Engine Control ===
 +
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="7" | MEC elements
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="2" | Mixer
 +
! rowspan="2" | Pitch
 +
! colspan="3" | Radiator
 +
! rowspan="2" | Supercharger
 +
! rowspan="2" | Turbocharger
 +
|-
 +
! Oil
 +
! Water
 +
! Type
 +
|-
 +
| Not controllable || rowspan="2" | Controllable<br>Not auto controlled || rowspan="2" | Not controllable<br>Auto control available || rowspan="2" | Controllable<br>Not auto controlled || rowspan="2" | Combined || rowspan="2" | Not controllable<br>1 gear || rowspan="2" | Not controllable
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
=== Modules ===
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! colspan="1" | Tier
 +
! colspan="2" | Flight performance
 +
! colspan="1" | Survivability
 +
! colspan="1" | Weaponry
 +
|-
 +
| I
 +
| Fuselage repair
 +
| Radiator
 +
|
 +
| Offensive 7 mm
 +
|-
 +
| II
 +
|
 +
| Compressor
 +
| Airframe
 +
| New 7 mm MGs
 +
|-
 +
| III
 +
| Wings repair
 +
| Engine
 +
|
 +
| Offensive 12 mm
 +
|-
 +
| IV
 +
|
 +
| Engine injection
 +
| Cover
 +
| New 12 mm MGs
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
 
=== Pros and cons ===
 
=== Pros and cons ===
''Summarize and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in the bulleted list. Do not use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - they have a substitution in the form of softer "inadequate", "effective".''
+
<!-- ''Summarise and briefly evaluate the vehicle in terms of its characteristics and combat effectiveness. Mark its pros and cons in the bulleted list. Try not to use more than 6 points for each of the characteristics. Avoid using categorical definitions such as "bad", "good" and the like - use substitutions with softer forms such as "inadequate" and "effective".'' -->
  
 
'''Pros:'''
 
'''Pros:'''
*
+
* Excellent climb speed
 +
* Excellent dive speed
 +
* Better-than-average turn-radius
 +
* Good energy retention for Boom & Zoom manoeuvres
 +
* Two more machine guns (four total) for increased firepower over the [[P-36A]]
  
 
'''Cons:'''
 
'''Cons:'''
*
+
* Less effective weapons compared to contemporary aircraft
 +
* No suspended armament options
 +
* Less-than-average roll rate at high speeds
 +
* Very little armour protection
 +
* Poor in a head-on, engine and pilot exposed
  
== Historical part ==
+
== History ==
''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the aircraft in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too big, take it to a separate article, taking a link to an article about the vehicle and adding a block "/ historical reference" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/index.php?title=Name-vehicles/historical reference) and add a link to it here using the main template. Be sure to include links to sources at the end of the article.''
+
<!--''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the aircraft in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too long, take it to a separate article, taking a link to the article about the vehicle and adding a block "/ History" (example: <nowiki>https://wiki.warthunder.com/(Vehicle-name)/History</nowiki>) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to reference text and sources by using <code><nowiki><ref></ref></nowiki></code>, as well as adding them at the end of the article with <code><nowiki><references /></nowiki></code>. This section may also include the vehicle's dev blog entry (if applicable) and the in-game encyclopedia description (under <code><nowiki>=== In-game description ===</nowiki></code>, also if applicable).''-->
 +
 
 +
The P-36 Hawk began its life at Curtiss Aeroplane Company as a design in the early 1930s. A private venture by Curtiss, the project was headed up by Donovan A. Berlin, a former Northrop aircraft company engineer who was the principal designer and incorporated design portions of early Northrop designs.<ref name=MilFac></ref> The P-36, at this time known as the X-17Y, was a stretch from the biplane years by utilizing an all-metal low-wing monoplane with fabric-covered control surfaces. This aircraft also featured retractable landing gear, which utilized a design put forward by Boeing Aircraft Company and required royalties to be paid to Boeing for every aircraft in which this landing gear was installed.<ref name=JoeB></ref><ref name=AviHis></ref> Initial weapon load-outs included the standard 12.7 mm and 7.62 mm machine guns, both of which were mounted in the forward fuselage deck and fired through openings in the cowling, synchronized to fire through the propeller arc.<ref name=AviHis></ref>
 +
 
