Difference between revisions of "H-75A-1"

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{{Specs-Card|code=h-75a-1_france}}
 
{{Specs-Card|code=h-75a-1_france}}
{{Notice|''This page is about the aircraft '''{{PAGENAME}}'''. For other uses, see [[P-36_(Disambiguation)|P-36 (Disambiguation)]]''}}
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{{About
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| about = French fighter '''{{PAGENAME}}'''
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| usage = other versions
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| link = P-36 (Family)
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}}
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== Description ==
 
== Description ==
<!--''In the description, the first part needs to be about the history of and the creation and combat usage of the aircraft, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the aircraft in the game. Insert screenshot of the vehicle. If the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, he will immediately understand what kind of vehicle it is talking about.''-->
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<!--''In the description, the first part needs to be about the history of and the creation and combat usage of the aircraft, as well as its key features. In the second part, tell the reader about the aircraft in the game. Insert a screenshot of the vehicle. If the novice player does not remember the vehicle by name, he will immediately understand what kind of vehicle it is talking about.''-->
 
[[File:GarageImage_H75A1.jpg|420px|thumb|left]]
 
[[File:GarageImage_H75A1.jpg|420px|thumb|left]]
 
{{break}}
 
{{break}}
The '''{{Specs|name}}''' is a Rank {{Specs|rank}} French fighter {{Battle-rating|5}}.. It was introduced in [[Update 1.75 "La Résistance"]].
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The '''{{Specs|name}}''' is a rank {{Specs|rank}} French fighter {{Battle-rating}}.. It was introduced in [[Update 1.75 "La Résistance"]].
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In the early 1930s, the Curtiss-Wright Corporation began a private venture to build a fighter aircraft which was a revolutionary departure from earlier cloth-covered biplanes of World War I. This project aircraft under development was named the Curtiss Hawk Model 75 (later it would be known by P-36 Hawk, Hawk-75 – or just H-75 and Mohawk. The P-36 was an all-metal monoplane (although the control surfaces were fabric-covered) with a 900 hp radial engine, enclosed cockpit and retractable landing gear.<ref name=MilFac></ref> Even though this aircraft touted some of the state-of-the-art development in aircraft design, several aspects remained lacking, such as the original two machine guns firing through the propeller arc, a 7.62 mm and 12.7 mm and other critical components such as the absence of armour in the cockpit and self-sealing fuel tanks.
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By May 1935 the first prototype flew and attained speeds of 281 mph (452 km/h) and reaching an altitude of 10,000 ft (3,000 m). It wasn’t long before the original 900 hp Write XR-1670-5 radial engine was replaced with an upgrade Wright XR-1820-39 Cyclone at 950 hp and several modifications to the body of the aircraft was completed like the addition of scalloped rear windows which significantly improved the pilots rear view (although the hump on the back of the aircraft still blocked a significant portion of the view).<ref name=JoeB></ref><ref name=AviHis></ref> This version of the aircraft was designated as Model 75B while oddly enough the earlier version with the 1670-5 was listed as a Model 75D.
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In early competitions against the [[User:U5724584#P-35A|Seversky P-35A]] saw the underpowered and more expensive P-35A as the winner in the U.S. government's eyes, however, the United States Army Air Command (USAAC) went ahead and placed an order for three Y1P-36 prototypes as a backup contingency fighter. When delivered, the Y1P-36 (Model 75E) had been outfitted with the 900 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-13 Twin Wasp engine. Due to this version of the aircraft performing so well, an order for 210 P-36-A fighters was placed.<ref name=JoeB></ref><ref name=MilFac></ref>
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The P-36 was known as an outstanding turning aircraft due to its extremely low wing loading and had a beefy power-to-weight ratio of 0.186 hp/lb that placed this aircraft as one of the best climbing aircraft of the time.<ref name=AviHis></ref> One drawback noted was that the P-36 was not outfitted with a supercharger which hampered its ability to operate at high altitudes, requiring it to stay under 10,000 ft in altitude.<ref name=MilFac></ref> For all of this aircraft’s positive attributes and unfortunate shortcomings, it performed well mostly for other nations such as Finland where the Hawk was known as "Sussu" or Finnish for "Sweetheart" as between 58 Finnish pilots flying the Hawk, they scored 190.3 aerial victories. The P-36 was the proving ground and stepping stone to the later great fighter, the [[P-40 (Family)|P-40]].
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The {{PAGENAME}} export version of the [[P-36C]] which is an all-round very effective fighter in War Thunder. It has an excellent turn rate and its top speed of 560 km/h at low altitude is very impressive, as it can outrun most of its competitors. Without a turbocharger, this aircraft suffers at altitudes above 3,000 m (10,000 ft). Its fiercest opponent is the [[Bf 109 E-1|Bf 109]], against which it loses most notably in the climbing department. To survive against these in realistic battles and simulator battles, it is important not to use WEP outside of combat, as whereas WEP itself is infinite, the plane's cooling capacity is not – attentive pilots will notice that it decreases with time if they push WEP too hard — at the beginning of a flyout, the H-75A-1's engine will only show signs of overheating at 235ºC(455ºF), whereas after pushing WEP too hard, the engine will begin to struggle at 225ºC. Engine management is as such one of the crucial skills for mastering this plane. With the engine weakened from overheating, a player will find it hard to beat a Bf 109 if in an energy disadvantage. With a healthier engine, the pilot can keep the engine roaring at full power so as to endure sustained manoeuvring without eventually stalling and dropping like a rotten apple from a tree.
  
