122 mm gun D-25

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Summary

The 122 mm is the epitome of Soviet heavy guns in their tanks in the later part of World War II. The 122 mm Gun D-25 was developed off the artillery piece 122 mm gun M1931/37 A-19 which was used as the Soviet corps field gun.

Users

A-19

D-25

D-25-44T

D-49

M-62-T2S

Ammunition

D-25

Ammunition Penetration in mm @ 90° Type of
warhead
Velocity
in m/s
Projectile
Mass in kg
Fuse delay
in m:
Fuse sensitivity
in mm:
Explosive Mass in
TNT equivalent
in g:
Normalization At 30°
from horizontal:
Ricochet:
10m 100m 500m 1000m 1500m 2000m 0% 50% 100%
BR-471 200 196 179 158 141 125 APHE 795 25 1.2 15 272 -1° 43° 30° 25°
BR-471B 207 201 183 162 144 129 APHEBC 800 25 1.2 15 272 +4° 42° 27° 19°
BR-471D* 230 223 203 180 168 159 APCBC 800 25 1.2 15 212.5 +4° 42° 27° 19°
OF-471 36 36 36 36 36 36 HE 800 25 0.1 0.1 3,600 +0° 11° 10°
3BM-7** 299 298 291 272 253 249 APDS 1400 7.4 N/A N/A N/A +1.5° 15° 12° 10°
3BK-10** 400 400 400 400 400 400 HEATFS 820 18 0.0 0.1 2,270 +0° 25° 18° 15°

* - Not available on the IS-2, IS-2 mod. 1944, ISU-122, ISU-122S, T-44-122 , and IS-2 "Revenge
** - Only available on SU-122-54

M-62-T2S

Ammunition Penetration in mm @ 90° Type of
warhead
Velocity
in m/s
Projectile
Mass in kg
Fuse delay
in m:
Fuse sensitivity
in mm:
Explosive Mass in
TNT equivalent
in g:
Normalization At 30°
from horizontal:
Ricochet:
10m 100m 500m 1000m 1500m 2000m 0% 50% 100%
BR-472 282 276 262 246 230 215 APCBC 950 25 1.2 15 204 +4° 42° 27° 19°
3BM-11 339 338 336 331 317 300 APDS 1620 7.4 N/A N/A N/A +1.5° 15° 12° 10°
3BK-9 400 400 400 400 400 400 HEATFS 920 18 0.0 0.1 2,890 +0° 25° 18° 15°
OF-472 35 35 35 35 35 35 HE 865 27 0.1 0.5 3,000 +0° 11° 10°

History of creation and combat usage

Development

The 122 mm gun M1931/37 was developed from the earlier 122 mm gun M1931 artillery piece (both were known under the designation A-19). Some issues with the carriage of the M1931 gun caused the Red Army to upgrade the gun's carriage, mainly by replacing it with that of the newer 152 mm M1937 gun carriage. This new carriage was less problematic than the original and trials in the Fall of 1938 showed successful performances with the carriage. It was adopted for service in 29 April 1939 as the 122 mm corps gun M1931/37. Production started in 1940 at two factories, the Barrikady Plant and No.172 Plant, and both produced a total of about 2,450 guns from the course of 1941 to 1946.

Service

The 122 mm A-19 guns were used in the corps artillery of the Red Army alongside the larger 152 mm ML-20 howitzers to form a "corps duplex" and allow flexibility in engagement. Three organizations of corps artillery existed for the A-19 and ML-20 guns, ranging from 2 battalions of ML-20s and 1 of A-19s, 2 battalions of ML-20s and 2 of A-19s, or 3 battalions of pure ML-20s (each battalion has about 12 guns total). The guns first saw combat in the Battle of Khalkhin Goi in the border wars against Japan then next in the Finnish Winter War. The usage of the guns range from indirect fire on targets to direct fire on armored targets. Their anti-tank abilities aren't its main points due to its slow traverse and long reload, but it became valuable as one of the guns able to kill the heavy German tanks like the Panther and Tiger I's. This lethality against German tanks and its effectiveness on a multitude of targets eventually made it into a tank armament to provide heavy support fire for the Soviet infantry. The A-19 gun converted for a tank role was called the D-25, which would go on to arm the different armored vehicles mounting the 122 mm gun. The guns also were the first to be fired onto the city of Berlin during the Battle of Berlin.

After the war, the 122 mm as a tank gun continued in the Soviet heavy tank series of IS tanks, equipping the IS-3, IS-4, and the T-10 tanks. On the way, the 122 mm gun was upgraded for better accuracy and shells.

Images

Additional information (links)