 +
The initial flight took place in 1935 and when it was presented at a competition the next year, the competitor aircraft (Seversky SEV-2XP/P-35) was heavily damaged in transit. While Seversky took their aircraft back to perform repairs and modifications, Curtiss took the opportunity during this time to make some modifications of their own, and namely replacing the Wright XR-1670-5 twin-row air-cooled radial engine with the upgraded Write XR-1820-39 Cyclone radial.<ref name=MilFac></ref> With the Seversky aircraft repaired, the competition was back on. Even though the Seversky aircraft underperformed and was more expensive than Curtis X-17Y, it was selected and an order of 77 aircraft were put in for, however later the Material Division of the USAAC contacted Curtis and put in an order for three examples as they were becoming nervous about Seversky's ability to deliver their aircraft on time. Curtiss worked on modifying the P-36 by again upgrading the motor and working on the cockpit, especially increasing the amount of area behind the cockpit where the pilot could see. During the 1937 competition, test pilots who piloted the P-36 all commented that the aircraft responded to pilot input favourable and at all speeds and even noted that it handled well on the ground while taxiing. With such a reaction from the test pilots, the USAAC put in an order for 210 P-36A fighters, which at that time was the largest single US military aircraft order since World War I.<ref name=JoeB></ref>
 +
 
 +
As the P-36 fighters began to roll off the assembly line, they were shipped to US squadrons, however, problems developed with the aircraft which left them grounded while waiting repairs. The P-36 continued to have problems, however, four P-36A fighters stationed at Wheeler Air Field in Hawaii were able to get airborne and attach a flight of Nakajima B5N1 torpedo bombers, claiming two shot down and gaining the first US fighter aircraft "kills" of the Pacific War. Despite this action, the P-36 fighters were withdrawn from combat outfits and sent to training units for new pilots to train on. While the P-36 did not see much action with the U.S., it did see combat action while flown by other nations such as France and Finland where they put the little fighter to the test and were highly successful with it. 10 P-36A training fighters were transferred in 1942 to Brazil where they remained in service until 1954.<ref name=JoeB></ref>
 +
 
 +
=== In-game description ===
 +
The P-36A's "teething problems" were so serious that its introduction was halted in several squadrons and flights with the new fighters were limited. Many of the planes were left grounded and waiting for the modernization they needed.
 +
 
 +
The Curtiss company had to fix the situation quickly. The measures they took resulted in the creation of the new P-36C model with a strengthened airframe and improved exhaust system.
 +
 
 +
They also made modifications to the powerplant – the new model was powered by the air-cooled Pratt & Whitney R-1830-17 Twin Wasp engine with a maximum output of 1,200 hp.
 +
 
 +
The P-36A's firepower was inferior to that of European fighters of the time, such as the Spitfire and Bf.109D, so its armament was enhanced. Two more 7.62 mm Colt-Browning ANM2.3 machine guns with 500 rounds each were mounted on the wing panels, supplementing the two synchronized machine guns the plane already possessed.
 +
 
 +
These Brownings were equipped with special containers mounted under the wing for the collection of spent shell casings. This was done to prevent changes to the plane's center of gravity as its ammunition was used.
 +
 
 +
In spite of its increased flight weight of 2,630 kg, the new engine increased the plane's maximum speed, which reached the round number of 500 km/h at a height of 3,000 m.
 +
 
 +
A total of 30 P-36C planes were produced.
 +
 
 +
By the time Japan attacked the USA, most P-36 planes still in service were being used as training vehicles. However, they were still present in fighter squadrons in distant regions such as Alaska, the Panama Canal Zone and Hawaii. It was these planes that had to go into battle against the attacking enemy.
 +
 