The H-75 is an all-round very effective fighter in War Thunder. It has an excellent turn rate and its top speed of 560 km/h at low altitude is very impressive, as it can outrun most of its competitors. Its fiercest opponent is the [[Bf 109 E-1|Bf 109]], against which it loses most notably in the climbing department. To survive against these in realistic battles and simulator battles, it is important not to use WEP outside of combat, as whereas WEP itself is infinite, the plane's cooling capacity is not – attentive pilots will notice that it decreases with time if they push WEP too hard — at the beginning of a fly out, the H-75 A-1's engine will only show signs of overheating at 235ºC(455ºF), whereas after pushing WEP too hard, the engine will begin to struggle at 225ºC. Engine management is as such one of the crucial skills for mastering this plane. With the engine weakened from overheating, a player will find it hard to beat a Bf 109 if in an energy disadvantage. With a healthier engine, the pilot can keep the engine roaring at full power so as to endure sustained maneuvering without eventually stalling and dropping like a rotten apple from a tree.
 
 
== General info ==
 
== General info ==
 
=== Flight Performance ===
 
=== Flight Performance ===
<!--''Describe how the aircraft behaves in the air. Maximum speed, maneuverability, speed and allowable loads - these are the most important characteristics of the vehicle.''-->
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<!--''Describe how the aircraft behaves in the air. Maximum speed, manoeuvrability, speed and allowable loads - these are the most important characteristics of the vehicle.''-->
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The {{PAGENAME}} is a relatively easy fighter aircraft to fly and requires only a relatively short space to both take-off and land. Due to the fantastically low wing loading rate of 23.9 lb/ft<sup>2</sup><ref name=JoeB></ref>, this fighter is an excellent turning aircraft and accompanied by a strong rudder can spiral climb easily, especially during WEP cycles. This aircraft has the advantage of being both a turn fighter and a Boom & Zoom fighter, depending on the situation, type of aircraft which are flying against and mission type. The {{PAGENAME}} will out-turn many fighters of its rank and can prove difficult to follow if attempting to shoot it down. The [[P-36A]], [[P-36C]] and {{PAGENAME}} utilise the same engine, however with the extra two machine guns and associated ammunition, the {{PAGENAME}} model lags slightly behind the A with flight characteristics, but not noticeable enough for the upgrading pilot to realize while manoeuvring the aircraft. The trade-off for more guns vs. slightly hampered flight model is well worth it.
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
 
|-
 
|-
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* 9.5 mm steel plate behind the pilot.
 
* 9.5 mm steel plate behind the pilot.
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As with many early pre-war fighters, not much emphasis was put on the survivability of the aircraft. The best course of action was for the pilot to not let anyone get behind them. The {{PAGENAME}}’s only sources of protection for the pilot is the engine block and the 9.5 mm (angled at 24° for effective thickness of 13 mm), that being said, depending on the engine block to save the pilot may do so at the expense of the engine, thus requiring the pilot to glide back to base if possible or bailout. There are also two unprotected oil coolers if which are punctured, the aircraft will leak oil until depleted eventually causing the engine to seize up.
  
 
== Armaments ==
 
== Armaments ==
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* 2 x 7.5 mm [[Fabrique Nationale Mle 38 (7.5 mm)|Mle 38]] machine guns (500 rpg = 1,000 total)
 
* 2 x 7.5 mm [[Fabrique Nationale Mle 38 (7.5 mm)|Mle 38]] machine guns (500 rpg = 1,000 total)
  
The four machine guns are arranged with two wing-mounted and the other two mounted in the nose of the aircraft. The wing mounted and nose mounted guns have differing amounts of ammunitions, which means that the nose guns will continue to fire after the wing mounted guns become empty.
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Armament weaknesses found in the early [[P-36A]] were addressed when outfitting the {{PAGENAME}} fighter as instead of installing a 12.7 mm machine gun and a 7.62 mm, four 7.5 mm Mle 38s were installed. Lacking the punch of the 12.7 mm, this fighter has to make due without the more powerful machine gun. While the engine cowling was already crowded and no more machine guns could be centrally mounted which required wing modifications to install two more 7.5 machine guns, one in each wing. For this aircraft, two machine guns are mounted in the engine cowl and fire through the propeller arc while the other two are mounted one in each wing. Due to the wing-mounted machine guns, convergence is a factor to deal with with the optimal range being 100 - 200 m, anything beyond this will still work, however, the bullets significantly start losing their punch. The increase in armament increased the damage output ability of the fighter, however, the next generation H-75, the [[H-75A-4]] increased the deadliness of the fighter by adding two more wing-mounted machine guns for a total of six guns. Options in ammunition will allow the pilot to select the type best suited for their mission whether it be as an interceptor, ground target hunter or a stealthy pouncer.
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;Option 1 Configuration (optimal 200 - 400 m convergence)
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*7.5 mm x 1 = Tracer rounds
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*7.5 mm x 3 = Stealth round
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* One machine gun should be set up with tracer rounds to allow for tracking of shots, especially when walking the rounds onto the target, however, the other 7.5 mm guns should be set up with stealth rounds as providing a good mix of armour-piercing and incendiary rounds without the tell-tale tracers. Without the tell-tale show of tracers flying by, the pilot of the aircraft may assume a weakly armed aircraft is on their tail with intermittent tracers from the single 7.5 mm machine gun. This can be a huge advantage for the attacking aircraft by sneaking in a large amount of lead and incendiaries while still having the ability to walk in the shots with the tracers (especially helpful in realistic and simulator battles where the aiming helper is not available for use).
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==== 7.5 mm ammunition ====
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{| class="wikitable"
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! colspan="1" | Belt Type
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! colspan="1" | 1<sup>st</sup> Round
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! colspan="1" | 2<sup>nd</sup> Round
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! colspan="1" | 3<sup>rd</sup> Round
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! colspan="1" | 4<sup>th</sup> Round
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! colspan="1" | 5<sup>th</sup> Round
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! colspan="1" | 6<small>th</small> Round
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|-
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| Default
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| T
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| Ball
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| Ball
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| Ball
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| AP
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| I
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|-
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| Universal
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| T
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| AP
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| I
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|
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|
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|
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|-
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| Tracers
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| AP
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| T
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| T
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| T
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| T
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|
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|-
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|Stealth
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| AP
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| AP
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| AP
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| I
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| I
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|
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|-
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! colspan="7"|<small><small>T = ''Tracer bullet''; Ball = ''Omni purpose bullet''; I = ''Incendary bullet''; AP = ''Armor piercing bullet''</small></small>
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|}
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This aircraft does not have the option to select any additional suspended armaments nor does it have any defensive weapons to counter any attackers.
  
 
<!--=== Suspended armament ===
 
<!--=== Suspended armament ===
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== Usage in the battles ==
 
== Usage in the battles ==
 
<!--''Describe the tactics of playing in an aircraft, the features of using vehicles in a team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but give the reader food for thought. Examine the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).''-->
 
<!--''Describe the tactics of playing in an aircraft, the features of using vehicles in a team and advice on tactics. Refrain from creating a "guide" - do not impose a single point of view but give the reader food for thought. Examine the most dangerous enemies and give recommendations on fighting them. If necessary, note the specifics of the game in different modes (AB, RB, SB).''-->
Its quick firing streams of low-calibre bullets are not to be underestimated, especially given the agility of the plane, as it is easy to get critical bursts of bullets into vital parts of the enemy's vehicle. In general, what it can't outrun it can out-turn, which means that it will be very hard for enemies to shake it off once it gets on their tail. Do mind that to not engage fighters head-on, as the wing-mounted, low calibre weapons aren't well suited for that sort of engagement. Exceptions include particularly vulnerable and poorly armed fighters, such as most [[:Category:Biplanes|Biplanes]]. With bombers, the story is different, engaging them head-on and firing at the cockpit is a good way to score a pilot snipe.
 
  
That it can out-turn many planes is not an excuse to engage in fancy maneuvers whenever the chance presents itself — even the best turner will tire itself out and become easy prey if it doesn't watch its speed and altitude. Be clever with who to engage — if faced with two well turning fighters like the [[CR.42]] and one fast fighter like the [[He 100 D-1]], engage the faster one first so that the {{PAGENAME}} don't end up sandwiched between an aircraft that can out-turn it and an aircraft that can outrun it. This is of course not a rule set in stone, but these are the decisions that should be consciously assessed before engaging. If thinking through these decisions rationally and with a cool-head (who to engage, climbing, diving, or going in a straight line, etc.) a pilot could see the great potential of this aircraft.
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Energy retention lends this fighter to be a great zoomer, dropping in for a shot and then speeding back up to regain the energy advantage. With this aircraft having such a low stall speed; it makes a great fighter to practice Rope-a-dope energy depletion manoeuvres. This requires the P-36 pilot to bait another fighter into following them in a climb, as the attacker attempts to get guns on, the P-36 pilot can start to spiral climb which will cause the attacking aircraft to pull a tighter circle haemorrhaging their energy. If done correctly, the attacking fighter will stall out and be completely helpless as they begin to fall back to the ground allowing the P-36 to roll over or Split-S and take out the stalled fighter below.
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Most fighters are typically only good at one thing whether it's turning, speed or weapon systems, however, the {{PAGENAME}} is good at two, speeding and turning. This fighter has the ability to not only zoom attack but can also turn fight competitively with most other aircraft. There are few aircraft (notably the A6M Zero fighters of the Imperial Japanese Navy or the Bf 109 of the German Luftwaffe) which may outshine while turning or climbing, however, when utilizing flaps and rudder while turning, the {{PAGENAME}} can manoeuvre into some tight turns and allow guns to get on target.  
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Even with all of its power and mobility, the {{PAGENAME}} is a relatively fragile aircraft. Without much armour on the aircraft, many of its critical systems are exposed and it will not take much even from lower calibre machine guns to cause fuel fires, oil leaks and the engine shutdowns, not to mention a knocked out pilot. Situational awareness is critical to potentially know not only where the targets are, but also the enemy aircraft which are manoeuvring into position and ready to pounce. The weakness of only having two machine guns will require the pilot to get in close (50 – 200 m) to make the most of their shots as anywhere past 150 m, bullet penetration drops off considerably.
  