 +
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, there were 45 P-36As in Hawaii, 44 of which were part of the three squadrons and command division of the 15th PG. Ten of the Hawks were destroyed or damaged in attacks on airfields. After the first wave from the Japanese, four standby P-36s from the 46th Pursuit Squadron were able to take off and chase the retreating group of 11 B5N2 torpedo bombers and A6M fighters. In the resulting battle, they shot down two Japanese planes, making these the first USAAC conquests in the Pacific War. On the same day, P-36s made another 14 combat flights in search of Japanese aircraft carriers.
 +
 
 +
The American Hawks ended their combat operations there. P-36 planes were quickly removed from active service and given to training subdivisions, which used them until mid-1943.
  
 
== Media ==
 
== Media ==
''Прекрасным дополнением к статье станут видеогайды, а также скриншоты из игры и фотографии.''
+
<!--Excellent additions to the article would be video guides, screenshots from the game, and photos.-->
 +
{{Youtube-gallery|58jMcWoTkew|''War Thunder Talisman Series - P-36C Hawk/Hardy Hawk'' - '''Hairyfeet'''|u6vkPdnQb0A|''War Thunder Arcade: P-36C Hawk'' - '''Jengar'''|eYI4vEqLfeE|''War Thunder: The Grind - Spading the P-36C Hawk'' - '''The Digital Time Traveller'''}}
 +
 
 +
*[http://live.warthunder.com/feed/camouflages/?q=%23p36c Skins and camouflages for the P-36C from live.warthunder]
  
== Read also ==
+
== See also ==
''Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example,''
+
<!--Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example:
 
* ''reference to the series of the aircraft;''
 
* ''reference to the series of the aircraft;''
* ''links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.''
+
* ''links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.''-->
''ETC.''
+
* [[P-36 (Family)|Curtiss P-36 and H-75 variations]]
 +
 
 +
;Analogues of other nations
 +
*Polyikarpov [[I-180S]]
 +
*Bloch M.B.150
 +
*[[IAR-81C]]
 +
*Mitsubishi [[A6M (Family)|A6M]] Zero
 +
*Nakijima [[Ki-43 (Family)|Ki-43]]
 +
*Reggiane [[Re.2000 serie 1|Re.2000]]
  
== Sources ==
+
== External links ==
''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
+
<!--''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
 
* ''topic on the official game forum;''
 
* ''topic on the official game forum;''
* ''page on the Wikipedia;''
+
* ''encyclopedia page on the aircraft;''
* ''page on aircraft encyclopedia;''
+
* ''other literature.''-->
* ''other literature.''
+
* Militaryfactory.com website [[https://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=155 Curtiss P-36 Hawk (Hawk 75 / Mohawk)]]
 +
* Aviationhistory.com website [[http://www.aviation-history.com/curtiss/p36.htm The Curtiss P-36 Hawk]]
 +
* Joebaugher.com website [[http://www.joebaugher.com/usaf_fighters/p36_1.html Curtiss P-36A]]
 +
 
 +
== References ==
 +
<references>
 +
<ref name=JoeB> Joebaugher.com website (1999) [[http://www.joebaugher.com/usaf_fighters/p36_1.html Curtiss P-36A]].</ref>
 +
<ref name=MilFac> Militaryfactory.com website (2019) [[https://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=155 Curtiss P-36 Hawk (Hawk 75 / Mohawk).]]</ref>
 +
<ref name=AviHis> Aviationhistory.com website (2007) [[http://www.aviation-history.com/curtiss/p36.htm The Curtiss P-36 Hawk]].</ref>
 +
</references>
 +
 
 +
{{USA fighters}}

Latest revision as of 22:53, 1 September 2019

P-36C Hawk
p-36c.png
Cockpit
AB
RB
SB
General characteristics
Brief
Detailed
2.3/1.7/2.0BR
FighterClass
1 personCrew
2.7 tTake-off weight
Flight characteristics
Pratt & Whitney R-1830-17Engine
RadialType
airCooling system
Speed of destruction
770 km/hStructural
290 km/hGear
Offensive armament
12.7 mm M2 Browning machine gunWeapon 1
200 roundsAmmunition
750 shots/minFire rate
3 x 7.62 mm Browning machine gunWeapon 2
1 500 roundsAmmunition
1 001 shots/minFire rate
Economy
5 900 Rp icon.pngResearch
6 300 Sl icon.pngPurchase
Sl icon.png1 270 / 1 606/970 / 1 227/410 / 518Repair
1 800 Sl icon.pngCrew training
6 300 Sl icon.pngExperts
80 Ge icon.pngAces
× (106) % Rp icon.pngReward for battle
× 1.0 Sl icon.png× 0.8 Sl icon.png× 0.3 Sl icon.png
This page is about the American fighter P-36C. For other versions, see P-36 (Family).

Description

GarageImage P-36CHawk.jpg


The P-36C Hawk is a rank I American fighter with a battle rating of 2.0 (AB), 1.7 (RB), and 2.3 (SB). It was introduced in Update 1.31.

In the early 1930s, the Curtiss-Wright Corporation began a private venture to build a fighter aircraft which was a revolutionary departure from earlier cloth-covered biplanes of World War I. This project aircraft under development was named the Curtiss Hawk Model 75 (later it would be known by P-36 Hawk, Hawk-75 – or just H-75 and Mohawk. The P-36 was an all-metal monoplane (although the control surfaces were fabric-covered) with a 900 hp radial engine, enclosed cockpit and retractable landing gear.[1] Even though this aircraft touted some of the state-of-the-art development in aircraft design, several aspects remained lacking, such as the original two machine guns firing through the propeller arc, a 7.62 mm and 12.7 mm and other critical components such as the absence of armour in the cockpit and self-sealing fuel tanks.

By May 1935 the first prototype flew and attained speeds of 281 mph (452 km/h) and reaching an altitude of 10,000 ft (3,000 m). It wasn’t long before the original 900 hp Write XR-1670-5 radial engine was replaced with an upgrade Wright XR-1820-39 Cyclone at 950 hp and several modifications to the body of the aircraft was completed like the addition of scalloped rear windows which significantly improved the pilots rear view (although the hump on the back of the aircraft still blocked a significant portion of the view).[2][3] This version of the aircraft was designated as Model 75B while oddly enough the earlier version with the 1670-5 was listed as a Model 75D.

In early competitions against the Seversky P-35A saw the underpowered and more expensive P-35A as the winner in the U.S. government's eyes, however, the United States Army Air Command (USAAC) went ahead and placed an order for three Y1P-36 prototypes as a backup contingency fighter. When delivered, the Y1P-36 (Model 75E) had been outfitted with the 900 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-13 Twin Wasp engine. Due to this version of the aircraft performing so well, an order for 210 P-36-A fighters was placed.[2][1]

The P-36 was known as an outstanding turning aircraft due to its extremely low wing loading and had a beefy power-to-weight ratio of 0.186 hp/lb that placed this aircraft as one of the best climbing aircraft of the time.[3] One drawback noted was that the P-36 was not outfitted with a supercharger which hampered its ability to operate at high altitudes, requiring it to stay under 10,000 ft in altitude.[1] For all of this aircraft’s positive attributes and unfortunate shortcomings, it performed well mostly for other nations such as Finland where the Hawk was known as "Sussu" or Finnish for "Sweetheart" as between 58 Finnish pilots flying the Hawk, they scored 190.3 aerial victories. The P-36 was the proving ground and stepping stone to the later great fighter, the P-40.