 
===Manual Engine Control===
 
===Manual Engine Control===
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'''Pros:'''
 
'''Pros:'''
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* High climb rate, especially with war emergency power applied
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* Impressive roll and turn rate, highly efficient Immelman and split-S manoeuvres
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* Strong rudder, excels in wing-over and hammerhead stall manoeuvres
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* Slow stall speed (about 55 mph or 88.5 kph)
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* Four machine guns (comparable to [[P-36C]])
  
* Great armament for its rank
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'''Cons:'''
* Good maneuverability for a monoplane
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* Armament is inadequate against bombers and other aircraft with rear-facing gunners
* Very fast for its BR
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* Lack of adequate armour renders engine, fuel tanks, oil coolers and virtually defenceless
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== History ==
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<!--''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the aircraft in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too big, take it to a separate article, taking a link to an article about the vehicle and adding a block "/ historical reference" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/Name-vehicles/historical reference) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to include links to sources at the end of the article.''-->
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The P-36 Hawk began its life at Curtiss Aeroplane Company as a design in the early 1930s. A private venture by Curtiss, the project was headed up by Donovan A. Berlin, a former Northrop aircraft company engineer who was the principal designer and incorporated design portions of early Northrop designs.<ref name=MilFac></ref> The P-36, at this time known as the X-17Y, was a stretch from the biplane years by utilizing an all-metal low-wing monoplane with fabric-covered control surfaces. This aircraft also featured retractable landing gear, which utilized a design put forward by Boeing Aircraft Company and required royalties to be paid to Boeing for every aircraft in which this landing gear was installed.<ref name=JoeB></ref><ref name=AviHis></ref> Initial weapon load-outs included the standard 12.7 mm and 7.62 mm machine guns, both of which were mounted in the forward fuselage deck and fired through openings in the cowling, synchronized to fire through the propeller arc.<ref name=AviHis></ref>
  
'''Cons:'''
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The initial flight took place in 1935 and when it was presented at a competition the next year, the competitor aircraft (Seversky SEV-2XP/P-35) was heavily damaged in transit. While Seversky took their aircraft back to perform repairs and modifications, Curtiss took the opportunity during this time to make some modifications of their own, and namely replacing the Wright XR-1670-5 twin-row air-cooled radial engine with the upgraded Write XR-1820-39 Cyclone radial.<ref name=MilFac></ref> With the Seversky aircraft repaired, the competition was back on. Even though the Seversky aircraft underperformed and was more expensive than Curtis X-17Y, it was selected and an order of 77 aircraft were put in for, however later the Material Division of the USAAC contacted Curtis and put in an order for three examples as they were becoming nervous about Seversky's ability to deliver their aircraft on time. Curtiss worked on modifying the P-36 by again upgrading the motor and working on the cockpit, especially increasing the amount of area behind the cockpit where the pilot could see. During the 1937 competition, test pilots who piloted the P-36 all commented that the aircraft responded to pilot input favourable and at all speeds and even noted that it handled well on the ground while taxiing. With such a reaction from the test pilots, the USAAC put in an order for 210 P-36A fighters, which at that time was the largest single US military aircraft order since World War I.<ref name=JoeB></ref>
  
* Hard to control at high speeds
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As the P-36 fighters began to roll off the assembly line, they were shipped to US squadrons, however, problems developed with the aircraft which left them grounded while waiting repairs. The P-36 continued to have problems, however, four P-36A fighters stationed at Wheeler Air Field in Hawaii were able to get airborne and attach a flight of Nakajima B5N1 torpedo bombers, claiming two shot down and gaining the first US fighter aircraft "kills" of the Pacific War. Despite this action, the P-36 fighters were withdrawn from combat outfits and sent to training units for new pilots to train on. While the P-36 did not see much action with the U.S., it did see combat action while flown by other nations such as France and Finland where they put the little fighter to the test and were highly successful with it. 10 P-36A training fighters were transferred in 1942 to Brazil where they remained in service until 1954.<ref name=JoeB></ref>
* Engine is rather fragile
 
* Will face biplanes which nullify its good maneuverability
 
  
== History ==
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The {{PAGENAME}} was the first production batch of Hawk 75 aircraft built for France with around 100 built. Many of these aircraft were captured during the fall of France and were shipped to other countries friendly with Germany and were considered challenging aircraft for the allies to fly against.
''Describe the history of the creation and combat usage of the aircraft in more detail than in the introduction. If the historical reference turns out to be too big, take it to a separate article, taking a link to an article about the vehicle and adding a block "/ historical reference" (example: https://wiki.warthunder.com/Name-vehicles/historical reference) and add a link to it here using the <code>main</code> template. Be sure to include links to sources at the end of the article.''
 