General info

Flight performance

The P-36C is a relatively easy fighter aircraft to fly and requires only a relatively short space to both take-off and land. During World War II the P-36 was ferried over to Pearl Harbor aboard an aircraft carrier from which they took off and then landed at the Army Air Corps base.[1] In the game, due to the very low stall speed, the P-36 can land on an aircraft carrier to a complete stop and take off again. Due to the fantastically low wing loading rate of 23.9 lb/ft2[2], this fighter is an excellent turning aircraft and accompanied by a strong rudder can spiral climb easily, especially during WEP cycles. This aircraft has the advantage of being both a turn fighter and a Boom & Zoom fighter, depending on the situation, type of aircraft which are flying against and mission type. The P-36 will out-turn many fighters of its rank and can prove difficult to follow if attempting to shoot it down. The P-36A and P-36C utilise the same engine, however with the extra two machine guns and associated ammunition, the C model lags slightly behind the A with flight characteristics, but not noticeable enough for the upgrading pilot to realize while manoeuvring the aircraft. The trade-off for more guns vs. slightly hampered flight model is well worth it.

Characteristics
Stock
Max Speed
(km/h at 3,048 m)
Max altitude
(meters)
Turn time
(seconds)
Rate of climb
(meters/second)
Take-off run
(meters)
AB RB AB RB AB RB
480 464 17.7 18.1 7.1 7.1 183
Upgraded
Max Speed
(km/h at 3,048 m)
Max altitude
(meters)
Turn time
(seconds)
Rate of climb
(meters/second)
Take-off run
(meters)
AB RB AB RB AB RB
524 501 16.8 17.0 15.2 10.6 183

Details

Features
Combat flaps Take-off flaps Landing flaps Air brakes Arrestor gear
X X
Limits
Wing-break speed
(km/h)
Gear limit
(km/h)
Combat flaps
(km/h)
Max Static G
+ -
520 ~11 ~6
Optimal velocities
Ailerons
(km/h)
Rudder
(km/h)
Elevators
(km/h)
Radiator
(km/h)
< 290 < 380 < 420 > 300
Compressor (RB/SB)
Setting 1
Optimal altitude 100% Engine power WEP Engine power
1,981 m 1,050 hp 1,219 hp

Survivability and armour

  • 9.5 mm armoured pilot seat
  • Self-sealing fuel tanks

As with many early pre-war fighters, not much emphasis was put on the survivability of the aircraft. The best course of action was for the pilot to not let anyone get behind them. The P-36C’s only sources of protection for the pilot is the engine block and the 9.5 mm (angled at 24° for effective thickness of 13 mm), that being said, depending on the engine block to save the pilot may do so at the expense of the engine, thus requiring the pilot to glide back to base if possible or bailout. There are also two unprotected oil coolers if which are punctured, the aircraft will leak oil until depleted eventually causing the engine to seize up.

Armaments

Offensive armament

The P-36C is armed with:

  • 1 x 12.7 mm Browning M2 machine gun, nose-mounted (200 rpg)
  • 1 x 7.62 mm Browning machine gun, nose-mounted (500 rpg)
  • 2 x 7.62 mm Browning machine guns, wing-mounted (500 rpg = 1,000 total)

Armament weaknesses found in the P-36A were addressed when outfitting the P-36C fighter, as the armament of a single 12.7 mm and 7.62 mm machine gun was found lacking. While the engine cowling was already crowded and no more machine guns could be centrally mounted which required wing modifications to install two more 7.62 machine guns, one in each wing. For this aircraft, two machine guns are mounted in the engine cowl and fire through the propeller arc while the other two are mounted one in each wing. Due to the wing-mounted machine guns, convergence is a factor to deal with with the optimal range being 100 - 200 m, anything beyond this will still work, however, the bullets significantly start losing their punch. The increase in armament increased the damage output ability of the fighter, however, the next generation P-36, the P-36G increased the deadliness of the fighter by adding two more wing-mounted machine guns for a total of six guns. Options in ammunition will allow the pilot to select the type best suited for their mission whether it be as an interceptor, ground target hunter or a stealthy pouncer.

Option 1 Configuration (optimal 200 - 400 m convergence)
  • 12.7 mm = Ground target rounds
  • 7.62 mm = Stealth round
  • The use of ground target rounds gives you access to hard-hitting ammunition rounds with tracers to help guide in the rounds, however, the 7.62 mm should be set up with stealth rounds as providing a good mix of armour-piercing and incendiary rounds without the tell-tale tracers. Without the tell-tale show of tracers flying by, the pilot of the aircraft may assume a weakly armed aircraft is on their tail with intermittent tracers from the 12.7 mm machine gun. This can be a huge advantage for the attacking aircraft by sneaking in a large amount of lead and incendiaries while still having the ability to walk in the shots with the tracers (especially helpful in realistic and simulator battles where the aiming helper is not available for use).

12.7 mm ammunition

Belt Type 1st Round 2nd Round 3rd Round 4th Round 5th Round
Default T Ball I AP
Universal AP AP AP T I
Ground targets T AP AP AP
Tracers T T T AP
Stealth AP I AP
T = M1 Tracer bullet; Ball = M2 Omni purpose bullet; I = M1 Incendary bullet; AP = M2 Armor piercing bullet

7.62 mm ammunition

Belt Type 1st Round 2nd Round 3rd Round 4th Round 5th Round 6th Round
Default T Ball Ball Ball AP I
Universal T AP I
Tracers AP T T T T
Stealth AP AP AP I I
T = Tracer bullet; Ball = Omni purpose bullet; I = Incendary bullet; AP = Armor piercing bullet

This aircraft does not have the option to select any additional suspended armaments nor does it have any defensive weapons to counter any attackers.

Usage in battles

Energy retention lends this fighter to be a great zoomer, dropping in for a shot and then speeding back up to regain the energy advantage. With this aircraft having such a low stall speed; it makes a great fighter to practice Rope-a-dope energy depletion manoeuvres. This requires the P-36 pilot to bait another fighter into following them in a climb, as the attacker attempts to get guns on, the P-36 pilot can start to spiral climb which will cause the attacking aircraft to pull a tighter circle haemorrhaging their energy. If done correctly, the attacking fighter will stall out and be completely helpless as they begin to fall back to the ground allowing the P-36 to roll over or Split-S and take out the stalled fighter below.

Most fighters are typically only good at one thing whether its turning, speed or weapon systems, however, the P-36 is good at two, speeding and turning. This fighter has the ability to not only zoom attack but can also turn fight competitively with most other aircraft. There are few aircraft (notably the A6M Zero fighters of the Imperial Japanese Navy) which may outshine while turning, however, when utilizing flaps and rudder while turning, the P-36 can manoeuvre into some tight turns and allow guns to get on target.

Even with all of its power and mobility, the P-36 is a relatively fragile aircraft. Without much armour on the aircraft, many of its critical systems are exposed and it will not take much even from lower calibre machine guns to cause fuel fires, oil leaks and the engine shutdowns, not to mention a knocked out pilot. Situational awareness is critical to potentially know not only where the targets are, but also the enemy aircraft which are manoeuvring into position and ready to pounce. The weakness of only having four machine guns will require the pilot to get in close (50 – 200 m) to make the most of their shots as anywhere past 150 m, bullet penetration drops off considerably.

Manual Engine Control

MEC elements
Mixer Pitch Radiator Supercharger Turbocharger
Oil Water Type
Not controllable Controllable
Not auto controlled
Not controllable
Auto control available
Controllable
Not auto controlled
Combined Not controllable
1 gear
Not controllable

Modules

Tier Flight performance Survivability Weaponry
I Fuselage repair Radiator Offensive 7 mm
II Compressor Airframe New 7 mm MGs
III Wings repair Engine Offensive 12 mm
IV Engine injection Cover New 12 mm MGs