  
 
== Media ==
 
== Media ==
''An excellent addition to the article will be video guides, as well as screenshots from the game and photos.''
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<!--Excellent additions to the article would be video guides, screenshots from the game, and photos.-->
 
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{{Youtube-gallery|r1LjPx-S-Mc|''War Thunder Realistic: H-75A-1 [The French Hawk!]'' - '''Jengar'''|QqBvQlW_XWs|''War Thunder - Update 1.75 - H-75A-1'' - '''TheEuropeanCanadian'''|ek_cOFg9z5U|''War Thunder Realistic Battles - H-75A-1 - "He's looking at me ..."'' - '''The Digital Time Traveller'''}}
== Read also ==
 
''Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example,''
 
  
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== See also ==
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<!--''Links to the articles on the War Thunder Wiki that you think will be useful for the reader, for example:''
 
* ''reference to the series of the aircraft;''
 
* ''reference to the series of the aircraft;''
* ''links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.''
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* ''links to approximate analogues of other nations and research trees.''-->
<!--''ETC.''-->
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* [[P-36 (Family)|Curtiss P-36 and H-75 variations]]
  
== Sources ==
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;Analogues of other nations
''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
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*Polyikarpov [[I-180S]]
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*Bloch M.B.150
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*[[IAR-81C]]
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*Mitsubishi [[A6M (Family)|A6M]] Zero
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*Nakijima [[Ki-43 (Family)|Ki-43]]
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*Reggiane [[Re.2000 serie 1|Re.2000]]
  
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== External links ==
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<!--''Paste links to sources and external resources, such as:''
 
* ''topic on the official game forum;''
 
* ''topic on the official game forum;''
* ''page on aircraft encyclopedia;''
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* ''encyclopedia page on the aircraft;''
* ''other literature.''
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* ''other literature.''-->
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* Militaryfactory.com website [[https://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=155 Curtiss P-36 Hawk (Hawk 75 / Mohawk)]]
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* Aviationhistory.com website [[http://www.aviation-history.com/curtiss/p36.htm The Curtiss P-36 Hawk]]
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* Joebaugher.com website [[http://www.joebaugher.com/usaf_fighters/p36_1.html Curtiss P-36A]]
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== References ==
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<references>
 +
<ref name=JoeB> Joebaugher.com website (1999) [[http://www.joebaugher.com/usaf_fighters/p36_1.html Curtiss P-36A]].</ref>
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<ref name=MilFac> Militaryfactory.com website (2019) [[https://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=155 Curtiss P-36 Hawk (Hawk 75 / Mohawk).]]</ref>
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<ref name=AviHis> Aviationhistory.com website (2007) [[http://www.aviation-history.com/curtiss/p36.htm The Curtiss P-36 Hawk]].</ref>
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</references>
  
 
{{French fighters}}
 
{{French fighters}}

Revision as of 15:20, 26 August 2019

H-75A-1
h-75a-1_france.png
AB
RB
SB
General characteristics
Brief
Detailed
1.7/1.7/1.3BR
FighterClass
1 personCrew
2.7 tTake-off weight
0.65 kg/sBurst mass
Flight characteristics
9 555 mCeiling
Pratt & Whitney R-1830-17Engine
RadialType
airCooling system
Speed of destruction
681 km/hStructural
290 km/hGear
Offensive armament
4 x 7.5 mm Fabrique Nationale Mle 38 machine gunWeapon 1
2 200 roundsAmmunition
1 001 shots/minFire rate
Economy
2 900 Rp icon.pngResearch
700 Sl icon.pngPurchase
Sl icon.png330 / 411/350 / 436/110 / 137Repair
200 Sl icon.pngCrew training
1 000 Sl icon.pngExperts
20 Ge icon.pngAces
100 % Rp icon.pngReward for battle
40 % Sl icon.png30 % Sl icon.png10 % Sl icon.png
This page is about the French fighter H-75A-1. For other versions, see P-36 (Family).

Description

GarageImage H75A1.jpg


The H-75A-1 is a rank I French fighter with a battle rating of 1.3 (AB) and 1.7 (RB/SB).. It was introduced in Update 1.75 "La Résistance".

In the early 1930s, the Curtiss-Wright Corporation began a private venture to build a fighter aircraft which was a revolutionary departure from earlier cloth-covered biplanes of World War I. This project aircraft under development was named the Curtiss Hawk Model 75 (later it would be known by P-36 Hawk, Hawk-75 – or just H-75 and Mohawk. The P-36 was an all-metal monoplane (although the control surfaces were fabric-covered) with a 900 hp radial engine, enclosed cockpit and retractable landing gear.[1] Even though this aircraft touted some of the state-of-the-art development in aircraft design, several aspects remained lacking, such as the original two machine guns firing through the propeller arc, a 7.62 mm and 12.7 mm and other critical components such as the absence of armour in the cockpit and self-sealing fuel tanks.

By May 1935 the first prototype flew and attained speeds of 281 mph (452 km/h) and reaching an altitude of 10,000 ft (3,000 m). It wasn’t long before the original 900 hp Write XR-1670-5 radial engine was replaced with an upgrade Wright XR-1820-39 Cyclone at 950 hp and several modifications to the body of the aircraft was completed like the addition of scalloped rear windows which significantly improved the pilots rear view (although the hump on the back of the aircraft still blocked a significant portion of the view).[2][3] This version of the aircraft was designated as Model 75B while oddly enough the earlier version with the 1670-5 was listed as a Model 75D.

In early competitions against the Seversky P-35A saw the underpowered and more expensive P-35A as the winner in the U.S. government's eyes, however, the United States Army Air Command (USAAC) went ahead and placed an order for three Y1P-36 prototypes as a backup contingency fighter. When delivered, the Y1P-36 (Model 75E) had been outfitted with the 900 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-13 Twin Wasp engine. Due to this version of the aircraft performing so well, an order for 210 P-36-A fighters was placed.[2][1]

The P-36 was known as an outstanding turning aircraft due to its extremely low wing loading and had a beefy power-to-weight ratio of 0.186 hp/lb that placed this aircraft as one of the best climbing aircraft of the time.[3] One drawback noted was that the P-36 was not outfitted with a supercharger which hampered its ability to operate at high altitudes, requiring it to stay under 10,000 ft in altitude.[1] For all of this aircraft’s positive attributes and unfortunate shortcomings, it performed well mostly for other nations such as Finland where the Hawk was known as "Sussu" or Finnish for "Sweetheart" as between 58 Finnish pilots flying the Hawk, they scored 190.3 aerial victories. The P-36 was the proving ground and stepping stone to the later great fighter, the P-40.

The H-75A-1 export version of the P-36C which is an all-round very effective fighter in War Thunder. It has an excellent turn rate and its top speed of 560 km/h at low altitude is very impressive, as it can outrun most of its competitors. Without a turbocharger, this aircraft suffers at altitudes above 3,000 m (10,000 ft). Its fiercest opponent is the Bf 109, against which it loses most notably in the climbing department. To survive against these in realistic battles and simulator battles, it is important not to use WEP outside of combat, as whereas WEP itself is infinite, the plane's cooling capacity is not – attentive pilots will notice that it decreases with time if they push WEP too hard — at the beginning of a flyout, the H-75A-1's engine will only show signs of overheating at 235ºC(455ºF), whereas after pushing WEP too hard, the engine will begin to struggle at 225ºC. Engine management is as such one of the crucial skills for mastering this plane. With the engine weakened from overheating, a player will find it hard to beat a Bf 109 if in an energy disadvantage. With a healthier engine, the pilot can keep the engine roaring at full power so as to endure sustained manoeuvring without eventually stalling and dropping like a rotten apple from a tree.

General info

Flight Performance

The H-75A-1 is a relatively easy fighter aircraft to fly and requires only a relatively short space to both take-off and land. Due to the fantastically low wing loading rate of 23.9 lb/ft2[2], this fighter is an excellent turning aircraft and accompanied by a strong rudder can spiral climb easily, especially during WEP cycles. This aircraft has the advantage of being both a turn fighter and a Boom & Zoom fighter, depending on the situation, type of aircraft which are flying against and mission type. The H-75A-1 will out-turn many fighters of its rank and can prove difficult to follow if attempting to shoot it down. The P-36A, P-36C and H-75A-1 utilise the same engine, however with the extra two machine guns and associated ammunition, the H-75A-1 model lags slightly behind the A with flight characteristics, but not noticeable enough for the upgrading pilot to realize while manoeuvring the aircraft. The trade-off for more guns vs. slightly hampered flight model is well worth it.

Characteristics
Stock
Max Speed
(km/h at ?,000 m)
Max altitude
(meters)
Turn time
(seconds)
Rate of climb
(meters/second)
Take-off run
(meters)
AB RB AB RB AB RB
535 523 9,555 22.0 22.2 7.6 7.6 343
Upgraded
Max Speed
(km/h at ?,000 m)
Max altitude (meters) Turn time (seconds) Rate of climb
(meters/second)
Take-off run (meters)
AB RB AB RB AB RB
585 560 9,555 20.4 21.0 17.6 10.6 343

Details

Features
Combat flap Take-off flap Landing flap Air brakes Arrestor gear
X X
Limits
Wing-break speed
(km/h)
Gear limit
(km/h)
Combat flap
(km/h)
Max Static G
+ -
~710 ~340 ~500 ~?? ~?
Optimal velocities
Ailerons
(km/h)
Rudder
(km/h)
Elevators
(km/h)
Radiator
(km/h)
< ??? < ??? < ??? > ???
Compressor (RB/SB)
Setting 1
Optimal altitude 100% Engine power WEP Engine power
 ?,??? m  ??? hp  ?,??? hp

Survivability and armour

  • 9.5 mm steel plate behind the pilot.