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • Excellent climb speed
  • Excellent dive speed
  • Better-than-average turn-radius
  • Good energy retention for Boom & Zoom manoeuvres
  • Two more machine guns (four total) for increased firepower over the P-36A

Cons:

  • Less effective weapons compared to contemporary aircraft
  • No suspended armament options
  • Less-than-average roll rate at high speeds
  • Very little armour protection
  • Poor in a head-on, engine and pilot exposed

History

The P-36 Hawk began its life at Curtiss Aeroplane Company as a design in the early 1930s. A private venture by Curtiss, the project was headed up by Donovan A. Berlin, a former Northrop aircraft company engineer who was the principal designer and incorporated design portions of early Northrop designs.[1] The P-36, at this time known as the X-17Y, was a stretch from the biplane years by utilizing an all-metal low-wing monoplane with fabric-covered control surfaces. This aircraft also featured retractable landing gear, which utilized a design put forward by Boeing Aircraft Company and required royalties to be paid to Boeing for every aircraft in which this landing gear was installed.[2][3] Initial weapon load-outs included the standard 12.7 mm and 7.62 mm machine guns, both of which were mounted in the forward fuselage deck and fired through openings in the cowling, synchronized to fire through the propeller arc.[3]

The initial flight took place in 1935 and when it was presented at a competition the next year, the competitor aircraft (Seversky SEV-2XP/P-35) was heavily damaged in transit. While Seversky took their aircraft back to perform repairs and modifications, Curtiss took the opportunity during this time to make some modifications of their own, and namely replacing the Wright XR-1670-5 twin-row air-cooled radial engine with the upgraded Write XR-1820-39 Cyclone radial.[1] With the Seversky aircraft repaired, the competition was back on. Even though the Seversky aircraft underperformed and was more expensive than Curtis X-17Y, it was selected and an order of 77 aircraft were put in for, however later the Material Division of the USAAC contacted Curtis and put in an order for three examples as they were becoming nervous about Seversky's ability to deliver their aircraft on time. Curtiss worked on modifying the P-36 by again upgrading the motor and working on the cockpit, especially increasing the amount of area behind the cockpit where the pilot could see. During the 1937 competition, test pilots who piloted the P-36 all commented that the aircraft responded to pilot input favourable and at all speeds and even noted that it handled well on the ground while taxiing. With such a reaction from the test pilots, the USAAC put in an order for 210 P-36A fighters, which at that time was the largest single US military aircraft order since World War I.[2]

As the P-36 fighters began to roll off the assembly line, they were shipped to US squadrons, however, problems developed with the aircraft which left them grounded while waiting repairs. The P-36 continued to have problems, however, four P-36A fighters stationed at Wheeler Air Field in Hawaii were able to get airborne and attach a flight of Nakajima B5N1 torpedo bombers, claiming two shot down and gaining the first US fighter aircraft "kills" of the Pacific War. Despite this action, the P-36 fighters were withdrawn from combat outfits and sent to training units for new pilots to train on. While the P-36 did not see much action with the U.S., it did see combat action while flown by other nations such as France and Finland where they put the little fighter to the test and were highly successful with it. 10 P-36A training fighters were transferred in 1942 to Brazil where they remained in service until 1954.[2]

In-game description

The P-36A's "teething problems" were so serious that its introduction was halted in several squadrons and flights with the new fighters were limited. Many of the planes were left grounded and waiting for the modernization they needed.

The Curtiss company had to fix the situation quickly. The measures they took resulted in the creation of the new P-36C model with a strengthened airframe and improved exhaust system.

They also made modifications to the powerplant – the new model was powered by the air-cooled Pratt & Whitney R-1830-17 Twin Wasp engine with a maximum output of 1,200 hp.

The P-36A's firepower was inferior to that of European fighters of the time, such as the Spitfire and Bf.109D, so its armament was enhanced. Two more 7.62 mm Colt-Browning ANM2.3 machine guns with 500 rounds each were mounted on the wing panels, supplementing the two synchronized machine guns the plane already possessed.