As with many early pre-war fighters, not much emphasis was put on the survivability of the aircraft. The best course of action was for the pilot to not let anyone get behind them. The H-75A-1’s only sources of protection for the pilot is the engine block and the 9.5 mm (angled at 24° for effective thickness of 13 mm), that being said, depending on the engine block to save the pilot may do so at the expense of the engine, thus requiring the pilot to glide back to base if possible or bailout. There are also two unprotected oil coolers if which are punctured, the aircraft will leak oil until depleted eventually causing the engine to seize up.

Armaments

Offensive armament

The H-75A-1 is armed with:

  • 2 x 7.5 mm Mle 38 machine guns (600 rpg = 1,200 total)
  • 2 x 7.5 mm Mle 38 machine guns (500 rpg = 1,000 total)

Armament weaknesses found in the early P-36A were addressed when outfitting the H-75A-1 fighter as instead of installing a 12.7 mm machine gun and a 7.62 mm, four 7.5 mm Mle 38s were installed. Lacking the punch of the 12.7 mm, this fighter has to make due without the more powerful machine gun. While the engine cowling was already crowded and no more machine guns could be centrally mounted which required wing modifications to install two more 7.5 machine guns, one in each wing. For this aircraft, two machine guns are mounted in the engine cowl and fire through the propeller arc while the other two are mounted one in each wing. Due to the wing-mounted machine guns, convergence is a factor to deal with with the optimal range being 100 - 200 m, anything beyond this will still work, however, the bullets significantly start losing their punch. The increase in armament increased the damage output ability of the fighter, however, the next generation H-75, the H-75A-4 increased the deadliness of the fighter by adding two more wing-mounted machine guns for a total of six guns. Options in ammunition will allow the pilot to select the type best suited for their mission whether it be as an interceptor, ground target hunter or a stealthy pouncer.

Option 1 Configuration (optimal 200 - 400 m convergence)
  • 7.5 mm x 1 = Tracer rounds
  • 7.5 mm x 3 = Stealth round
  • One machine gun should be set up with tracer rounds to allow for tracking of shots, especially when walking the rounds onto the target, however, the other 7.5 mm guns should be set up with stealth rounds as providing a good mix of armour-piercing and incendiary rounds without the tell-tale tracers. Without the tell-tale show of tracers flying by, the pilot of the aircraft may assume a weakly armed aircraft is on their tail with intermittent tracers from the single 7.5 mm machine gun. This can be a huge advantage for the attacking aircraft by sneaking in a large amount of lead and incendiaries while still having the ability to walk in the shots with the tracers (especially helpful in realistic and simulator battles where the aiming helper is not available for use).

7.5 mm ammunition

Belt Type 1st Round 2nd Round 3rd Round 4th Round 5th Round 6th Round
Default T Ball Ball Ball AP I
Universal T AP I
Tracers AP T T T T
Stealth AP AP AP I I
T = Tracer bullet; Ball = Omni purpose bullet; I = Incendary bullet; AP = Armor piercing bullet

This aircraft does not have the option to select any additional suspended armaments nor does it have any defensive weapons to counter any attackers.


Usage in the battles

Energy retention lends this fighter to be a great zoomer, dropping in for a shot and then speeding back up to regain the energy advantage. With this aircraft having such a low stall speed; it makes a great fighter to practice Rope-a-dope energy depletion manoeuvres. This requires the P-36 pilot to bait another fighter into following them in a climb, as the attacker attempts to get guns on, the P-36 pilot can start to spiral climb which will cause the attacking aircraft to pull a tighter circle haemorrhaging their energy. If done correctly, the attacking fighter will stall out and be completely helpless as they begin to fall back to the ground allowing the P-36 to roll over or Split-S and take out the stalled fighter below.

Most fighters are typically only good at one thing whether it's turning, speed or weapon systems, however, the H-75A-1 is good at two, speeding and turning. This fighter has the ability to not only zoom attack but can also turn fight competitively with most other aircraft. There are few aircraft (notably the A6M Zero fighters of the Imperial Japanese Navy or the Bf 109 of the German Luftwaffe) which may outshine while turning or climbing, however, when utilizing flaps and rudder while turning, the H-75A-1 can manoeuvre into some tight turns and allow guns to get on target.

Even with all of its power and mobility, the H-75A-1 is a relatively fragile aircraft. Without much armour on the aircraft, many of its critical systems are exposed and it will not take much even from lower calibre machine guns to cause fuel fires, oil leaks and the engine shutdowns, not to mention a knocked out pilot. Situational awareness is critical to potentially know not only where the targets are, but also the enemy aircraft which are manoeuvring into position and ready to pounce. The weakness of only having two machine guns will require the pilot to get in close (50 – 200 m) to make the most of their shots as anywhere past 150 m, bullet penetration drops off considerably.

Manual Engine Control

MEC elements
Mixer Pitch Radiator Supercharger Turbocharger
Oil Water Type
Not controllable Controllable
Automatic pitch
Controllable Not controllable Combined Controllable Not controllable

Modules

Tier Flight performance Survivability Weaponry
I
II
III
IV

Pros and cons

Pros:

  • High climb rate, especially with war emergency power applied
  • Impressive roll and turn rate, highly efficient Immelman and split-S manoeuvres
  • Strong rudder, excels in wing-over and hammerhead stall manoeuvres
  • Slow stall speed (about 55 mph or 88.5 kph)
  • Four machine guns (comparable to P-36C)

Cons:

  • Armament is inadequate against bombers and other aircraft with rear-facing gunners
  • Lack of adequate armour renders engine, fuel tanks, oil coolers and virtually defenceless

History

The P-36 Hawk began its life at Curtiss Aeroplane Company as a design in the early 1930s. A private venture by Curtiss, the project was headed up by Donovan A. Berlin, a former Northrop aircraft company engineer who was the principal designer and incorporated design portions of early Northrop designs.[1] The P-36, at this time known as the X-17Y, was a stretch from the biplane years by utilizing an all-metal low-wing monoplane with fabric-covered control surfaces. This aircraft also featured retractable landing gear, which utilized a design put forward by Boeing Aircraft Company and required royalties to be paid to Boeing for every aircraft in which this landing gear was installed.[2][3] Initial weapon load-outs included the standard 12.7 mm and 7.62 mm machine guns, both of which were mounted in the forward fuselage deck and fired through openings in the cowling, synchronized to fire through the propeller arc.[3]

The initial flight took place in 1935 and when it was presented at a competition the next year, the competitor aircraft (Seversky SEV-2XP/P-35) was heavily damaged in transit. While Seversky took their aircraft back to perform repairs and modifications, Curtiss took the opportunity during this time to make some modifications of their own, and namely replacing the Wright XR-1670-5 twin-row air-cooled radial engine with the upgraded Write XR-1820-39 Cyclone radial.[1] With the Seversky aircraft repaired, the competition was back on. Even though the Seversky aircraft underperformed and was more expensive than Curtis X-17Y, it was selected and an order of 77 aircraft were put in for, however later the Material Division of the USAAC contacted Curtis and put in an order for three examples as they were becoming nervous about Seversky's ability to deliver their aircraft on time. Curtiss worked on modifying the P-36 by again upgrading the motor and working on the cockpit, especially increasing the amount of area behind the cockpit where the pilot could see. During the 1937 competition, test pilots who piloted the P-36 all commented that the aircraft responded to pilot input favourable and at all speeds and even noted that it handled well on the ground while taxiing. With such a reaction from the test pilots, the USAAC put in an order for 210 P-36A fighters, which at that time was the largest single US military aircraft order since World War I.[2]

As the P-36 fighters began to roll off the assembly line, they were shipped to US squadrons, however, problems developed with the aircraft which left them grounded while waiting repairs. The P-36 continued to have problems, however, four P-36A fighters stationed at Wheeler Air Field in Hawaii were able to get airborne and attach a flight of Nakajima B5N1 torpedo bombers, claiming two shot down and gaining the first US fighter aircraft "kills" of the Pacific War. Despite this action, the P-36 fighters were withdrawn from combat outfits and sent to training units for new pilots to train on. While the P-36 did not see much action with the U.S., it did see combat action while flown by other nations such as France and Finland where they put the little fighter to the test and were highly successful with it. 10 P-36A training fighters were transferred in 1942 to Brazil where they remained in service until 1954.[2]

The H-75A-1 was the first production batch of Hawk 75 aircraft built for France with around 100 built. Many of these aircraft were captured during the fall of France and were shipped to other countries friendly with Germany and were considered challenging aircraft for the allies to fly against.

Media

War Thunder Realistic: H-75A-1 [The French Hawk!] - Jengar
War Thunder - Update 1.75 - H-75A-1 - TheEuropeanCanadian
War Thunder Realistic Battles - H-75A-1 - "He's looking at me ..." - The Digital Time Traveller

See also

Analogues of other nations

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Militaryfactory.com website (2019) [Curtiss P-36 Hawk (Hawk 75 / Mohawk).]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Joebaugher.com website (1999) [Curtiss P-36A].
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Aviationhistory.com website (2007) [The Curtiss P-36 Hawk].


France fighters
Dewoitine  D.371 · D.371 H.S.9 · D.373 · D.500 · D.501 · Pallier's D.510 · D.520
Morane-Saulnier  M.S.405C1 · M.S.406C1 · M.S.410
Arsenal  V.G.33C-1
Bloch  M.B.157
Caudron  C.R.714
Twin-engine  Potez 630 · Potez 631 · S.O.8000 Narval
American  H-75A-1 · H-75A-4 · ▄F6F-5 Hellcat · ▄F6F-5N · ▄P-63C-5 Kingcobra · F4U-7 Corsair · ▄F8F-1B Bearcat · ▄F-86K
Other countries  ▄Yak-3 · Challe's ▄Yak-9T · NC.900