These Brownings were equipped with special containers mounted under the wing for the collection of spent shell casings. This was done to prevent changes to the plane's center of gravity as its ammunition was used.

In spite of its increased flight weight of 2,630 kg, the new engine increased the plane's maximum speed, which reached the round number of 500 km/h at a height of 3,000 m.

A total of 30 P-36C planes were produced.

By the time Japan attacked the USA, most P-36 planes still in service were being used as training vehicles. However, they were still present in fighter squadrons in distant regions such as Alaska, the Panama Canal Zone and Hawaii. It was these planes that had to go into battle against the attacking enemy.

When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, there were 45 P-36As in Hawaii, 44 of which were part of the three squadrons and command division of the 15th PG. Ten of the Hawks were destroyed or damaged in attacks on airfields. After the first wave from the Japanese, four standby P-36s from the 46th Pursuit Squadron were able to take off and chase the retreating group of 11 B5N2 torpedo bombers and A6M fighters. In the resulting battle, they shot down two Japanese planes, making these the first USAAC conquests in the Pacific War. On the same day, P-36s made another 14 combat flights in search of Japanese aircraft carriers.

The American Hawks ended their combat operations there. P-36 planes were quickly removed from active service and given to training subdivisions, which used them until mid-1943.

Media

War Thunder Talisman Series - P-36C Hawk/Hardy Hawk - Hairyfeet
War Thunder Arcade: P-36C Hawk - Jengar
War Thunder: The Grind - Spading the P-36C Hawk - The Digital Time Traveller

See also

Analogues of other nations

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Militaryfactory.com website (2019) [Curtiss P-36 Hawk (Hawk 75 / Mohawk).]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Joebaugher.com website (1999) [Curtiss P-36A].
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Aviationhistory.com website (2007) [The Curtiss P-36 Hawk].


USA fighters
P-26 Peashooter  P-26A-33 Peashooter · P-26A-34 Peashooter · P-26A-34 M2 Peashooter · P-26B-35 Peashooter
P-36 Hawk  P-36A Hawk · Rasmussen's P-36A Hawk · P-36C Hawk · P-36G Hawk
P-39 Airacobra  P-400 · P-39N-0 Airacobra · P-39Q-5 Airacobra
P-40  P-40C Warhawk · P-40E-1 Warhawk · P-40F-10 Warhawk
P-43 Lancer  P-43A-1
P-47 Thunderbolt  P-47D-25 Thunderbolt · P-47D-28 · Bostwick's P-47M-1-RE Thunderbolt · ⋠Lanovski's P-47M-1-RE Thunderbolt · P-47N-15 Thunderbolt
P-51 Mustang  P-51 Mustang · P-51A (Thunder League) · P-51D-5 Mustang · Wetmore's P-51D-10 Mustang · P-51D-20-NA Mustang · P-51D-30 Mustang · P-51H-5-NA
P-63 Kingcobra  P-63A-5 · P-63A-10 · P-63C-5 · ␠Kingcobra
Prototypes  XP-55 Ascender
F2A Buffalo  F2A-1 Buffalo · John Thach's F2A-1 Buffalo · F2A-3 Buffalo
F3F  F3F-2 · Galer's F3F-2
F4F Wildcat  F4F-3 · F4F-4 Wildcat
F4U Corsair  F4U-1A Corsair · F4U-1A (USMC) Corsair · F4U-1D Corsair · F4U-1C Corsair · F4U-4 Corsair · F4U-4B Corsair · F4U-4B VMF-214
F6F Hellcat  F6F-5 Hellcat · F6F-5N
F8F Bearcat  F8F-1 Bearcat · F8F-1B Bearcat
Other countries  ▃Ki-43-II Hayabusa · ▃Ki-61-Ib Hien · ▃A6M2 Reisen · ▃Bf 109 F-4 · ▃Fw 190 A-8 · ▃Spitfire LF Mk IXc